A-Z of AVIONICS

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Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #250 on: 29/11/2006 02:37:10 »
Jupiter

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #251 on: 29/11/2006 12:14:25 »
Klinefelter syndrome


Klinefelter syndrome is caused by an additional X chromosome in males (47,XXY). Clinical findings are nonspecific during childhood; thus, the diagnosis commonly is made during adolescence or adulthood in males who have small testes with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and gynecomastia. Virtually all men with Klinefelter syndrome are infertile.
Epidemiology
Approximately one in 1,000 boys is born with an additional X chromosome-47,XXY, the karyotype that causes Klinefelter syndrome.
This karyotype is detected at or before birth in 10 percent of affected boys, and it is found during adulthood in 25 percent of affected men. Almost all men with a 47,XXY karyotype will be infertile; Klinefelter syndrome accounts for 3 percent of male infertility. Klinefelter syndrome is common in infertile men with oligospermia or azoospermia (5 to 10 percent).



ikod
« Last Edit: 22/04/2007 09:56:24 by iko »

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Offline science_guy

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #252 on: 29/11/2006 16:13:59 »
Ligaments.

How dare you post porn on this site iko! [::)][;)]
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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #253 on: 29/11/2006 17:57:46 »
MALTomas
(Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue lymphomas)




A type of slow growing gastrointestinal lymphomas called MALTomas (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) had been treated by standard chemotherapy (CHOP protocol...what a name for a chemotherapy!) until the end of the last century.
There was no suggestion about the origin of this clonal expansion of lymphoid cells in the gut. So the following action had to be blind and toxic.

But in the middle of the '80s two smart researchers from Australia, Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren (Nobel Prize 2005) started their battle: they tried to demonstrate that a common bacteria, Helicobacter pylori, was the major cause of gastroduodenal ulcers in humans.
A standard antibiotic treatment was able to eradicate the bacteria,  allowing the ulcers (wounds in the mucosa) to heal spontaneously.

They initially got veggies and bananas at medical meetings, nevertheless they went on collecting more and more evidence to prove the "infectious theory" of peptic ulcer.  It had to be tough. Medicine is highly conservative for various reasons, and for a long time infectious diseases had been strictly defined: one bacteria, one disease.  Helicobacter pylori is very common in humans...but just few of us develop ulcers.   That was just enough to keep stalling any bright theory for years.
Finally H.p. eradication became the standard treatment.
Now there is growing evidence that persistent Helicobacter infection and continuous release of toxic substances for years, could be one of the causes of stomach cancer.
"...tumors: wounds that never healed..."

"...leukemia&lymphoma: infections never resolved..."
Shortly after it was found that the majority of the patients with MALT lymphomas were carrying H.p. and that eradication therapy alone was able to induce a spontaneous regression of the tumors. It was obviously too good to be true, so over the years some patients were found to be resistant to antibiotic treatment (2-3 weeks, no chemo!) and their lymphomas where identified as more advanced, with more chromosomal damage, unable to stop growing even when the bacterial stimuli were removed by eradication treatment.

iko NKSforum topic: "New cancer theory" 


« Last Edit: 22/04/2007 09:56:50 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #254 on: 29/11/2006 18:32:18 »
Nano

..........- is a prefix (symbol n) in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10−9. It is often used in prefixing time and length units encountered in electronics and computer systems, like 30 nanoseconds (symbol ns) and 100 nanometres (nm). It was confirmed in 1960 and comes from the Greek νᾶνος, meaning dwarf.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #255 on: 29/11/2006 18:39:07 »
Organic chemistry: The chemistry of carbon compounds!

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #256 on: 29/11/2006 19:15:16 »
Picod

..........- is a prefix (symbol p) in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10E−12. It is often used in prefixing time and length units encountered in electronics and computer systems, like 30 picoseconds (symbol ps) and 100 picometres (pm).
"Pico" means tiny, little, and it comes from Spanish.

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« Last Edit: 23/06/2007 21:51:46 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #257 on: 05/12/2006 18:58:22 »
...anybody queing?

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #258 on: 12/12/2006 00:22:29 »
...anybody queing?


Quasar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quasar


Artist's impression of quasar GB1508................[attachment=71]


A quasar (contraction of QUASi-stellAR radio source) is an astronomical source of electromagnetic energy, including light, which shows a very high redshift. The scientific consensus is that this high redshift is the result of Hubble's law. This implies that quasars are very distant. To be observable at that distance, the energy output of quasars must dwarf that of almost every known astrophysical phenomenon with the exception of comparatively short-lived supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. They may readily release energy in levels equal to the output of hundreds of average galaxies combined. The output of light is equivalent to one trillion suns.

In optical telescopes, most quasars look like single points of light (i.e. point source) although some are seen to be the centers of active galaxies.

Some quasars display rapid changes in luminosity, which implies that they are small (an object cannot change faster than the time it takes light to travel from one end to the other; but see quasar J1819+3845 for another explanation). The highest redshift currently known for a quasar is 6.4. [1]

Quasars are believed to be powered by accretion of material onto supermassive black holes in the nuclei of distant galaxies, making these luminous versions of the general class of objects known as active galaxies. No other currently known mechanism appears able to explain the vast energy output and rapid variability.

Knowledge of quasars is advancing rapidly. As recently as the 1990's there was no clear consensus as to their origin.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #259 on: 12/12/2006 03:19:52 »
And i suppose you took that one yourself

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #260 on: 12/12/2006 04:18:52 »
RFLP (restriction fragment length
polymorphism)
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #261 on: 12/12/2006 05:23:51 »
And i suppose you took that one yourself

Boy, I am just so pleased that my old Brownie camera still worked at the end of my very long poll from Earth.  [:)]
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #262 on: 12/12/2006 05:26:32 »
Sextant


A sextant is a measuring instrument generally used to measure the angle of elevation of a celestial object above the horizon. Making this measurement is known as sighting the object, shooting the object or taking a sight. The angle, and the time when it was measured, can be used to calculate a position line on a nautical or aeronautical chart. A common use of the sextant is to sight the sun at noon to find one's latitude. See celestial navigation for more discussion. Held horizontally, the sextant can be used to measure the angle between any two objects, such as between two lighthouses, which will, similarly, allow for calculation of a line of position on a chart.

The scale of a sextant has a length of 1/6 of a full circle; 60°, hence the sextant's name. An octant is a similar device with a shorter scale, (1/8 of a circle, or 45°) and a quadrant is one with a longer scale (90°).

Sir Isaac Newton invented the principle of the doubly reflecting navigation instrument, but never published it. Two men independently rediscovered the sextant around 1730: John Hadley (1682-1744), an English mathematician, and Thomas Godfrey (1704-1749), an American inventor. The sextant, along with the octant, replaced the astrolabe as the main instruments for navigation.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sextant


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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #263 on: 12/12/2006 05:50:35 »
Telophase
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #264 on: 12/12/2006 07:06:21 »
Uranium

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #265 on: 12/12/2006 18:06:00 »
Wernicke encephalopathy



Wernicke encephalopathy is a serious disorder caused by thiamine (vitamin B-1) deficiency. Dr Carl Wernicke, a Polish neurologist, described it in 1881 as a triad of acute mental confusion, ataxia, and ophthalmoplegia. Korsakoff amnestic syndrome is a late neuropsychiatric manifestation of Wernicke encephalopathy with memory loss and confabulation; hence, the condition is referred to as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome or psychosis. It is most often seen in alcoholics, but it can be seen in disorders associated with malnutrition and also in patients on long-term hemodialysis or with AIDS. The disease is frequently unrecognized and is likely more prevalent than commonly supposed.
...
Emergency Department Care: Wernicke encephalopathy must be viewed as a medical emergency, even if other competing diagnoses of CNS processes are being considered. Because the condition is potentially reversible, institution of treatment is indicated in patients exhibiting any combination of symptoms and signs, particularly if the patient is in a high-risk population. Onset of the disease may be acute, subacute, or chronic.

Although as little as 2 mg of thiamine may be enough to reverse symptoms, the dose of thiamine required to prevent or treat Wernicke encephalopathy in most alcoholic patients may be as high as greater than 500 mg given once or twice daily parenterally. Thiamine solution should be fresh, since old solutions may be inactive. Ataxia and acute confusional state may resolve dramatically, although improvement may not be noted for days or months.

http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic642.htm



« Last Edit: 22/04/2007 09:57:27 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #266 on: 12/12/2006 22:41:12 »
How about a 'v ' ?


Verruca

Plantar warts (verrucæ pedis; VP - also commonly referred to as a verruca) are warts caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). They are small lesions that appear on the sole of the foot (hence the name, from Latin planta pedis, the sole of the foot) and are typically cauliflower-esque in appearance. They may have small black specks within them that ooze blood when the surface is shaved; these are abnormal capillaries. Though plantar wart refers specifically to HPV infection on the sole of the foot, infection by the virus is possible anywhere on the body and common especially on the palm of the hand, where the appearance of the wart is often exactly as described above for plantar warts. Due to pressure on the soles of the feet, a layer of hard skin forms over the wart. A plantar wart may or may not be painful. It can be spread in communal showers, around swimming pools, sharing shoes, etc.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #267 on: 12/12/2006 22:47:15 »
Xygote

Neilepedia reference:


Word created to fill in a gap at the ' X' stage in an A-Z thread of science stuff !


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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #268 on: 13/12/2006 03:55:35 »
HEE HEE HEE! LOL!

YOUNG, John (astronaut)

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Offline JimBob

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #269 on: 13/12/2006 04:34:55 »
NEIL !!!!

No need for a fill for "X" - Xenon, an elemental gas, will work just fine and there are quite a few other science things. I'll try to think when I wake in the AM to fill in a partial list.

You can have the credit for Zygote.
The mind is like a parachute. It works best when open.  -- A. Einstein

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #270 on: 13/12/2006 05:03:51 »
NEIL !!!!

No need for a fill for "X" - Xenon, an elemental gas, will work just fine and there are quite a few other science things. I'll try to think when I wake in the AM to fill in a partial list.

You can have the credit for Zygote.

Sir....I am honored!!..It's possible that some of the words you compile may already have been used here..but I suppose some  'letters ' will demand repetition of certain words.

Thanks Jimmy Boy !!
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #271 on: 13/12/2006 05:36:19 »
Absolute Zero- Zero Kelvin (-273*C)

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #272 on: 13/12/2006 15:08:01 »
Barium meal





[attachment=77]
Preprepared Barium Sulfate suspension for oral consumption

A barium meal, also known as an upper gastrointestinal series is a procedure in which radiographs of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum are taken after barium sulfate is ingested by a patient. Barium meals are useful in the diagnosis of structural and motility abnormalities of the foregut.

There are two varieties of barium meal, these being single and double contrast meals. A single contrast meal uses only barium, a radiopaque (or positive) contrast medium, to image the upper gastrointestinal tract while a double contrast meal uses barium as well as a radiolucent (or negative) contrast medium such as room air, nitrogen, or carbon dioxide. The double contrast meal has the advantage of demonstrating mucosal details and is much more useful as a diagnostic test allowing the detection of small mucosal lesions such as diverticula or polyps.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #273 on: 13/12/2006 16:45:18 »
OH YUCK!! I HATE THOSE THINGS!

Chirality- The ability of an molecule to exist in two mirror-image forms, with different properties.

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Offline Mjhavok

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #275 on: 13/12/2006 19:01:29 »
Electromagnetopolymorphiclaserwavebeam

No wait I mean Elephant.
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Offline kalimna

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #276 on: 13/12/2006 22:16:13 »
Fourier-transform thingummywotsits. You know, that whole splitting up combined waveforms into their/its constituent parts.....

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #277 on: 13/12/2006 22:50:25 »
Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. The cell uses it as a source of energy and metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Two isomers of the aldohexose sugars are known as glucose, only one of which (D-glucose) is biologically active. This form (D-glucose) is often referred to as dextrose (dextrose monohydrate), especially in the food industry. This article deals with the D-form of glucose. The mirror-image of the molecule, L-glucose, cannot be used by cells.


[attachment=78]
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #278 on: 14/12/2006 13:53:25 »
Homeotic genes (hox genes)- The genes that determine developement and body plan.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #279 on: 14/12/2006 17:24:36 »
Iodine
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Offline kalimna

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #280 on: 14/12/2006 19:19:56 »
Jeroboam - as in large bottle of wine, particularly champagne. And with the fermenting of primarily carbohydrate into alcohol, along with several flavour, colouring and preserving reactions - wine is very scientific indeed :)

I apologise. It has been a long day.

Adam
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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #281 on: 14/12/2006 23:45:53 »
Kwashiorkor




Kwashiorkor

Classifications and external resources 
Kwashiorkor sufferers show signs of thinning hair, edema, inadequate growth, and weight loss. The stomatitis on the pictured infant indicate an accompanying Vitamin B deficiency.
Many of the children in this photograph from a Nigerian orphanage in the late 1960's show symptoms of malnutrition, with four in particular illustrating the gray-blond hair symptomatic of kwashiorkor.
Kwashiorkor is a type of childhood malnutrition with controversial causes, but commonly believed to be caused by insufficient protein intake. British pediatrician Cicely D. Williams introduced the name into international scientific circles in her 1935 Lancet article[1]. The name is derived from one of the Kwa languages of coastal Ghana and means "the one who is displaced" reflecting the development of the condition in the older child who has been weaned from the breast once a new sibling is born.
When a child is nursing, it receives certain amino acids vital to growth from its mother's milk. When the child is weaned, if the diet that replaces the milk is high in starches and carbohydrates, and deficient in protein (as is common in parts of the world where the bulk of the diet consists of starchy vegetables, or where famine has struck), the child may develop kwashiorkor.
Symptoms of kwashiorkor include a swollen abdomen, reddish discoloration of the hair and depigmented skin. The swollen abdomen is generally attributed to two causes: ascites due to altered oncotic pressure as a result of hypoalbuminemia (low albumin in the blood) and grossly enlarged liver due to fatty liver. This fatty change occurs because of the lack of apolipoproteins which transport lipids from the liver to tissues throughout the body. Additionally, the child has a miserable appearance with a "bull-dog" face. Generally, the disease can be treated by adding food energy and protein to the diet; however, mortality can be as high as 60% and it can have a long-term impact on a child's physical growth and, in severe cases, affect mental development.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwashiorkor



« Last Edit: 23/06/2007 21:52:40 by iko »

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Offline ukmicky

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #282 on: 15/12/2006 00:02:51 »
Light an effect :)

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Offline ukmicky

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #283 on: 15/12/2006 00:03:52 »
The longest  Scientific name for an enzyme which has  been cited  in multiple scientific journals:


methionylglutaminylarginyltyrosylglutamylserylleucylphenylal
anylalanylglutaminylleucyllysylglutamylarginyllysylglutamylg
lycylalanylphenylalanylvalylprolylphenylalanylvalylthreonyll
eucylglycylaspartylprolylglycylisoleucylglutamylglutaminylse
rylleucyllysylisoleucylaspartylthreonylleucylisoleucylglutam
ylalanylglycylalanylaspartylalanylleucylglutamylleucylglycyl
isoleucylprolylphenylalanylserylaspartylprolylleucylalanylas
partylglycylprolylthreonylisoleucylglutaminylasparaginylalan
ylthreonylleucylarginylalanylphenylalanylalanylalanylglycylv
alylthreonylprolylalanylglutaminylcysteinylphenylalanylgluta
mylmethionylleucylalanylleucylisoleucylarginylglutaminyllysy
lhistidylprolylthreonylisoleucylprolylisoleucylglycylleucyll
eucylmethionyltyrosylalanylasparaginylleucylvalylphenylalany
lasparaginyllysylglycylisoleucylaspartylglutamylphenylalanyl
tyrosylalanylglutaminylcysteinylglutamyllysylvalylglycylvaly
laspartylserylvalylleucylvalylalanylaspartylvalylprolylvalyl
glutaminylglutamylserylalanylprolylphenylalanylarginylglutam
inylalanylalanylleucylarginylhistidylasparaginylvalylalanylp
rolylisoleucylphenylalanylisoleucylcysteinylprolylprolylaspa
rtylalanylaspartylaspartylaspartylleucylleucylarginylglutami
nylisoleucylalanylseryltyrosylglycylarginylglycyltyrosylthre
onyltyrosylleucylleucylserylarginylalanylglycylvalylthreonyl
glycylalanylglutamylasparaginylarginylalanylalanylleucylprol
ylleucylasparaginylhistidylleucylvalylalanyllysylleucyllysyl
glutamyltyrosylasparaginylalanylalanylprolylprolylleucylglut
aminylglycylphenylalanylglycylisoleucylserylalanylprolylaspa
rtylglutaminylvalyllysylalanylalanylisoleucylaspartylalanylg
lycylalanylalanylglycylalanylisoleucylserylglycylserylalanyl
isoleucylvalyllysylisoleucylisoleucylglutamylglutaminylhisti
dylasparaginylisoleucylglutamylprolylglutamyllysylmethionyll
eucylalanylalanylleucyllysylvalylphenylalanylvalylglutaminyl
prolylmethionyllysylalanylalanylthreonylarginylserine

This is the expanded name for a tryptophan compound made up of 267 amino acids described with the following chemical composition:

 C1289, H2051, N343, O375,S8

« Last Edit: 15/12/2006 00:08:21 by ukmicky »

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Offline kalimna

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #284 on: 15/12/2006 00:33:29 »
Neodymium - a rare earth with a nice-sounding name......
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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #285 on: 15/12/2006 11:56:23 »
Osler William   (12 July 1849 – 29 December 1919)


Biography


William Osler was born in a remote part of Ontario known as Bond Head. He spent a year at Trinity College in Ontario before deciding on a career in medicine. He attended the Toronto Medical College for two years and in 1872 received his M.D. degree from McGill University in Montreal. Like many of his fellow physicians trained in Canada, Osler went abroad for postgraduate study. He studied in London, Berlin, and Vienna before returning to Canada in 1874 and joining the medical faculty at McGill. A year later he was promoted to professor. Osler was elected a fellow of the British Royal College of Physicians in 1883, one of only two Canadian fellows at that time. In 1884 he left Montreal for Philadelphia to become professor of clinical medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

John S. Billings recruited William Osler in 1888 to be physician-in-chief of the soon-to-open Johns Hopkins Hospital and professor of medicine at the planned school of medicine. Osler was the second appointed member of the original four medical faculty, following William H. Welch and preceding Howard A. Kelly and William S. Halsted. He revolutionized the medical curriculum of the United States and Canada, synthesizing the best of the English and German systems. Osler adapted the English system to egalitarian American principles by teaching all medical students at the bedside. He believed that students learned best by doing and clinical instruction should therefore begin with the patient and end with the patient. Books and lectures were supportive tools to this end. The same principles applied to the laboratory, and all students were expected to do some work in the bacteriology laboratory. Osler introduced the German postgraduate training system, instituting one year of general internship followed by several years of residency with increasing clinical responsibilities.

William Osler’s book, The Principles and Practice of Medicine, first published in 1892, supported his imaginative new curriculum. It was based upon the advances in medical science of the previous fifty years and remained the standard text on clinical medicine for the next forty years.
Osler, a superb diagnostician and clinician, was greatly esteemed by his peers in this country and abroad. In 1905 he accepted the Regius Professorship of Medicine at Oxford University, at the time the most prestigious medical appointment in the English-speaking world. He left Maryland with warm feelings for Hopkins knowing that his sixteen years spent had laid a solid foundation for the future of Hopkins medical education.
 
From: 1993 McCall, Nancy, ed. The Portrait Collect
http://www.medicalarchives.jhmi.edu/osler/biography.htm


« Last Edit: 23/06/2007 21:53:14 by iko »

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Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #286 on: 15/12/2006 16:43:08 »
Michael, you missed an ' a ' back there !

Photosynthesis (photo=light, synthesis=putting together), generally, is the synthesis of sugar from light, carbon dioxide and water, with oxygen as a waste product. It is arguably the most important biochemical pathway known; nearly all life depends on it. It is an extremely complex process, comprised of many coordinated biochemical reactions. It occurs in higher plants, algae, some bacteria, and some protists, organisms collectively referred to as photoautotrophs.



[attachment=81]
The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants.

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #287 on: 15/12/2006 18:10:24 »
Question marks ???
There are plenty of those in Science!

No, no good... [;D]


Quinolone, alkaloids



...The quinolones are a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The parent of the group is nalidixic acid. The majority of quinolones in clinical use belong to the subset of fluoroquinolones, which have a fluoro group attached the central ring system.

more from wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quinolone
« Last Edit: 23/06/2007 21:53:45 by iko »

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Offline kalimna

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #288 on: 15/12/2006 18:13:52 »
Roentgen..... as in all things x-ray....
"I hate barnacles like no man before me" - a very wise man related to a Mr Wedgewood

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #289 on: 15/12/2006 19:17:01 »
Sporangia
Steven
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In a time of universal deceit - telling the truth is a revolutionary act.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #290 on: 15/12/2006 21:32:44 »
Tetracycline


History


Tetracycline was first discovered by Lloyd Conover in the research departments of Pfizer. The patent for Tetracycline was first issued in 1950 (patent number 2,624,354). Tetracycline sparked the development of many chemically altered antibiotics and in doing so has proved to be one of the most important discoveries made in the field of antibiotics

from wikipedia:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetracycline


« Last Edit: 23/06/2007 21:54:13 by iko »

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« Reply #291 on: 15/12/2006 21:52:31 »
Uvula of urinary bladder5



The mucous membrane immediately behind the internal urethral orifice presents a slight elevation, the uvula of urinary bladder, caused by the middle lobe of the prostate.


[attachment=82]
Vertical section of bladder, penis,
 and urethra. (Uvula not labeled,
 but would be present in bladder,
at region labeled "neck".)
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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #292 on: 15/12/2006 23:00:47 »
Vancomycin



Vancomycin is a powerful, chlorine-containing antibiotic drug that often works when all other antibiotics fail. It has been called the "antibiotic of last-resort," having saved the lives of patients suffering from serious, stubborn bacterial illnesses. Although few of us will ever have a need for it, it is a very good thing that vancomycin is available.

Scientists know that nature is a rich chemical laboratory from which many useful medicines may be derived. Vancomycin, like many other healing drugs, is a product of nature. It is produced by the soil bacteria, Streptomyces orientalis, originally found in India and Indonesia over forty years ago. The chemical formula for vancomycin, C66H75Cl2N9O24, shows that it is a large molecule.

more if you click here:  http://www.science-education.org/classroom_activities/chlorine_compound/vancomycin.html


« Last Edit: 23/06/2007 21:54:40 by iko »

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« Reply #293 on: 16/12/2006 04:45:10 »
 Wankel, Felix

Prof.hc.Dr.Ing.e.h. Felix Heinrich Wankel (August 13, 1902–October 9, 1988) was the German inventor of the Wankel engine.

Wankel was born in Lahr, Germany, in the upper Rhine Valley. Since his mother was widowed in World War I, Wankel received no university education or even an apprenticeship. However he was able to teach himself technical subjects and conceived the idea of the Wankel engine in 1924. In the 1930s, he had a disagreement with Adolf Hitler, and was imprisoned by the Nazis for some months. During World War II, he developed seals and rotary valves for German air force aircraft and navy torpedoes. After the war, he was imprisoned by the Allies for some months, his laboratory was closed, his work confiscated, and he was prohibited from doing more work. In 1951, he began development of the engine at NSU (NSU Motorenwerke AG), leading to the first running prototype in 1957. His Wankel engine design was first licensed by Curtiss Wright in New Jersey. Mazda in Japan solved the chatter marks problem. The engine has been successfully used by Mazda in several generations of their RX-series of coupés.

In later years, Wankel was granted an honorary Doctorate of Engineering (Dr.-Ing.). He was known for his championing of animal rights and opposition to the use of animals in testing. He never had a driver's license.



[attachment=84]
Wankel Engine in Deutsches
Museum Munich, Germany




How it works

The Wankel cycle. The "A" marks one of the three apexes of the rotor. The "B" marks the eccentric shaft, turning three times for every revolution of the rotor.


In the Wankel engine, the four strokes of a typical Otto cycle engine are arranged sequentially around an oval, unlike the reciprocating motion of a piston engine. In the basic single rotor Wankel engine, a single oval (technically an epitrochoid) housing surrounds a three-sided rotor (similar to a Reuleaux triangle, but with the middle of each side a bit more flattened) which turns and moves within the housing. The sides of the rotor seal against the sides of the housing, and the corners of the rotor seal against the inner periphery of the housing, dividing it into three combustion chambers.

As the rotor turns, its motion and the shape of the housing cause each side of the rotor to get closer and farther from the wall of the housing, compressing and expanding the combustion chamber similarly to the "strokes" in a reciprocating engine. However, whereas a normal four stroke cycle engine produces one combustion stroke per cylinder for every two revolutions (that is, one half power stroke per revolution per cylinder) each combustion chamber of each rotor in the Wankel generates one combustion 'stroke' per revolution (that is, three power strokes per rotor revolution). Since the Wankel output shaft is geared to spin at three times the rotor speed, this becomes one combustion 'stroke' per output shaft revolution per rotor, twice as many as the four-stroke piston engine, and similar to the output of a two stroke cycle engine. Thus, power output of a Wankel engine is generally higher than that of a four-stroke piston engine of similar engine displacement in a similar state of tune, and higher than that of a four-stroke piston engine of similar physical dimensions and weight. Wankel engines also generally have a much higher redline than a similarly sized reciprocating engine since the strokes are completed with a rotary motion as opposed to a reciprocating engine which must use connecting rods and a crankshaft to convert reciprocating motion into rotary motion.

National agencies which tax automobiles according to displacement and regulatory bodies in automobile racing variously consider the Wankel engine to be equivalent to a four-stroke engine of 1.5 to 2 times the displacement; some racing regulatory agencies view it as offering so pronounced an advantage that they ban it altogether.[citation needed]

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« Reply #294 on: 16/12/2006 07:18:11 »
Xanthine- A white, crystalline nitrogenous compound,C5,H4, N4, 02, that decomposes into Ethel alcohol and carbon disulfide at 24*C.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #295 on: 16/12/2006 09:04:33 »
Yohimbine




Yohimbine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
 
Yohimbine, also known under the outdated names quebrachin, aphrodin, corynine, yohimvetol, and hydroergotocin, is the principal alkaloid of the bark of the West-African tree Pausinystalia yohimbe Pierre (formerly Corynanthe yohimbe), family Rubiaceae (Madder family). There are 31 other yohimbane alkaloids found in Yohimbe.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yohimbine



« Last Edit: 23/06/2007 21:55:19 by iko »

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« Reply #296 on: 16/12/2006 17:33:33 »
Zonal flow


Zonal flow is a meteorological term meaning that the general flow pattern is west to east along the earth's latitude lines (the opposite of meridional flow). Extratropical cyclones in this environment tend to be weaker, moving faster and producing relatively little impact on local weather.


[attachment=85]
A zonal flow regime. Note the dominant
 west-to-east flow as shown in the 500
hPa height pattern.

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« Reply #297 on: 16/12/2006 17:57:09 »
Archea-Primitive single-celled prokaryotic organisms resembling bacteria.

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« Reply #298 on: 16/12/2006 23:22:52 »
Bessis Marcel     (1917-1994)


                           

Inserm actualités 1994

Marcel Bessis vient de nous quitter. De la campagne d'Italie à la première rémission des leucémies aiguës, tel pourrait être le titre du chapitre initial de l'oeuvre de Marcel Bessis. C'est pendant la campagne d'Italie qu'il avait proposé de traiter les blessés victimes de graves écrasements musculaires par le grand échange du sang, l'exsanguino-transfusion. C'est à l'hôpital Saint-Antoine que, un des tout premiers, il traite par l'exsanguino-transfusion les nouveau-nés victimes de la maladie hémolytique par conflit Rhésus. D'où de pénétrantes études sur cette maladie du nouveau-né qu'il reproduit chez le raton, qu'il retrouve chez le muleton du Poitou, victime des anticorps anti-baudet sécrétés par la mère jument. C'est enfin, en novembre 1947, à l'hôpital Herold, pour la première fois dans l'histoire des leucémies, la rémission complète d'une leucémie aiguë obtenue par l'exsanguino-transfusion, début d'un long combat.
Cependant, Marcel Bessis, se consacrant entièrement au laboratoire, devenait le pionnier des nouvelles méthodes microscopiques. Il applique la microscopie électronique à l'étude des structures des cellules sanguines normales et leucémiques. Il reconnaît, décrit des formes, des structures nouvelles. Surtout, il met au point la microcinématrographie accélérée en contraste de phase. Il passe de l'anatomie à la physiologie. Il crée littéralement l'écologie, l'éthologie des cellules sanguines, reconnaissant les informations qui couvent à l'intérieur de la cellule, d'organelle en organelle, de mitochondries en centriole. C'est ainsi qu'on lui doit la première description du nécrotaxis, de cette mort cellulaire qui inspire actuellement de nombreux travaux.

Marcel Bessis, comme les grands hommes de sciences, a su constamment allier la rigueur technique à une réflexion générale philosophique dont témoignent des essais sur l'histoire de la recherche scientifique, la créativité dans l'art et la science, la définition du soi et du non-soi.
Cette oeuvre, très étroitement liée à celle des chercheurs de l'Inserm, a été accomplie à l'Institut de pathologie cellulaire de l'hôpital de Bicêtre, puis au Centre d'écologie des cellules du sang à la Salpêtrière.
Membre de nombreuses académies et sociétés savantes étrangères, Marcel Bessis avait été élu en 1979 membre de l'Académie des Sciences.

Professeur Jean Bernard


http://infodoc.inserm.fr/histoire/Histoire.nsf/(WWWReponses)/5AFB06BDC8B13BE480256DCC004EBFBF?OpenDocument&Infos

« Last Edit: 23/06/2007 21:56:12 by iko »

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« Reply #299 on: 17/12/2006 19:48:32 »
Clavicle

In human anatomy, the clavicle or collar bone is classified as a long bone that makes up part of the shoulder girdle (pectoral girdle). It receives its name from the Latin clavicula ("little key") because the bone rotates along its axis like a key when the shoulder is abducted. (This movement is palpable with the opposite hand). In some people, particularly females who may have less fat in this region, the location of the bone is clearly visible as it creates a bulge in the skin.

Clavicles are found in many tetrapods but tend to be rudimentary or absent in those using their forelimbs primarily for support or running and present where the forelimbs are used for grasping or brachiation.


[attachment=87]


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