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It is perhaps in the neurological or neuropsychiatric developmental disorders, as I have elsewhere argued, that the relevant genes may least ambiguously offer clinically “unaffected “close relatives certain potential advantages. Thus autism seems to be associated in relatives with increased representation of the careers of engineering, physics, mathematics and accounting, and affected individuals may be superior at processing fine detail. Tourette’s syndrome patients, and their relatives, may excel at jazz improvisation, gymnastics, dance and games, and may be particularly force-efficient at certain tasks demanding fine motor control. Depression is associated with literary creativity, especially in bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia may be associated with superior abilities in forming lateral associations and thought, and the cunning aloofness of the so-called Odyssean personality. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is perfect for the explorer or hunter who must be hyperactive, impulsive, risk-taking and always ready for the unexpected. Conversely, obsessive-compulsive disorder, with its concentration upon hygiene, safety, checking, hording and ordering, may characterize aspects of the personality of the scientist, physician or successful home maker.Of course, what is adaptive in an individual is always relative to the particular ecology or society at a particular time. In many native societies, or our own in times past, people exhibiting aspects of what from our perspective we label as schizophrenia, ADHD or Tourette’s syndrome may have been unremarkable as shamans, hunters or practitioners of song and dance. Joan of Arc, revered as a prophet and military leader in her day, could well nowadays be committed to a psychiatric institution.