A-Z of AVIONICS

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #300 on: 17/12/2006 21:54:10 »
Delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase


Lead poisoning


Lead has no known biological role in the body. The toxicity comes from its ability to mimic other biologically important metals, the most notable of which are calcium, iron and zinc. Lead is able to bind to and interact with the same proteins and molecules as these metals, but after displacement, those molecules function differently and fail to carry out the same reactions, such as in producing enzymes necessary for certain biological processes.

Most lead poisoning symptoms are thought to occur by interfering with an essential enzyme Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, or ALAD. ALAD is a zinc-binding protein which is important in the biosynthesis of heme, the cofactor found in hemoglobin.
Genetic mutations of ALAD cause the disease porphyria, a disease which was highlighted in the movie The Madness of King George.
Lead poisoning is sometimes mistaken for porphyria but the distinction is that lead poisoning usually causes anemia while true porphyria does not.


more from Wikipedia clicking here:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead_poisoning

« Last Edit: 22/04/2007 09:52:16 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #301 on: 17/12/2006 23:23:27 »
Earth ........ often referred to as the Earth, Terra, the World or Planet Earth) is the third most distant planet in the solar system from the Sun, and the fifth largest planet. It is also the largest of its planetary system's terrestrial planets, making it the largest solid body in the solar system, and it is the only place in the universe known to humans to support life. It is also the densest planet in the solar system. Widely accepted scientific evidence indicates that the Earth was formed around 4.57 billion years ago[1] and its natural satellite, the Moon, was orbiting it shortly thereafter, around 4.53 billion years ago.

The outer surface is divided into several tectonic plates that gradually migrate across the surface over geologic time spans. The interior of the planet remains active, with a thick layer of convecting yet solid mantle and an iron core that generates a magnetic field. Its atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered by the presence of life forms, which create an ecological balance that modifies the surface conditions. About 71% of the surface is covered in salt-water oceans, and the remainder consists of continents and islands.

There is significant interaction between the Earth and its space environment. The relatively large moon provides ocean tides and has gradually modified the length of the planet's rotation period. A cometary bombardment during the early history of the planet is believed to have played a role in the formation of the oceans. Later, asteroid impacts are understood to have caused significant changes to the surface environment. Long term periodic changes in the orbit of the planet may also be responsible for the ice ages that have covered significant portions of the surface in glacial sheets.




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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #302 on: 17/12/2006 23:31:20 »
Faradize- To treat or stimulate with faradic current.

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #303 on: 17/12/2006 23:57:51 »
Geographic tongue
Geniustrophic tongue



Geographic tongue is a relatively common tongue problem that normally responds to topical steroids.  We do not know the cause of geographic tongue and treatment does not permanently cure it.  It does however, provide significant improvement of symptoms.

The safest treatment is topical Lidex gel applied about 4 times daily, just after meals and at bedtime.  A dentist should be able to prescribe it.
There are stronger steroids available but they have side effects.  Some patients with this problem have Zinc deficiency and could have zinc blood levels tested.  If zinc deficiency is found, zinc supplementation really helps.

from:  http://www.tambcd.edu/DentalCE/askdoc/html/geographic_tongue.html


« Last Edit: 22/04/2007 09:53:29 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #304 on: 19/12/2006 03:15:22 »
A cerebral hemisphere (hemispherium cerebrale) is defined as one of the two regions of the brain that are delineated by the body's median plane. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres. Each of these hemispheres has an outer layer of grey matter called the cerebral cortex that is supported by an inner layer of white matter. The hemispheres are linked by the corpus callosum, a very large bundle of nerve fibers, and also by other smaller commissures, including the anterior commissure, posterior commissure, and hippocampal commissure. These commissures transfer information between the two hemispheres to coordinate localized functions. The architecture, types of cells, types of neurotransmitters and receptor subtypes are all distributed among the two hemispheres in a markedly asymmetric fashion. However, it must be noted that, while some of these hemispheric distribution differences are consistent across human beings, or even across some species, many observable distribution differences vary from individual to individual within a given species.


[attachment=89]
The human brain as viewed from
 above, showing the cerebral
hemispheres. The anterior aspect
(front) of the brain is to the right.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #305 on: 19/12/2006 03:37:13 »
inorganic chemistry!

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #306 on: 19/12/2006 12:16:20 »
Jarish-Herxheimer reaction


After antibiotic therapy of Lyme disease

...
The Jarish Herxheimer reaction is seen when antibiotics are having a therapeutic effect. There can be a worsening in the symptoms, which may include the periostitis, and the psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. Some patients become very impulsive, aggressive, depressed, and suicidal during a Herxheimer reaction and may require close monitoring during these times.
Progression of symptoms is a significant item. After working with these patients, it is clear there are common patterns in which different symptoms appear in a different sequence. This item is checked when the symptoms are appearing in a sequence that is seen in the progression of Lyme disease, i.e.: it begins with a tick bite, then a bulls eye rash associated with a flu like illness, then there may be some of the disseminated symptoms such as the joint pain. The cranial nerve symptoms may be seen. Later there is the development of the cognitive symptoms that gradually increase over time. Then the psychiatric symptoms develop later in the course of the illness with an intensification of the cognitive and neurological symptoms. Not every stage is seen in all patients. Although many similarities exist between patients, no two patients display the exact same symptoms; and there are many variants in the manner in which the disease presents. There is some evidence that different clusters of symptoms are associated with different strains of the bacteria, and there are many variants in the manner in which this disease presents.
...
from:  http://www.mentalhealthandillness.com/tnaold.html




« Last Edit: 22/04/2007 09:53:59 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #307 on: 19/12/2006 16:10:30 »
Lipoprotein
Steven
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #308 on: 19/12/2006 23:21:31 »
Koch Robert   (1843-1910)
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905


« Last Edit: 22/04/2007 09:54:21 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #309 on: 20/12/2006 01:43:57 »
 Mendeleev ,Dimitri:

(Russian: (8 February 1834 [O.S. 27 January] in Tobolsk 2 February 1907 [O.S. 20 January] in Saint Petersburg), was a Russian chemist. He is credited as being the primary creator of the first version of the periodic table of elements. Unlike other contributors to the table, Mendeleev predicted the properties of elements yet to be discovered.




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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #310 on: 20/12/2006 01:49:14 »
NUMBER THEORY= the study of whole numbers (integers).

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #311 on: 20/12/2006 03:31:02 »
Oligodendrocyte
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #312 on: 20/12/2006 03:38:15 »
Protein immunology = The use antibodies to determine the relationships of species. Antibodies specific to one spicies have variable reactions with others depending on their genetic similarity.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #313 on: 20/12/2006 17:39:46 »
QUARKS

In particle physics, quarks are one of the two basic constituents of matter (the other Standard Model fermions are the leptons).

Antiparticles of quarks are called antiquarks. Quarks are the only fundamental particles that interact through all four of the fundamental forces. The word was borrowed by Murray Gell-Mann from the book Finnegans Wake by James Joyce, where seabirds give "three quarks", akin to three cheers (probably onomatopoetically imitating a seabird call, like "quack" for ducks).

The names of quark flavours (up, down, strange, charm, bottom, and top) were also chosen arbitrarily based on the need to name them something that could be easily remembered and used.

An important property of quarks is called confinement, which states that individual quarks are not seen because they are always confined inside subatomic particles called hadrons (e.g., protons and neutrons); an exception is the top quark, which decays so quickly that it does not hadronize, and can therefore be observed more directly via its decay products. Confinement began as an experimental observation, and is expected to follow from the modern theory of strong interactions, called quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Although there is no mathematical derivation of confinement in QCD, it is easy to show using lattice gauge theory



[attachment=92]
These are the 6 quarks and their
 most likely decay modes. Mass
decreases moving from right to left.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #314 on: 20/12/2006 17:53:14 »
Radiometric dating = Fiinding a rocks age using the decay rate of radioactive elements in the sample.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #315 on: 20/12/2006 19:30:43 »
STI571 - Gleevec - Imatinib Mesilate

  by Dr.Brian Druker  (Univ. Oregon USA)



..."The most important drug
   in human oncology in the
   last twenty years!"
« Last Edit: 22/04/2007 09:55:09 by iko »

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« Reply #316 on: 20/12/2006 20:17:28 »
Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints.

Over one-third of the world's population now has the TB bacterium in their bodies and new infections are occurring at a rate of one per second.[1] Not everyone who is infected develops the disease and asymptomatic latent TB infection is most common. However, one in ten latent infections will progress to active TB disease which, if left untreated, will kill more than half of its victims. In 2004, 14.6 million people had active TB and there were 8.9 million new cases and 1.7 million deaths,[1] mostly in developing countries. A rising number of people in the developed world contract tuberculosis because their immune systems are compromised by immunosuppressive drugs, substance abuse, or HIV/AIDS.

The rise in HIV infection levels and the neglect of TB control programs have caused a resurgence of tuberculosis, and drug-resistant strains of TB are also emerging.[2] The World Health Organization declared TB a global health emergency in 1993, and the Stop TB Partnership proposed a Global Plan to Stop Tuberculosis which aims to save 14 million lives between 2006 and 2015.[3]
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #317 on: 20/12/2006 20:21:53 »
Ultra Violet Lights

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« Reply #318 on: 21/12/2006 17:40:29 »
Vernacular refers to the native language of a country or locality. In general linguistics, it is used to describe local languages as opposed to linguae francae, official standards or global languages. It is sometimes applied to nonstandard dialects of a global language.

In previous centuries scholarly work in Western Europe was typically written in Latin, so the works written in a native language (such as Italian or German) were said to be in the vernacular.

The vernacular is also often contrasted with a liturgical language (in Linguistics, the relationship between these "High" and "Low" languages or varieties of a language is referred to as diglossia). For example, until the 1960s, Latin Rite Roman Catholics held masses in Latin rather than in local vernacular language, to this day the Coptic Church holds liturgies in Coptic; though parts of mass are read in Amharic, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church holds liturgies in Ge'ez, etc. The Reformation was spread by the publication of Bibles and other religious writings in the vernacular, and the reforms of the Second Vatican Council permitted the use of vernacular liturgies in Roman Catholicism.

Similarly, in Hindu culture, traditionally religious or scholarly works were written in Sanskrit long after its use as a spoken language. With the rise of the bhakti movement from the 1100s onwards, religious works started being created in Tamil, Hindi, Kannada, Telugu and many other Indian languages throughout the different regions of India. For example, the Ramayana, one of Hinduism's sacred epics in Sanskrit had vernacular versions such as Ramacharitamanasa, a Hindi version of the Ramayana by the 16th century poet Tulsidas, and Kambaramayanam in Tamil by the poet Kamban.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #319 on: 21/12/2006 19:10:15 »
Wilson's disease

Wilson's disease


Wilson's Disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of copper transport, resulting in copper accumulation and toxicity to the liver and brain. Liver disease is the most common symptom in children; neurological disease is most common in young adults. The cornea of the eye can also be affected: the 'Kayser-Fleischer ring' is a deep copper-colored ring at the periphery of the cornea, and is thought to represent copper deposits.
The gene for Wilson's disease (ATP7B) was mapped to chromosome 13. The sequence of the gene was found to be similar to sections of the gene defective in Menkes disease, another disease caused by defects in copper transport. The similar sequences code for copper-binding regions, which are part of a transmembrane pump called a P-type ATPase that is very similar to the Menkes disease protein.
A homolog to the human ATP7B gene has been mapped to mouse chromosome 8, and an authentic model of the human disease in rat is also available (called the Long-Evans Cinnamon [LEC][ rat). These systems will be useful for studying copper transport and liver pathophysiology, and should help in the development of a therapy for Wilson disease.

from:   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/disease/Wilson.html


« Last Edit: 22/04/2007 09:55:52 by iko »

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Offline JimBob

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #320 on: 21/12/2006 22:49:21 »
Xerothermic

Said of a hot, dry climate.

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The mind is like a parachute. It works best when open.  -- A. Einstein

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #321 on: 22/12/2006 23:42:46 »
Yersinia - Yersinia are a class of bacilli linked to a form of food poisoning and also bubonic plague (Y. pestis).
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #322 on: 23/12/2006 00:02:20 »

In broad terms, the zenith is the direction pointing directly above a particular location (perpendicular, orthogonal). Since the concept of being above is itself somewhat vague, scientists define the zenith in more rigorous terms. Specifically, in astronomy, geophysics and related sciences (e.g., meteorology), the zenith at a given point is the local vertical direction pointing away from direction of the force of gravity at that location.
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« Reply #323 on: 23/12/2006 00:02:46 »
Absinthe (also absinth) (IPA English: [ˈbsɪnθ] IPA French: [ap.sɛ̃t]) is a distilled, highly alcoholic, anise-flavored spirit derived from herbs including the flowers and leaves of the medicinal plant Artemisia absinthium, also called grand wormwood. Although it is sometimes incorrectly called a liqueur, absinthe is not bottled with added sugar and is therefore classified as a liquor or spirit.[1]

Absinthe is often referred to as la Fe Verte ('The Green Fairy') because of its coloring typically pale or emerald green, but sometimes clear or in rare cases rose red. Due to its high proof and concentration of oils, absintheurs (absinthe drinkers) typically add three to five parts ice-cold water to a dose of absinthe, which causes the drink to turn cloudy (called 'louching'); often the water is used to dissolve added sugar to decrease bitterness. This preparation is considered an important part of the experience of drinking absinthe, so much so that it has become ritualized, complete with special slotted absinthe spoons and other accoutrements. Absinthe's flavor is similar to anise-flavored liqueurs, with a light bitterness and greater complexity imparted by multiple herbs.

Absinthe originated in Switzerland as an elixir but is better known for its popularity in late 19th and early 20th century France, particularly among Parisian artists and writers whose romantic associations with the drink still linger in popular culture. In its heyday, the most popular brand of absinthe worldwide was Pernod Fils. At the height of this popularity, absinthe was portrayed as a dangerously addictive, psychoactive drug; the chemical thujone was blamed for most of its deleterious effects. By 1915, it was banned in a number of European countries and the United States. Even though it was vilified, no evidence shows it to be any more dangerous than ordinary alcohol.[2] A modern absinthe revival began in the 1990s, as countries in the European Union began to reauthorize its manufacture and sale.




[attachment=95]
A reservoir glass filled with
 a naturally colored verte next
 to an absinthe spoon.



I realise this may not be strictly science but I thought I might get away with it based on chemistry and the effect on biology !!
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #324 on: 23/12/2006 02:54:33 »
Sounds Fair to me!

Black Dwarf = A dead Star that has exhausted all of it's energy.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #326 on: 23/12/2006 21:29:30 »
Dawkins,Richard = Author of, The Selfish Gene; The Extended Phenotype; The Blind Watchmaker;  River Out Of Eden; and Cimbing Mount Improbable.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #327 on: 25/12/2006 17:45:57 »
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
IL-10 signaling is essential for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-mediated inhibition
 of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.


Spach KM, Nashold FE, Dittel BN, Hayes CE.
Dept.Nutr.Sciences, College Agricultural & Life Sciences, Univ.Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) results from an aberrant, neuroantigen-specific, T cell-mediated autoimmune response. Because MS prevalence and severity decrease sharply with increasing sunlight exposure, and sunlight supports vitamin D(3) synthesis, we proposed that vitamin D(3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)) may protect against MS.
In support of this hypothesis, 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) strongly inhibited experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This inhibition required lymphocytes other than the encephalitogenic T cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) might inhibit EAE through the action of IL-10-producing regulatory lymphocytes. We report that vitamin D(3) and 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) strongly inhibited myelin oligodendrocyte peptide (MOG(35-55))-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice, but completely failed to inhibit EAE in mice with a disrupted IL-10 or IL-10R gene.
Thus, a functional IL-10-IL-10R pathway was essential for 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) to inhibit EAE. The 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) also failed to inhibit EAE in reciprocal, mixed bone marrow chimeras constructed by transferring IL-10-deficient bone marrow into irradiated wild-type mice and vice versa. Thus, 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) may be enhancing an anti-inflammatory loop involving hemopoietic cell-produced IL-10 acting on brain parenchymal cells and vice versa.
If this interpretation is correct, and humans have a similar bidirectional IL-10-dependent loop, then an IL-10-IL-10R pathway defect could abrogate the anti-inflammatory and neuro-protective functions of sunlight and vitamin D(3). In this way, a genetic IL-10-IL-10R pathway defect could interact with an environmental risk factor, vitamin D(3) insufficiency, to increase MS risk and severity.

J Immunol. 2006 Nov 1;177(9):6030-7.



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« Reply #328 on: 26/12/2006 04:44:34 »
 Faraday Michael, FRS (September 22, 1791 August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena.

Some historians of science refer to him as the best experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became viable for use in technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad, is named after him, as is the Faraday constant, the charge on a mole of electrons (about 96,485 coulombs). Faraday's law of induction states that a magnetic field changing in time creates a proportional electromotive force.

He held the post of Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.


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« Reply #329 on: 26/12/2006 05:06:50 »
Gluons-The quanta of color charge that binds the quarks into nucleons.

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« Reply #330 on: 26/12/2006 11:58:44 »
Heinrich Hertz      (1857-1894)




In 1888, Heinrich Hertz built an apparatus that could transmit and receive electromagnetic waves of about 5 meters in length. He used a coil to generate a high voltage spark between two electrodes which served as a transmitter. The detector was a loop of wire with a small gap.
A spark at the transmitter produces electromagnetic waves that travel to the detector, producing a spark in the gap.  He showed that the waves were polarized, and that they could interfere with each other, just as predicted by theory.

from:  National Radio Astronomy Observatory
       http://www.nrao.edu/whatisra/hist_prehist.shtml



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« Reply #331 on: 26/12/2006 22:27:39 »
Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 15 September 1859) (IPA: [ˈɪzəmbɑ(ɹ)d ˈkɪŋdəm brʊˈnɛl]), was an English engineer. He is best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway, a series of famous steamships, and numerous important bridges.

Though Brunel's projects were not always successful, they often contained innovative solutions to long-standing engineering problems. During his short career, Brunel achieved many engineering "firsts", including assisting in the building of the first tunnel under a navigable river and development of the first propeller-driven ocean-going iron ship, which was at the time also the largest ship ever built.[1]

Brunel suffered several years of ill health, with kidney problems, before succumbing to a stroke at the age of 53. Brunel was said to smoke up to 40 cigars a day, and get by on only four hours of sleep a night.

In 2006, a major programme of events celebrated his life and work on the bicentenary of his birth under the name Brunel 200.[2]




[attachment=99]
The Clifton Suspension
Bridge spans the Avon Gorge,
 linking Clifton in Bristol
to Leigh Woods in North Somerset.


[attachment=100]

[attachment=101]
The Maidenhead Railway
 Bridge, at the time the
 largest span for a brick
 arch bridge.


[attachment=102]
The Royal Albert
Bridge, seen from
Saltash railway station.







« Last Edit: 26/12/2006 22:30:39 by neilep »
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #332 on: 27/12/2006 04:54:08 »
Julian Day: A count of the days, starting from 12 noon on Jan. 1rst 4713 BC. Julian days are used by variable star observers, and for the reckonings of phenomena which extend over very long periods of time.

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #333 on: 27/12/2006 14:53:05 »
Kernicterus




Jaundice

About 60% of newborn infants in the United States are jaundiced, that is they look yellow. Jaundice is the yellow coloring of the skin and other tissues. Jaundice can often be seen well in the sclera, the "whites" of the eyes, which look yellow. Many many babies look jaundiced (60%), but they are not deeply jaundiced, not jaundiced below the abdomen, and they act OK - they nurse, they aren't too sleepy, they have normal muscle tone, their cry is normal, they don't arch their backs.

Kernicterus

Kernicterus is a form of brain damage caused by excessive jaundice. The substance which causes jaundice, bilirubin, is so high that it can move out of the blood into brain tissue. When babies begin to be affected by excessive jaundice, when they begin to have brain damage, they become excessively lethargic. They are too sleepy, and they are difficult to arouse - either they don't wake up from sleep easily like a normal baby, or they don't wake up fully, or they can't be kept awake. They have a high-pitched cry, and decreased muscle tone, becoming hypotonic or floppy) with episodes of increased muscle tone (hypertonic) and arching of the head and back backwards. As the damage continues, they may develop fever, may arch their heads back into a very contorted position known as opisthotonus or retrocollis.

from:   http://www.kernicterus.org/



Phototherapy is routinely used
to treat moderate hyperbilirubinemia

Emergency treatment to lower bilirubin
and prevent kernicterus and its sequelae
in very severe cases of newborn jaundice
is a simple transfusion procedure called
blood-exchange or exchange transfusion.

ikod



« Last Edit: 09/04/2007 16:26:32 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #334 on: 27/12/2006 19:43:01 »
 Lovell , Sir Alfred Charles Bernard         OBE PhD FRS (born 31 August 1913, Oldland Common, Bristol) is a British physicist and radio astronomer. He was the first Director of Jodrell Bank Observatory, from 1945 to 1980.


Born in Oldland Common, Bristol, he studied physics at the University of Bristol, obtaining a Ph.D. in 1936. He worked in the cosmic ray research team at the University of Manchester until the outbreak of World War II, during which he worked for the TRE developing radar systems to be installed in aircraft, for which he received an OBE in 1946.

He attempted to continue cosmic ray work with an ex-military radar unit and following interference from trams on Manchester's Oxford Road moved to Jodrell Bank Observatory, near Goostrey in Cheshire, an outpost of the university's botany department. He was able to show that radar echoes could be obtained from daytime meteor showers. With university funding he constructed the then-largest steerable radio telescope in the world, which now bears his name - the Lovell Telescope. Nearly 50 years later, it remains one of the foremost radio telescopes in the world.

He was knighted in 1961 for his important contributions to the development of radio astronomy, and has a secondary school named after him in his home village of Oldland Common Bristol.[1] A building on the QinetiQ site in Malvern is also named after him.



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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #335 on: 28/12/2006 09:23:44 »
Meiosis = The type of cell division that creates reproductive cells, in which genetic material is shuffled by recombination.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #336 on: 28/12/2006 19:32:10 »
Narcolepsy is a neurological condition most characterized by Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS), episodes of sleep and disorder of REM or rapid eye movement sleep. It is a type of dyssomnia.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #337 on: 28/12/2006 19:38:39 »
Organic Chemistry = The chemistry of carbon compounds.

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #338 on: 28/12/2006 22:06:38 »
« Last Edit: 09/04/2007 16:26:58 by iko »

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Offline JimBob

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #339 on: 29/12/2006 04:19:32 »
Quar - a Welch word for sandstone
The mind is like a parachute. It works best when open.  -- A. Einstein


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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #341 on: 29/12/2006 20:33:13 »
Science in the broadest sense refers to any system of objective knowledge. In a more restricted sense, science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge based on the scientific method, as well as to the organized body of knowledge humans have gained by such research. This article focuses on the latter sense of the word.

Fields of science are commonly classified along two major lines:

    * Natural sciences, which study natural phenomena
    * Social sciences, which study human behavior and societies

Whether mathematics is a science is a matter of perspective. It is similar to other sciences in that it is a careful, systematic study of an area of knowledge specifically, it focuses on a priori knowledge. Mathematics as a whole is vital to the sciences indeed, major advances in mathematics have often led to major advances in other sciences. Certain aspects of mathematics are indispensable for the formation of hypotheses, theories, and laws, both in discovering and describing how things work (natural sciences) and how people think and act (social sciences).

Science as defined above is sometimes termed pure science in order to differentiate it from applied science, the latter being the application of scientific research to human needs.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #342 on: 29/12/2006 20:44:13 »
Tectonic Plates
« Last Edit: 04/01/2007 14:07:31 by Karen W. »

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #343 on: 29/12/2006 21:59:48 »
Urokinase

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Urokinase
Urokinase (Abbokinase), also called urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator (uPA), is a serine protease (EC 3.4.21.73). Urokinase was originally isolated from human urine, but is present in several physiological locations, such as blood stream and the extracellular matrix. The primary physiological substrate is plasminogen, which is an inactive zymogen form of the serine protease plasmin.
Activation of plasmin triggers a proteolysis cascade which, depending on the physiological environment participate in thrombolysis or extracellular matrix degradation.
This links urokinase to vascular diseases and cancer.

Clinical applications
Urokinase is used clinically as a thrombolytic agent in the treatment of severe or massive deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and occluded intravenous or dialysis cannulas. Recently, Alteplase has replaced urokinase as a thrombolytic drug in infarction.

« Last Edit: 09/04/2007 16:27:41 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #344 on: 02/01/2007 08:50:55 »
Valency = A figure that describes the number of hydrogen atoms that an atom of any element may combine with.

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Offline eric l

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #345 on: 02/01/2007 10:17:21 »
Tetonic Plates
I suppose you mean "tectonic plates" - unless you mean "Teutonic plates" which would be something like "German dishes" (such as "Sauerkraut mit Eisbein").
"Wonder is no wonder" (Simon Stevin 1548-1620)

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #346 on: 02/01/2007 18:25:49 »
Wheatstone bridge


Wheatstone Bridge


Curiously enough, the Wheatstone Bridge was not invented by Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875), but by Hunter Christie.
However, Wheatstone was responsible for popularizing the arrangement of four resistors, a battery and a galvanometer, and gave Christie full credit in his 1843 Bakerian Lecture. Wheatstone called the circuit a "Differential Resistance Measurer." 
   And how to draw Wheatstone's Bridge? Wheatstone himself used the familiar diamond pattern in his Needle Telegraph; it has been suggested that his set of Blue Willow pattern china, with the cross-hatching on the arched bridge forming part of its decorations, suggested the shape to him. 

for further reading click here:


http://physics.kenyon.edu/EarlyApparatus/Electrical_Measurements/Wheatstone_Bridge/Wheatstone_Bridge.html


« Last Edit: 09/04/2007 16:28:03 by iko »

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Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #347 on: 21/01/2007 06:42:31 »
X -Ray telescopes

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #348 on: 21/01/2007 17:50:55 »
Y protein

Changes in neuropeptide Y protein expression
following photothrombotic brain infarction and epileptogenesis

Kharlamov EA, Kharlamov A, Kelly KM.
Department of Neurology, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

This study characterized morphological changes in the cortex and hippocampus of Sprague-Dawley rats following photothrombotic infarction and epileptogenesis with emphasis on the distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression. Animals were lesioned in the left sensorimotor cortex and compared with age-matched naive and sham-operated controls by immunohistochemical techniques at 1, 3, 7, and 180 days post-lesioning (DPL). NPY immunostaining was assessed by light microscopy and quantified by the optical fractionator technique using unbiased stereological methods. At 1, 3, and 7 DPL, the number of NPY-positive somata in the lesioned cortex was increased significantly compared to controls and the contralateral cortex. At 180 DPL, lesioned epileptic animals with frequent seizure activity demonstrated significant increases of NPY expression in the cortex, CA1, CA3, hilar interneurons, and granule cells of the dentate gyrus. In addition to NPY immunostaining, neuronal degeneration, cell death/cell loss, and astroglial response were assessed with cell-specific markers. Nissl and NeuN staining showed reproducible infarctions at each investigated time point. FJB-positive somata were most abundant in the infarct core at 1 DPL, decreased markedly at 3 DPL, and virtually absent by 7 DPL. Activated astroglia were detected in the cortex and hippocampus following lesioning and the development of seizure activity.
In summary, NPY protein expression and morphological changes following cortical photothrombosis were time-, region-, and pathologic state-dependent. Alterations in NPY expression may reflect reactive or compensatory responses of the rat brain to acute infarction and to the development and expression of epileptic seizures.

Brain Res. 2007 Jan 5;1127(1):151-62.



« Last Edit: 09/04/2007 16:28:39 by iko »

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Offline Bass

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #349 on: 22/01/2007 01:42:12 »
Zeolite
Old enough to have a grandson
Slow enough to study rocks
Thirsty enough to find a pub