A-Z of AVIONICS

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Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #400 on: 30/01/2007 04:34:46 »
The styrophone is a modern musical instrument made from a Styrofoam (expanded polystyrene foam) box that is forced to vibrate by friction against a wooden stick. Technically, the instrument is a type of friction idiophone. Styrophones tend to last for only one performance, as the friction destroys the material.
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Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #401 on: 30/01/2007 04:56:02 »
Interesting.. Never heard of them..

Telescopes

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #402 on: 30/01/2007 13:41:51 »
Palatine Uvula





[attachment=148]
Diagram showing the uvula, tonsils, soft palate, and tongue


The uvula (IPA: [ˈjuːvjʊlə]) is a small, mucosa-covered set of muscles, musculus uvulae, hanging down from the soft palate, near the back of the throat. The word is derived from the diminutive of uva, the Latin word for "grape", due to the uvula's grape-like shape.

If the uvula is touched by a finger or other object, this will induce an unpleasant gagging sensation which is often followed by vomiting. This is often how bulimics induce vomiting.
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Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #403 on: 30/01/2007 15:27:52 »
Virtual Reality

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #404 on: 30/01/2007 19:13:57 »
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome



Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome


Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is a syndrome of pre-excitation of the ventricles of the heart due to an accessory pathway known as the Bundle of Kent. This accessory pathway is an abnormal electrical communication from the atria to the ventricles.

The incidence of WPW syndrome is between 0.1 and 3 % of the general population.[1] [2] [3]

While the vast majority of individuals with WPW syndrome remain asymptomatic throughout their entire lives, there is a risk of sudden death associated with the syndrome. Sudden death due to WPW syndrome is rare (incidence of ≤0.6%[3] [4]), and is due to the effect of the accessory pathway on tachyarrhythmias in these individuals

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
for more reading and learning click here:    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolff-Parkinson-White_syndrome
« Last Edit: 09/04/2007 16:33:15 by iko »

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #405 on: 30/01/2007 19:26:09 »
Zuzzurellone


Naoo spello tees wan deer friendo!
...The last italian word in our Dictionary.
Nothing to do with Science...so give me
another Z!
« Last Edit: 22/04/2007 09:39:07 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #406 on: 30/01/2007 22:19:26 »
Asbestos is well bad for ewe !!


Asbestos (a misapplication of Latin: asbestos "quicklime" from Greek ἄσβεστος: a, "not" and sbestos, "extinguishable") describes any of a group of minerals that can be fibrous, many of which are metamorphic and are hydrous magnesium silicates. These minerals, together with their occurrences, uses, and associated hazards, have been discussed in detail by Guthrie and Mossman (1993).

The name is derived for its historical use in lamp wicks; the resistance of asbestos to fire has long been exploited for a variety of purposes. Asbestos was used in fabrics such as Egyptian burial cloths and Charlemagne's tablecloth (which according to legend, he threw in a fire to clean). Asbestos occurs naturally in many forms (see below); it is mined from metamorphic rocks.

When asbestos is used for its resistance to fire or heat, the fibers are often mixed with cement or woven into fabric or mats. Asbestos is used in brake shoes and gaskets for its heat resistance, and in the past was used on electric oven and hotplate wiring for its electrical insulation at elevated temperature, and in buildings for its flame-retardant and insulating properties, tensile strength, flexibility, and resistance to chemicals. The inhalation of some kinds of asbestos fibers, however, can cause a number of serious illnesses, including cancer. Many uses of asbestos are banned in many countries.


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Offline JimBob

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #408 on: 31/01/2007 01:57:58 »
The Forgotten X - (above)

Xeric - said of a habitat that is characterized by a low or inadequate supply of moisture. Also said of an organism or an assemblage of organisms existing in such an environment.                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
The mind is like a parachute. It works best when open.  -- A. Einstein

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #409 on: 31/01/2007 03:24:55 »
Young, Thomas - A Poly math who dabbled in science and medicine and was chief figure in designing the rosetta stone.

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #410 on: 31/01/2007 09:59:05 »
Carnosic acid


Cooperative antitumor effects of vitamin D3 derivatives
and rosemary preparations in a mouse model of myeloid leukemia.

Sharabani H, Izumchenko E, Wang Q, Kreinin R, Steiner M, Barvish Z, Kafka M, Sharoni Y, Levy J, Uskokovic M, Studzinski GP, Danilenko M.
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25D(3)) is a powerful differentiation agent, which has potential for treatment of myeloid leukemias and other types of cancer, but the calcemia produced by pharmacologically active doses precludes the use of this agent in the clinic. We have shown that carnosic acid, the major rosemary polyphenol, enhances the differentiating and antiproliferative effects of low concentrations of 1,25D(3) in human myeloid leukemia cell lines (HL60, U937). Here we translated these findings to in vivo conditions using a syngeneic mouse leukemia tumor model. To this end, we first demonstrated that as in HL60 cells, differentiation of WEHI-3B D(-) murine myelomonocytic leukemia cells induced by 1 nM 1,25D(3) or its low-calcemic analog, 1,25-dihydroxy-16-ene-5,6-trans-cholecalciferol (Ro25-4020), can be synergistically potentiated by carnosic acid (10 microM) or the carnosic acid-rich ethanolic extract of rosemary leaves. This effect was accompanied by cell cycle arrest in G0 + G1 phase and a marked inhibition of cell growth. In the in vivo studies, i.p. injections of 2 microg Ro25-4020 in Balb/c mice bearing WEHI-3B D(-) tumors produced a significant delay in tumor appearance and reduction in tumor size, without significant toxicity. Another analog, 1,25-dihydroxy-16,23Z-diene-20-epi-26,27-hexafluoro-19-nor-cholecalciferol (Ro26-3884) administered at the same dose was less effective than Ro25-4020 and profoundly toxic. Importantly, combined treatment with 1% dry rosemary extract (mixed with food) and 1 microg Ro25-4020 resulted in a strong cooperative antitumor effect, without inducing hypercalcemia. These results indicate for the first time that a plant polyphenolic preparation and a vitamin D derivative can cooperate not only in inducing leukemia cell differentiation in vitro, but also in the antileukemic activity in vivo. These data may suggest novel protocols for chemoprevention or differentiation therapy of myeloid leukemia. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Int J Cancer. 2006 Jun 15;118(12):3012-21.


« Last Edit: 09/04/2007 16:38:33 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #411 on: 31/01/2007 15:33:49 »
Dendrochronology


Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree-ring growth patterns. This technique was invented and developed during the 20th century originally by A. E. Douglass, the founder of the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research at the University of Arizona. The technique can date wood to exact calendar years.


Overview

Many trees in temperate zones grow one growth ring each year, the newest ring being under the bark. For the entire period of a tree's life, a year-by-year record or ring pattern is formed that reflects the climatic conditions in which the tree grew. Adequate moisture and a long growing season result in a wide ring. A drought year may result in a very narrow one. Trees from the same region will tend to develop the same patterns of ring widths for a given period. These patterns can be compared and matched ring for ring with trees growing in the same geographical zone and under similar climatic conditions. Following these tree-ring patterns from living trees back through time, chronologies can be built up, both for entire regions, and for sub-regions of the world. Thus wood from ancient structures can be matched to known chronologies (a technique called cross-dating) and the age of the wood determined precisely. Cross-dating was originally done by visual inspection. Nowadays, computers are used to do the statistical matching.

To eliminate individual variations in tree ring growth, dendrochronologists take the smoothed average of the tree ring widths of multiple tree samples to build up a ring history. This process is termed replication. A tree ring history whose beginning and end dates are not known is called a floating chronology. It can be anchored by cross-matching either the beginning or the end section against the end sections of another chronology (tree ring history) whose dates are known. Fully anchored chronologies which extend back more than 10,000 years exist for river oak trees from South Germany (from the Main and Rhine rivers). A fully anchored chronology which extends back 8500 years exists for the bristlecone pine in the Southwest US (White Mountains of California).

In areas where the climate is reasonably predictable, trees develop annual rings of different properties depending on weather, rain, temperature, etc. in different years. These variations may be used to infer past climate variations —



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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #413 on: 31/01/2007 21:50:03 »
Faraday cage






A Faraday cage or Faraday shield is an enclosure formed by conducting material, or by a mesh of such material. Such an enclosure blocks out external static electrical fields. Faraday cages are named after physicist Michael Faraday, who built one in 1836 and explained its operation.

The electrical charges in the enclosing conductor repel each other and will therefore always reside on the outside surface of the cage. Any external static electrical field will cause the charges to rearrange so as to completely cancel the field's effects in the cage's interior. This effect is used for example to protect electronic equipment from lightning strikes and other electrostatic discharges.

To a large degree, Faraday cages also shield the interior from external electromagnetic radiation if the conductor is thick enough and its meshes, if present, are significantly smaller than the radiation's wavelength. This application of Faraday cages is explained under electromagnetic shielding.




[attachment=170]
Entrance to a Faraday room
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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #414 on: 31/01/2007 22:08:52 »
Geiger counter





KIDDSofSPEED TOWN - Chernobyl Images   from:  http://www.kiddofspeed.com/chapter18.html
« Last Edit: 22/04/2007 09:40:39 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #415 on: 01/02/2007 04:35:18 »
Hydrogen peroxide

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #416 on: 01/02/2007 14:30:39 »
« Last Edit: 22/04/2007 09:49:29 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #417 on: 02/02/2007 16:56:03 »
Jacob,Mary Phelps

Inventor of the Bra:


The first modern brassiere to receive a patent was one invented by a New York socialite named Mary Phelps Jacob in 1913. Mary had just purchased a sheer evening gown for one of her social events. At that time, the only acceptable undergarment was a corset stiffened with whaleback bones. Mary found that the whalebones poked out visible around the plunging neckline and under the sheer fabric. Two silk handkerchiefs and some pink ribbon later, Mary had designed an alternative to the corset. The corset's reign was starting to topple.

An unhealthy and painful device designed to narrow an adult women's waist to 13, 12, 11 and even 10 or less inches, the corset is attributed to Catherine de Médicis, wife of King Henri II of France. She enforced a ban on thick waists at court attendance's (1550's) and started over 350 years of whalebones, steel rods and midriff torture.

Mary Phelps Jacob's new undergarment complimented the new fashions introduced at the time and demands from friends and family were high for the new brassiere. On November 3, 1914, a patent for the 'Backless Brassiere' issued. Caresse Crosby was the business name Jacob used for her brassiere production. Running a business was not enjoyable to Jacob and she soon sold the brassiere patent to the Warner Brothers Corset Company in Bridgeport, Connecticut, for $1,500. Warner (the bra-makers, not the movie-makers) made over fifteen million dollars from the bra patent over the next thirty years.

Mary Phelps Jacob was the first to patent an undergarment named 'Brassiere' derived from the old French word for 'upper arm'. Her patent was for a device that was lightweight, soft and separated the breasts naturally.

Other points in the history of the brassiere worth mentioning:

  # In 1875, manufacturers George Frost and George Phelps patented the 'Union Under-Flannel', a no bones, no eyelets, and no laces or pulleys under-outfit.
  # In 1893, a woman named Marie Tucek patented the 'breast supporter’; the device included separate pockets for the breasts and straps that went over the shoulder, fastened by hook-and-eye closures.
  # In 1889, corset-maker Herminie Cadolle invented the 'Well-Being' or 'Bien-ętre', a bra-like device sold as a health aid. The corset's support for the breasts squeezed up from below. Cadolle changed breast support to the shoulders down.
  # World War I dealt the corset a fatal blow when the U.S. War Industries Board called on women to stop buying corsets in 1917.  It freed up some 28,000 tons of metal!
  # In 1928, a Russian immigrant named Ida Rosenthal founded Maidenform. Ida was responsible for grouping women into bust-size categories (cup sizes).
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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #418 on: 02/02/2007 17:46:58 »
Keratoachantoma



Case Report:

Spontaneous regression of keratoacanthoma
can be promoted by topical treatment with imiquimod cream

V. Di Lernia, C Ricci, G Albertini
Unitŕ Operativa di Dermatologia, via Risorgimento 80, 42100 Reggio Emilia, Italy,

ABSTRACT
Imiquimod, the first member of a new class of immune response modifiers, is approved for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts. Recently, many clinical trials highlighted the potential of imiquimod as a treatment for other viral infections and cutaneous neoplasms. We report two cases of facial keratoacanthomas (KA) treated with topical 5% imiquimod cream. Patients were successfully cleared of KAs after treatment for 8 weeks.
No recurrence occurred after a 1-year follow-up. Despite the fact that KAs are characterized by the potential for spontaneous regression, it is possible that a faster activation of CD4+ lymphocytes, via interferon release and cytokine secretion takes place after imiquimod application leading to KA regression.

J.Eur.Acad.Dermatol.Venereol. 2004;18(5),626.


from:   http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2004.01025.x?cookieSet=1&journalCode=jdv


« Last Edit: 22/04/2007 09:49:59 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #419 on: 03/02/2007 02:40:12 »
Lilienfeld ,Julius Edgar


Julius Edgar Lilienfeld (1881 – 1963) was born in Lwow (German: Lemberg, Ukrainian: Lviv) in Austro-Hungarian occupied Poland and emigrated to the USA in 1927.

Among other things, he invented the transistor and the electrolytic capacitor in the 1920s. He filed several patents describing the construction and operation of transistors. Although the devices described in his patents should theoretically work, there is no evidence that they actually did. Despite that, the patents describe many features of modern transistors. When the inventors of the first practical transistor, Brattain, Bardeen and Shockley tried to get a patent on their device, most of their claims were rejected due to the Lilienfeld patents.

Some of his patents:

    * US1745175 (describing a device similar to a MESFET)
    * US1900018 (A thin film MOSFET.)
    * US1877140 (A solid state device where the current flow is controlled by a porous metal layer, a solid state version of the vacuum tube.)
    * US2013564 (The electrolytic capacitor)
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #420 on: 03/02/2007 02:59:53 »
Magnetic Therapy

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #421 on: 03/02/2007 22:14:07 »
Nystatin

Rachel Fuller Brown and Elizabeth Lee Hazen invented the worlds first useful antifungal antibiotic - nystatin.
   
 


As researchers for the New York Department of Health, Elizabeth Lee Hazen and Rachel Fuller Brown combined their efforts to develop the anti-fungal antibiotic drug nystatin. The drug, patented in 1957 was used to cure many disfiguring, disabling fungal infections as well as to balance the effect of many antibacterial drugs. In addition to human ailments, the drug has been used to treat such problems as Dutch Elm’s disease and to restore water-damaged artwork from the effects of mold.

The two scientists donated the royalties from their invention, over $13 million dollars, to the nonprofit Research Corporation for the advancement of academic scientific study. Elizabeth Lee Hazen and Rachel Fuller Brown were inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1994.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #422 on: 03/02/2007 22:56:04 »
Obsessional neurosis = A psychoneurosis characterized by compulsive ideas or irresistible urges and often manifested in the ritualistic performance  of certain acts.
« Last Edit: 04/02/2007 00:06:05 by Karen W. »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #423 on: 04/02/2007 22:34:00 »
PAPERCLIP


The fastening of papers has been historical referenced to as early as the 13th century, when people put ribbon through parallel incisions in the upper left hand corner of pages. Later people started to wax the ribbons to make them stronger and easier to undo and redo. This was the way people clipped papers together for the next six hundred years.

In 1835, a New York physician named John Ireland Howe invented a machine for mass producing straight pins. Straight pins then became a popular way to fasten papers together, although they were not originally designed for that purpose. Straight pins were designed to be used in sewing and tailoring, to temporally fasten cloth together.

Johan Vaaler patentJohan Vaaler, a Norwegian inventor with a degree in electronics, science and mathematics, invented the paperclip in 1899. He received a patent for his design from Germany in 1899, since Norway had no patent laws at that time. Johan Vaaler was an employee at a local invention office when he invented the paperclip. He received an American patent in 1901 -- patent abstract  "It consists of forming same of a spring material, such as a piece of wire, that is bent to a rectangular, triangular, or otherwise shaped hoop, the end parts of which wire piece form members or tongues lying side by side in contrary directions." Johan Vaaler was the first person to patent a paperclip design, although other unpatented designs might have existed first.

American inventor, Cornelius J. Brosnan filed for an American patent for a paperclip in 1900. He called his invention the "Konaclip".

William Middlebrook patented a machine for making Gem paper clipsBut it was a company called the Gem Manufacturing Ltd. of England who first designed the double oval shaped standard looking paperclip. This familiar and famous paperclip, was and still is referred to as the "Gem" clip. William Middlebrook, of Waterbury, Connecticut, patented a machine for making paper clips of the Gem design in 1899. The Gem paperclip was never patented.

People have been re-inventing the paperclip over and over again. The designs that have been the most successful are the "Gem" with it's double oval shape, the "Non-Skid" which held in place well, the "Ideal" used for thick wads of paper, and the "Owl" the paperclip that did not get tangled up with other paperclips.

note: During World War II, Norwegians were prohibited from wearing any buttons with the likeness or initials of their king on them. In protest they started wearing paperclips, because paperclips were a Norwegian invention whose original function was to bind together. This was a protest against the Nazi occupation and wearing a paperclip could have gotten you arrested.


[attachment=179]

[attachment=180]

[attachment=181]



patent drawings from USPTO
photo: www.freeimages.co.uk
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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #424 on: 05/02/2007 18:15:22 »
Q)uinghaosu  (Artemisinin)



Annual erect plant up to 2m tall. Leaves 2-3 pinnatisect or decompound, serrate or lobulate. Inflorescence panicle (compound raceme) with capitulum. The capitula are inoonspicuous hemispherical, pendulous. Achenes surface has longitudinal striations and lack pappus. Parts used : Aerial parts /Artemisinin Major constituents : One of the economically important constituents of the plant is the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. The other main constituents are artemisitene, arteannuin B and artemisinic acid.
Uses : The compound artemisinin has been found to be effective for the treatment of chloroquin resistant malaria and cerebral malaria.
Two semi-synthetic derivatives of artemisinin namely arteehter and artesunate have been found to be more effective than artemisinin in the clinical trails. The palnt yield essential oil after st4am distillation of fresh herbage which is widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and flavouring industries.

from:     http://presidentofindia.nic.in/herbal.html




Artemisinin: Malaria's Magic Bullet?


"Years of vaccine research have produced few hopeful candidates and although scientists are redoubling the search, an effective vaccine is at best years away. Science still has no magic bullet for malaria and many doubt that such a single solution will ever exist."

- Statistics Division of the United Nations (January, 2002)


...In May 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) gave the thumbs up to the miracle drug of malaria, Artemisinin. This Chinese herbal remedy has been recognized as a 97% effective in curing Falciparum malaria and is now due to be distributed globally, especially to Africa where one child dies from malaria every 30 seconds.
Apparently reacting to a conclusive report in the medical magazine, The Lancet the WHO (in co-ordination with the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria) authorized the purchase and distribution of one million doses of Artemisinin and the cancellation of orders for other ineffective medications.

The Killer
Alongside tuberculosis (TB) and AIDS, malaria is the most deadly disease on the planet with over 300 million persons directly infected every year. Although over 70% of deaths occur in Africa alone, almost half of the world's population lives in tropical or sub-tropical regions and is therefore at risk.
...

4further reading, click here:   http://www.cpamedia.com/history/malaria_miracle_drug/


« Last Edit: 22/04/2007 09:50:50 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #425 on: 05/02/2007 21:58:02 »
Jacob Rabinow


Jacob Rabinow (1910 - 1999) was an engineer who led a truly prolific career as an inventor. He earned a total of 230 U.S. patents on a variety of mechanical, optical and electrical devices.

Rabinow was born in Kharkov, Ukraine, in 1910. In 1919, his family moved to China, then in 1921 to the United States. He graduated from the City College of New York with a Bachelor's Degree in Engineering in 1933, and a Master's Degree in Electrical Engineering in 1934. His career as an inventor began when he was hired as a mechanical engineer in 1938 by the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, or NIST). He made many developments there, mainly in defense systems, and eventually became Chief of the Electro-Mechanical Ordnance Division at NBS before leaving in 1954 to form his own company.

During this time, Rabinow invented and patented a number of revolutionary devices. Among them are the first disc-shaped magnetic storage media for computers (1954), the magnetic particle clutch (1956), the first straight-line phonograph (1959), the first self-regulating clock (1960) and his famous "reading machine" (1960) which was the first to use the "best match" principle and was the basis for the reading, sorting and processing machines used today by banks and post offices.

In 1964, Rabinow's company joined Control Data Corporation (CDC), and until 1972 he was Vice President of CDC and head of the Rabinow Advanced Development Laboratory. In 1968 Rabinow formed the RABCO company to manufacture straight-line phonographs, and the company was later bought out by Harman-Kardon Corporation. In 1972 he returned to NBS where he was Chief Research Engineer until his retirement in 1989.

In addition to his patents, Jacob Rabinow was awarded many other merits for his scientific achievements. Among them are the President's Certificate of Merit (1948), the Industrial R&D Scientist of the Year Award (1960), the IEEE's Harry Diamond Award (1977), and the Lemelson-MIT Lifetime Achievement Award (1998). He published his book, Inventing for Fun and Profit, in 1989. He also delivered many speeches and lectures on inventions and technology, as a guest at many educational institutions and on several television and radio shows.

Rabinow was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2005.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #426 on: 05/02/2007 22:23:25 »
Stenosis

A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure. It is also sometimes called a "stricture" (as in urethral stricture).

Stenoses of the vascular type are often associated with a noise (bruit) resulting from turbulent flow over the narrowed blood vessel. This bruit can be made audible by a stethoscope. Other, more reliable methods of diagnosing a stenosis are imaging methods including ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Magnetic Resonance Angiography, Computed Tomography/CT-Angiography which display anatomic imaging (i.e. the visible narrowing of a vessel) and/or flow phenomena (signs of the movement of the bodily fluid through the bodily structure).
« Last Edit: 06/02/2007 03:12:09 by neilep »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #428 on: 06/02/2007 03:09:06 »
Umbrella


An umbrella is a collapsible canopy that protects a person from rain or sun. They can be made by stretching a fabric or other material over a wire frame and have a handle for carrying or securing in a base. The person is kept dry by the fabric which is usually waterproof and water rolls off the sides.

An umbrella made for protection from the sun is called a parasol. These are often meant to be fixed to one point and often used with patio tables or other outdoor furniture, or on the beach for shelter from the sun. However parasols can also be hand held devices.

The word umbrella is from the Latin word umbra for shade or shadow. Brolly is a slang word for umbrella, used often in Britain and Australia.


[attachment=190]
« Last Edit: 06/02/2007 03:11:18 by neilep »
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #429 on: 06/02/2007 04:44:47 »
Velocity= The rate of change of position with time, both in terms of speed and direction.

Thank you Neil,I was slipping..

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #431 on: 06/02/2007 11:21:49 »
xenograft =  A graft of skin, bone,etc,from an individual of another species.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #432 on: 06/02/2007 11:53:46 »
Yam Modem

http://www.nordlink.org/yam/y110bcss.jpg


Welcome to the YAM modem WWW server.
This site provides information about the YAM modem for packet radio.
 Born in the Summer 1997 as a 9600 bps G3RUH compatible modem, the YAM is a multi-standard modem capable of AFSK 1200 bps and Manchester-FSK 2400 bps operations.
The YAM modem integrates all the functions of a packet radio modem and parts of those of implemented in a TNC using only three integrated circuits and interfaces directly to a PC serial port from which it is also powered.
The YAM introduces a substantial new in the arena of packet radio modems and is based on a FPGA (Xilinx's Xc5202) which includes a large amount of logice resources allowing a reduced components count and a more compact form factor.

from:   http://www.nordlink.org/yam/yam-e.htm

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« Reply #433 on: 06/02/2007 16:43:09 »
Frank Zamboni


Frank Joseph Zamboni, Jr. (January 16, 1901 – July 27, 1988) was a U.S. inventor whose most famous invention was the Zamboni machine for resurfacing ice rinks.

He was born in Eureka, Utah to Italian immigrants. His parents soon bought a farm near Pocatello, Idaho, where he grew up. In 1920, he moved with his parents to the harbor district of Los Angeles, where his older brother George was operating an auto repair business. After attending a trade school in Chicago, he and his younger brother Lawrence opened an electrical supply business in 1922 in the Los Angeles suburb of Hynes (now part of Paramount). The following year, he married, and eventually had three children. In 1927, he and Lawrence added an ice-making plant and entered the block ice business. They sold their block ice business in 1939, seeing little future in that business with the recent advent of electrically operated refrigeration units. However, they kept their refrigeration equipment because they planned to open an ice rink nearby.

In 1940, the brothers, along with a cousin, opened the Iceland rink, which proved very popular, in no small part because Frank had devised a way to eliminate rippling caused by the pipes that were laid down to keep the rink frozen. (The rink still operates, and is still owned by the Zamboni family.) He obtained a patent for that innovation in 1946. Then, in 1948, he invented a machine that transformed the job of resurfacing an ice rink from a three-man, 90-minute task to a one-man, 10-minute job. In 1949, he applied for a patent, and set up Frank J. Zamboni & Co. in Paramount to build and sell the machines. He obtained his patent in 1953. Demand for the machine proved great enough that his company added a second plant in Brantford, Ontario and a branch office in Switzerland. Though the term Zamboni was (and remains) trademarked by his company, the name is now commonly used for any brand of ice resurfacing machine.

In the 1970s, he invented machines to remove water from outdoor artificial turf surfaces, remove paint stripes from the same surfaces, and roll up and lay down artificial turf in domed stadiums. His final invention, in 1983, was an automatic edger to remove ice buildup from the edges of rinks.

He died of lung cancer in 1988, about two months after his wife's death. The Zamboni company, which has sold over 7000 of its signature machines in its history, is still owned and operated by the Zamboni family, currently by Frank's son and grandson.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #434 on: 06/02/2007 17:21:17 »
 ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL

First British long distance calls (1878) : a royal introduction
Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated his telephone to Queen Victoria on January 14, 1878, at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. During the demonstration Bell made calls to London, Cowes and Southampton. These were the first publicly witnessed long-distance calls in the UK.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #435 on: 06/02/2007 22:03:46 »
Barcode

[attachment=192]



What is bar code? It is method of automatic identification and data collection. The first patent for a bar code type product (US Patent #2,612,994) was issued to inventors Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver on October 7, 1952. The Woodland and Silver bar code can be described as a "bull's eye" symbol, made up of a series of concentric circles.

Examine the 1958 patent drawing to the left that depicts the Woodland's and Silver's bar code label and the 1958 patent drawing below right of the inventors' bar code scanner technology. The photo below left is an example of today's U.P.C. bar code on a product package.

In 1948, Bernard Silver was a graduate student at Drexel Institute of Technology in Philadelphia. A local food chain store owner had made an inquiry to the Drexel Institute asking about research into a method of automatically reading  product information during checkout. Bernard Silver joined together with fellow graduate student Norman Joseph Woodland to work on a solution.

Woodland's first idea was to use ultraviolet light sensitive ink. The team built a working prototype but decided that the system was too unstable and expensive. They went back to the drawing board.

On October 20, 1949, Woodland and Silver filed their patent application for the "Classifying Apparatus and Method", describing their invention as "article classification...through the medium of identifying patterns".

Bar code was first used commercially in 1966, however, it was soon realized that there would have to be some sort of industry standard set. By 1970, the Universal Grocery Products Identification Code or UGPIC was written by a company called Logicon Inc. The first company to produce bar code equipment for retail trade use (using UGPIC) was the American company Monarch Marking in 1970, and for industrial use, the British company Plessey Telecommunications was also first in 1970. UGPIC evolved into the U.P.C. symbol set  or Universal Product Code, which is still used in the United States. George J. Laurer is considered the inventor of U.P.C. or Uniform Product Code, which was invented in 1973.

In June of 1974, the first U.P.C. scanner was installed at a Marsh's supermarket in Troy, Ohio. The first product to have a bar code included was a packet of Wrigley's Gum
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #436 on: 06/02/2007 22:16:26 »
Crystal
Methamphetamine
Fast Facts: http://www.meth-addiction.com/meth-addiction-information.html


Crystal methamphetamine is a colorless, odorless form of d-methamphetamine, a powerful and highly addictive synthetic (man-made) stimulant. Crystal methamphetamine typically resembles small fragments of glass or shiny blue-white "rocks" of various sizes. Like powdered methamphetamine (another form of d-methamphetamine), crystal methamphetamine is abused because of the long-lasting euphoric effects it produces. Crystal methamphetamine, however, typically has a higher purity level and may produce even longer-lasting and more intense physiological effects than the powdered form of the drug.


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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #437 on: 06/02/2007 23:33:12 »
Dermatoglyphics   (Fingerprints)

« Last Edit: 15/05/2007 22:02:13 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #438 on: 07/02/2007 00:35:25 »
Epstein-Barr virus


The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called Human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is a virus of the herpes family (which includes Herpes simplex virus and Cytomegalovirus), and is one of the most common viruses in humans. Most people become infected with EBV, which is often asymptomatic but commonly causes infectious mononucleosis. It is named after Michael Epstein and Yvonne Barr, who together with Bert Achong discovered the virus in 1964.[1]


[attachment=193]
Image:Leukemia cells that contain Epstein Barrvirus using a FA staining technique PHIL 2984 lores.jpg
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #439 on: 07/02/2007 01:30:10 »
Fossil

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #440 on: 07/02/2007 02:49:56 »
G is for GRAVITY - cant be bothered explaining it but then who doesnt know what it is!!

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #441 on: 07/02/2007 03:25:05 »
Hydrogen Peroxide

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #442 on: 07/02/2007 21:10:34 »
« Last Edit: 15/05/2007 22:01:43 by iko »

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« Reply #443 on: 07/02/2007 21:35:25 »
Jet engine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


A jet engine is an engine that discharges a fast moving jet of fluid to generate thrust in accordance with Newton's third law of motion. This broad definition of jet engines includes turbojets, turbofans, rockets and ramjets and water jets, but in common usage, the term generally refers to a gas turbine Brayton cycle engine used to produce a jet of high speed exhaust gases for special propulsive purposes. Jet engines are so familiar to the modern world that gas turbines are sometimes mistakenly referred to as a particular application of a jet engine, rather than the other way around.

[attachment=195]
A Pratt & Whitney F100 turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins
Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and
allows exhaust to escape. The mesh cover at the front of the engine (left of photo)
prevents foreign objects (including people) from being pulled into the engine by the
 huge volume of air rushing into the inlet.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #444 on: 07/02/2007 22:47:09 »
Karman Theodore von


Theodore von Kármán (1881–1963).



Professor of Aeronautics 1930–1949. First Director of GALCIT, 1930–1949. In 1926 von Kármán was invited to Caltech to give talks on aerodynamics, and review plans for the new wind tunnel. In 1928 he returned to Caltech for an exchange semester, and finally joined the Institute in 1929 as a research associate in aeronautics. In 1930, he was appointed professor of aeronautics and Director of GALCIT. Among his accomplishments were the first computation of drag for a supersonic projectile; application of dimensional analysis to turbulent flow, the log-law and Kármán constant for turbulent boundary layer velocity distribution (law of the wall); fundamental studies on turbulence; the discovery of the similarity law of transonic flow; and the use of stiffened panels in aircraft construction.
He spent most of his time in Washington after 1942. Stepped down as director in 1949 and became professor emeritus. In 1962, at age 81, he was awarded the first National Medal of Science, bestowed in a Whitehouse ceremony by President John F. Kennedy. On his characteristic of never declining a lecturing opportunity, he once joked "I can never pass up the opportunity to dominate the conversation for an entire hour."

from:   http://www.galcit.caltech.edu/history/index.html 




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« Reply #445 on: 07/02/2007 23:18:11 »
The laserdisc (LD) was the first commercial optical disc storage medium, and is used primarily for the presentation of movies.

During its development, the format was referred to as the "Reflective Optical Videodisc System" before MCA, who owned the patent on the technology, renamed the format Disco-Vision in 1969. By the time the format was brought to market in 1978, the hyphen had been removed from the format name, and DiscoVision became the official name. Sales of DiscoVision players & discs began on December 15, 1978 starting in Atlanta, Georgia. MCA owned the rights to the largest catalog of films in the world during this time, and they directly manufactured and distributed the discs of their movies under the "MCA DiscoVision" label. Pioneer Electronics, who entered the market in 1978 at almost exactly the time DiscoVision titles were going on sale, began manufacturing players and printing discs under the name Laser Videodisc. By 1981, Laserdisc (first in CamelCase as LaserDisc, later without the intercap) had become the common name for the format, and the DiscoVision label disappeared, becoming simply MCA or (later) MCA-Universal Laserdisc.

MCA also manufactured discs for other companies, including Paramount, Disney and Warner Brothers. Some of them added their own names onto the disc jacket in order to signify the movie was not owned by MCA. When MCA folded into Universal several years later, Universal began re-issuing many of the early DiscoVision titles as Universal discs. The DiscoVision versions had largely been available only in pan and scan and had often utilized poor transfers. The format has also been known as LV (for LaserVision, actually a player brand by Philips). The players are also sometimes referred to as VDPs (Video Disc Players).



[attachment=196]




I've got a few laser discs...me wonders if they are worth anything.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #447 on: 08/02/2007 16:38:51 »
Isaac Newton


[attachment=197]


Sir Isaac Newton, (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science.[2] His treatise Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics. By deriving Kepler's laws of planetary motion from this system, he was the first to show that the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws. The unifying and predictive power of his laws was central to the scientific revolution, the advancement of heliocentrism, and the broader acceptance of the notion that rational investigation can reveal the inner workings of nature.

In mechanics, Newton also markedly enunciated the principles of conservation of momentum and angular momentum. In optics, he invented the reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into a visible spectrum. Newton notably argued that light is composed of particles. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling, studied the speed of sound, and proposed a theory of the origin of stars. In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of calculus. He also demonstrated the generalized binomial theorem, developed the so-called "Newton's method" for approximating the zeroes of a function, and contributed to the study of power series.

French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that he was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish."[3] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph:
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« Reply #448 on: 08/02/2007 16:55:05 »
orbit = Path followed by any celestial object moving under the control of another objects gravity.

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« Reply #449 on: 08/02/2007 19:02:17 »
« Last Edit: 15/05/2007 21:59:57 by iko »