A-Z of AVIONICS

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Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #450 on: 08/02/2007 19:20:04 »
QWERTY


QWERTY (pronounced /ˈkwərti/) is the most common modern-day keyboard layout on English-language computer and typewriter keyboards. It takes its name from the first six letters seen in the keyboard's top first row of letters. The QWERTY design was patented by Christopher Sholes in 1868 and sold to Remington in 1873, when it first appeared in typewriters.


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« Last Edit: 08/02/2007 19:22:22 by neilep »
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #452 on: 08/02/2007 19:36:32 »
Satellite


(astronautics)
A spacecraft orbiting the Earth or other heavenly body. The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the USSR on 4 October 1957, and there are now more than 3000 satellites orbiting the Earth for remote sensing, military surveillance, communications, and space astronomy. Geostationary satellites orbit at 35 900 km/22 300 mi above Earth, taking 24 hours to orbit, so they appear in almost the same part of our sky at all times. They are important for communications, especially satellite television, since fixed dishes can be used at ground stations.
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Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #454 on: 12/02/2007 00:15:12 »
Umbilical cord


In placental mammals, the umbilical cord is a tube that connects a developing embryo or fetus to its placenta. It normally contains three vessels, two arteries and one vein, buried within Wharton's jelly, for the exchange of nutrient- and oxygen-rich blood between the embryo and placenta. The presence of only two vessels in the cord is sometimes related to abnormalities in the fetus, but may occur without accompanying abnormalities.




[attachment=208]
A newborn with umbilical
 cord still attached (3 minutes.)
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Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #455 on: 12/02/2007 00:24:52 »
Viagra

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Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #456 on: 12/02/2007 04:35:17 »
Watch







A watch is a small portable timepiece or clock that displays the time and sometimes the day, date, month and year. In past centuries, these often took the form of pocket watches, which today are seldom carried or worn. In modern usage, watch is usually a contraction of wristwatch, a designation for the most popular style of timekeeping device worn on the wrist.

Because most watches lack a striking mechanism, such as a bell or gong to announce the passage of time, they are properly designated as timepieces, rather than clocks.


Today, the most common type of watch is the wristwatch, worn on the wrist and fastened with a watch strap or watchband, a bracelet made of real or synthetic leather, metal, nylon, or even ceramic. Before the inexpensive miniaturization that became possible in the 20th century, most watches were pocket watches, which had covers and were carried separately, often in a pocket and attached to a watch chain or fob.

Most inexpensive and medium-priced watches used mainly for timekeeping are electronic watches with quartz movements, powered by electricity. Expensive, collectible watches valued more for their workmanship and aesthetic appeal than for simple timekeeping often have purely mechanical movements and are powered by springs, even though mechanical movements are many times less accurate than quartz movements. The most accurate watches have radio-controlled movements that are miniaturized, portable versions of radio clocks (q.v.).


[attachment=210]
A wrist watch.....Like you really needed me to tell you that !!!
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Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #457 on: 12/02/2007 06:12:01 »
Xylophone= A musical percusion instument consisting of a series of wooden bars graduated in length so as to sound the notes of the scale when struck with a small wooden hammer.

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Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #458 on: 12/02/2007 18:29:46 »
Yo-yo


A yo-yo is a toy consisting of two equally sized and weighted discs of plastic, wood, or metal, connected with an axle, around which string is wound. There is a slip knot at the free end of the string, and, on a properly strung yo-yo, an uncut loop around the axle (known as a looped slip-string) which allows it to spin freely, or "sleep" upon reaching the string's end.

It is played by tying the string's free end around the middle finger, grasping the yo-yo, and then throwing it downwards with a smooth motion. As the axle spins within the loop, a gyroscopic effect occurs, stabilizing the yo-yo on its axis and permitting time to perform a number of movements. By flicking the wrist, the yo-yo can be made to return to the player's hand, with the cord again completely wound into the groove. Generally, any movement or combination of movements which result in the return of the yo-yo to the player's hand in this fashion is considered a trick, although this is not an absolute standard.

Yo-yoing is a popular pastime around the world. Although generally associated with children, it is not uncommon for people who gain a level of proficiency at the sport in youth to continue playing into adulthood. A yo-yo player is referred to as a yo-yoer (most common), yoist, thrower, or simply as a player.


There is no conclusive documented evidence that the yo-yo is derived from, nor even existed in any form intended for use as a weapon. Generating enough force to create a fatal blow with a yo-yo would also be difficult due to the fact that as the toy is reaching the end of the string it is slowing down. This rumour was possibly started by Tom Ives, Duncan's PR man in the 1930's. There is speculation that he created the weapon myth during the 1930's fad for the publicity. Another origin may have been stories of hunters in the Philippines in the 16th century using sharp rocks with strings attached to kill prey from trees. The development of the modern yo-yo began in the Philippines at around this time, which is probably the source of the confusion.




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Do I really need to label this picture ?...Yo do know what they are don't yo ?
« Last Edit: 12/02/2007 18:32:12 by neilep »
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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #459 on: 12/02/2007 19:07:46 »
Zebra fish   (Brachydanio rerio)


Photo by Phil Jones/Medical College Of Georgia
Published in the August 2003 issue of "Popular Mechanics"


Zebra Fish Aid Deaf

Transparent zebra fish may hold the clue to restoring hearing for humans who have lost the hair cells that stimulate nerves in their auditory system.
Birth defects, disease and some drugs can trigger the loss of the hair on these specialized cells.

In zebra fish, which rely on a similar cell arrangement for balance, hair cells regenerate  [O8)]  if lost, says David J. Kozlowski, a geneticist at the Medical College of Georgia.
He hopes to identify the genes that spur regeneration in zebra fish. Replacing or reactivating hair-growth genes could make it possible to correct hearing loss and balance disorders in humans.

http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/industry/1287511.html



« Last Edit: 12/02/2007 19:16:26 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #460 on: 12/02/2007 20:32:39 »
Airbag



An airbag, also known as a Supplementary/Secondary Restraint System (SRS), an Air Cushion Restraint System (ACRS), or the Supplemental Inflatable Restraint (SIR) is a flexible membrane or envelope, inflatable to contain air or some other gas. Air bags are most commonly used for cushioning, in particular after very rapid inflation in the case of an automobile collision.


[attachment=214]
An automobile airbag, like this one
 in a crashed SEAT Ibiza car, an
airbag inflates and deflates within
 a fraction of a second (about 0.8 seconds)
.


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Since the start of 1994, Ford made
airbags standard across their entire
 range of cars sold in Europe (except
for the Maverick which was outsourced
from Nissan).


« Last Edit: 12/02/2007 20:36:35 by neilep »
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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #461 on: 12/02/2007 21:54:58 »
Barbus tetrazona
     (Sumatrabarbe)



from Dr. Reinald Hillebrand homepage:    http://www1.mpi-halle.mpg.de/~hi/

         MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT FÜR MIKROSTRUKTURPHYSIK   
« Last Edit: 12/02/2007 22:03:10 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #462 on: 12/02/2007 22:31:46 »
Carl Sagan

totally captivating, listening to him is an experience

His wikipedia entry can be found here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Sagan
« Last Edit: 12/02/2007 22:38:38 by paul.fr »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #463 on: 12/02/2007 22:42:31 »
Dialysis


In medicine, dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy which is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. It is a life support treatment and does not treat any kidney diseases. Dialysis may be used for very sick patients who have suddenly lost their kidney function (acute renal failure) or for quite stable patients who have permanently lost their kidney function (end stage renal failure). When healthy, the kidneys remove waste products (for example potassium, acid and urea) from the blood and also remove excess fluid in the form of urine. Dialysis treatments have to duplicate both of these functions as dialysis (waste removal) and ultrafiltration (fluid removal).
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Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #464 on: 13/02/2007 07:33:35 »
Electrolyte

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #465 on: 13/02/2007 17:00:47 »
Forensic science

Forensic science (often shortened to forensics) is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. This may be in relation to a crime or to a civil action. The use of the term "forensics" in place of "forensic science" could be considered incorrect; the term "forensic" is effectively a synonym for "legal" or "related to courts" (from Latin, it means "before the forum"). However, it is now so closely associated with the scientific field that many dictionaries include the meaning that equates the word "forensics" with "forensic science."

“Forensic” comes from the Latin word “forensis” meaning forum. During the time of the Romans, a criminal charge meant presenting the case before a group of public individuals. Both the person accused of the crime and the accuser would give speeches based on their side of the story. The individual with the best argumentation and delivery would determine the outcome of the case. In other words, the person with the best forensis skills would win.
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Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #466 on: 13/02/2007 17:51:31 »
Google,

(I mean the whole system setup)









« Last Edit: 13/02/2007 18:00:29 by Karen W. »

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #467 on: 13/02/2007 18:11:40 »
Huntington chorea


Huntington disease

Background: Huntington disease (HD), also known as Huntington chorea (HC), is an inherited disease characterized by choreiform movements and progressive dementia.
In adults, HD most often causes involuntary movements, but rigidity can also be a feature of the disease.
The initial diagnosis is rarely established in the emergency department, but patients with established disease may present to the ED because of worsening symptoms.

Pathophysiology: HD is inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder with complete penetrance. An HD gene has been identified with an abnormal protein product (huntingtin) that can be identified in the brain. The link between this protein and the selective loss of neuronal groups in the CNS remains to be established. HD has now been identified genetically as a trinucleotide CAG-repeat mutation on chromosome 4. The CAG repeat length may be important in determining the age of onset and the rate of disease progression.

Frequency:
In the US: Prevalence of HD in the United States is 5.15 cases per 100,000 persons.
Internationally: HD is encountered throughout the world; however, localized geographic clusters of disease exist. Countries that have been settled by western Europeans have an incidence of the disease similar to the incidence in the United States.
Mortality/Morbidity: HD is a progressive neurological disorder usually leading to death 15-20 years after onset of neurological or psychological impairment.

Race: HD is found in all ethnic groups.
Sex: Males and females are diagnosed in equal numbers.
Age:
Symptoms arising from a typical presentation of HD usually do not develop until a person is aged 35 years or older. By the time of diagnosis, many patients already have had children and have passed the gene to another generation.
As many as 10% of patients with HD have a juvenile form of the disease in which the onset of symptoms may occur when the patient is younger than 20 years.
Muscular rigidity is more common with juvenile-onset illness.
...


read more clicking here:    http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic254.htm
...less 'medical' language here:    http://www.answers.com/topic/huntington-s-disease
« Last Edit: 13/02/2007 18:27:46 by iko »

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Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #468 on: 14/02/2007 00:12:45 »
Intravenous Catheter

In medicine, a catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity duct or vessel. Catheters thereby allow drainage or injection of fluids or access by surgical instruments. The process of inserting a catheter is catheterization. In most uses a catheter is a thin, flexible tube: a "soft" catheter; in some uses, it is a larger, solid tube: a "hard" catheter.

The ancient Egyptians are reported to have fashioned catheters from papyrus, and the ancient Greeks from reeds. A flexible urinary catheter was invented by Benjamin Franklin for use by his brother.

Placement of a catheter into a particular part of the body may allow:

    * draining urine from the urinary bladder as in urinary catheterization, e.g., the Foley catheter or even when the urethra is damaged as in suprapubic catheterisation.
    * drainage of fluid collections, e.g. an abdominal abscess
    * administration of intravenous fluids, medication or parenteral nutrition
    * angioplasty, angiography, balloon septostomy, balloon sinuplasty
    * direct measurement of blood pressure in an artery or vein
    * direct measurement of intracranial pressure
    * administration of anaesthetic medication into the epidural space, the subarachnoid space, or around a major nerve bundle such as the brachial plexus

A central venous catheter is a conduit for giving drugs or fluids into a large-bore catheter positioned either in a vein near the heart or just inside the atrium. A Swan-Ganz catheter is a special type of catheter placed into the pulmonary artery for measuring pressures in the heart.
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Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #470 on: 15/02/2007 03:46:31 »
Kevlar








Kevlar is the DuPont Company's brand name for the particularly light but very strong synthetic fibre. Created in DuPont's labs in 1965 by Stephanie Kwolek, Herbert Blades, and Phil Thier, Kevlar was first used commercially in the early 1970s. It can be spun into ropes or sheets of fabric that can either be used as-is, or used in the construction of composite components. Kevlar is now used in a wide range of applications, from bicycles to body armor, due to its high strength-to-weight ratio (see Tensile strength), "...5 times stronger than steel on an equal weight basis...".[1] It is a member of the Aramid family of synthetic fibres and similar to Twaron from Teijin.


[attachment=224]
Chemical structure of Kevlar. Bold: monomer unit; dashed: hydrogen bonds.



Properties


When Kevlar is spun in the same way that a spider spins a web, the resulting fiber has tremendous strength, and is heat- and cut-resistant. The fibers do not rust or corrode. When woven together, they form a good material for mooring lines and other underwater objects.

There are three common grades of Kevlar: Kevlar, Kevlar 29, and Kevlar 49. Kevlar is typically used as reinforcements in tires and other rubber mechanical goods. Kevlar 29 is used in industrial applications such as cables, asbestos replacement, brake linings, and body armor. Kevlar 49 is considered to have the greatest tensile strength of all the aramids, and is used in applications such as plastic reinforcement for boat hulls, airplanes, and bikes.

Kevlar is susceptible to breakdown from ultraviolet light (such as sunlight) and hence is almost never used unprotected or unsheathed.
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Offline JimBob

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #471 on: 15/02/2007 04:34:01 »
Love

Has nothing to do with science but it is St. Valentine's day in the US

The mind is like a parachute. It works best when open.  -- A. Einstein

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #472 on: 15/02/2007 05:27:29 »
 Migraines

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #473 on: 15/02/2007 15:07:44 »
Nano



- is a prefix (symbol n) in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10−9. It is often used in prefixing time and length units encountered in electronics and computer systems, like 30 nanoseconds (symbol ns) and 100 nanometres (nm). It was confirmed in 1960 and comes from the Greek νᾶνος, meaning dwarf.
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Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #474 on: 15/02/2007 16:29:21 »
Ovule = A small egg or seed,especially one in a early stage of development.

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #475 on: 15/02/2007 18:11:07 »
Pneumocystis carinii


Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

Background: Pneumocystis jiroveci, previously known as Pneumocystis carinii, is the organism responsible for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP); the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients.
As our understanding of the Pneumocystis genus has grown, the name was changed to specify Pneumocystis, which is isolated in humans. The abbreviation PCP is still used to designate Pneumocystis pneumonia. Pneumocystis is a genus of unicellular fungi found in the respiratory tracts of many mammals and humans. Distinct genomic variability exists between host-specific members of the genus. The organism was first described in 1909 by Chagas then a few years later by Delanöes who ultimately named the organism in honor of Dr. Carini after isolating it from infected rats. Years later, Dr Otto Jirovec and his group isolated the organism from humans, and it is after him that the organism responsible for PCP pneumonia was renamed.

Pneumocystis first came to attention when it was found to cause interstitial pneumonia in Central and Eastern Europe during World War II in severely malnourished and premature infants. Prior to the 1980s, fewer than 100 cases of PCP occurred per year in the United States, occurring in immunosuppressed patients such as cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and solid organ transplant recipients on immunosuppressive agents. In 1981, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported the occurrence of PCP in 5 previously healthy homosexual males residing in the Los Angeles area. Pneumocystis jiroveci is now one of several organisms known to cause life-threatening opportunistic infections in patients with advanced HIV infection worldwide.

Microbiology
The taxonomic classification of the Pneumocystis genus was debated for some time. It was initially mistaken as a trypanosome then later as a protozoan. In the 1980s, biochemical analysis of the nucleic acid composition of Pneumocystis rRNA and mitochondrial DNA identified the organism as a unicellular fungus rather than a protozoa. Subsequent genomic sequence analysis of multiple genes including elongation factor 3, a component of fungi protein synthesis not found in protozoa, further supported this notion. The organism is found in 3 distinct morphologic stages. The trophozoite or trophic form, where it often exists in clusters; the sporozoite, which is a precystic form; and finally, the cyst, which contains several intracystic bodies also known as spores.
...

much more from emedicine:     http://www.emedicine.com/MED/topic1850.htm

   
 

« Last Edit: 20/02/2007 18:18:35 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #476 on: 15/02/2007 20:54:41 »
Quince



The Quince Cydonia oblonga is the sole member of the genus Cydonia and native to warm-temperate southwest Asia in the Caucasus region. It is a small deciduous tree, growing 5-8 m tall and 4-6 m wide, related to apples and pears, and like them has a pome fruit, which is bright golden yellow when mature, pear-shaped, 7-12 cm long and 6-9 cm broad.

The immature fruit is green, with dense grey-white pubescence which mostly (but not all) rubs off before maturity in late autumn when the fruit changes colour to yellow with hard flesh that is strongly perfumed. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple, 6-11 cm long, with an entire margin and densely pubescent with fine white hairs. The flowers, produced in spring after the leaves, are white or pink, 5 cm across, with five petals.

Quince is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Brown-tail, Bucculatrix bechsteinella, Bucculatrix pomifoliella, Coleophora cerasivorella, Coleophora malivorella, Green Pug and Winter Moth.

Four other species previously included in the genus Cydonia are now treated in separate genera. These are the Chinese Quince Pseudocydonia sinensis, a native of China, and the three flowering quinces of eastern Asia in the genus Chaenomeles. Another unrelated fruit, the Bael, is sometimes called the "Bengal Quince".


[attachment=227]
Cydonia oblonga flowers




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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #477 on: 16/02/2007 06:56:15 »
Radar

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #479 on: 16/02/2007 18:25:56 »
Thorn or Spine (botany)


Spines are the ends of branches or leafs, that have been modified into rounded, hard structures with sharp ends. They are often also called thorns, which are reduced, sharp pointed stems.

Spines are used by plants to protect themselves from herbivores. Some plants with spines and animals that feed on them, have co-evolved in response to each other, with some plants having very long spines and the animals that feed on those species having long tongues to reach past the spines to feed on the leaves.

The spines of different cactus and Fouquieria are leafs that have been completely transformed. In Black Locust the spines are modified stipules. The sharp Long thorns of the hawthorn, the needles of a cactus, and the prickles of a shrub like the rose are all spines. Although spines generally serve as a passive defense mechanism, in some species they can be hollow and contain poisonous substances that cause lasting pain or even paralysis, and in others, may be barbed and detach readily, sticking to whatever brushes against them.

Plant spines and thorns

Botanists use several terms somewhat loosely when referring to spine- or needle-like structures on plants; however, the following differences are typically distinguished:

    * Prickle – a sharp outgrowth from the epidermis, also called an emergence and usually involving some subdermal tissue as well; see also hair.
    * Spine – a modified stipule or sharp branchlet found in a leaf axil or on the margin of a leaf.
    * Thorn – Sharp outgrowth from a stem other than at a node; a modified stem.
    * The seta (bristle) is a similar plant structure.

There are a number of different terms used to describe spines and plants with spines:

    * Spinescent - Meaning spiny or tapering like a spine.
    * Spinicarpous - Having spiny fruit.
    * Spiniferous - Bearing thorns.
    * Spiniform - Like a spine or thorn.
    * Spiniger - Producing spines or thorns.
    * Spinose - Spiny.
    * Spinule - A very small spine or prickle.
    * Spinulose - Having small spines or thorns.

Thorns and prickles, most notably those on roses, are common literary symbols for the hidden dangers or woes of something beautiful or pleasant, as in "Every rose has its thorn". Roses lack true thorns since their prickles emerge from the epidermis rather than the pericycle. Growth from the pericycle would make it a modified stem and therefore a thorn. Some roses have been bred not to have prickles.


[attachment=230]

[attachment=231]
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« Reply #481 on: 17/02/2007 15:00:52 »
Varicose veins are veins that have become enlarged and twisted. The term commonly refers to the veins on the leg, although varicose veins occur elsewhere. Veins have leaflet valves to prevent blood from flowing backwards (retrograde). Leg muscles pump the veins to return blood to the heart. When veins become enlarged, the leaflets of the valves no longer meet properly, and the valves don't work. The blood collects in the veins and they enlarge even more. Varicose veins are common in the superficial veins of the legs, which are subject to high pressure when standing. Besides cosmetic problems, varicose veins are often painful, especially when standing or walking. They often itch, and scratching them can cause ulcers. Serious complications are rare. Non-surgical treatments include elastic stockings, elevating the legs, and exercise. The standard surgical treatment is vein stripping to remove the affected veins. Newer surgical treatments are less invasive but have not been tested as thoroughly. Since most of the blood in the legs is returned by the deep veins, and the superficial veins only return about 10%, they can be removed without serious harm.[1][2] Varicose veins are distinguished from telangiectasias and spider veins, which have similar symptoms and treatment, but do not involve valvular insufficiency.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #483 on: 17/02/2007 17:16:44 »
Xanthoma = A small tumor,esp of the skin,formed by a deposit of lipids, often in a soft rounded, yellowish mass

(new world Dictionary of the american language ,second college Edition, Simon and Shuster) delux color edition

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Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #484 on: 17/02/2007 18:01:30 »
Yucca
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The yuccas comprise the genus Yucca of 40-50 species of perennials, shrubs, and trees in the agave family Agavaceae, notable for their rosettes of evergreen, tough, sword-shaped leaves and large terminal clusters of white or whitish flowers. They are native to the hot and dry parts of North America, Central America, and the West Indies.


Yuccas have a very specialized pollination system, being pollinated by the yucca moth; the insect purposefully transfers the pollen from the stamens of one plant to the stigma of another, and at the same time lays an egg in the flower; the moth larva then eats some of the developing seeds, but far from all.

Yuccas are widely grown as ornamental plants in gardens. Many yuccas also bear edible parts, including fruits, seeds, flowers, flowering stems, and more rarely roots, but use of these is sufficiently limited that references to yucca as food more often than not stem from confusion with the similarly spelled but botanically unrelated yuca.

The "yucca flower" is the state flower of New Mexico. No species name is given in the citation.





[attachment=232]

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Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #485 on: 17/02/2007 18:07:08 »
Zincography = The art or process of engraving or etching on zinc plates for printing

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #487 on: 18/02/2007 17:54:34 »
Ballpoint pen
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


A ballpoint pen (also eponymously known in British English as a biro and pronounced bye-row in Britain but sometimes bee-row elsewhere), is a modern writing instrument. A ballpoint pen has an internal chamber filled with a viscous ink that is dispensed at the tip during use by the rolling action of a small metal sphere (0.7 mm to 1.2 mm in diameter); the ink dries almost immediately after contact with paper. Inexpensive, reliable and maintenance-free, the ballpoint has almost completely replaced the fountain pen in everyday


[attachment=242]
Ballpoint pen, disassembled
(top) and complete (bottom)


[attachment=243]
An authentic
"birome", made
in Argentina by
 Biro & Meyne


[attachment=244]
The tip of a common d
isposable ballpoint pen.
 The ball, with blue ink
on it, can be seen. The
white scalebar is 1mm long.

[attachment=245]
Ballpoint pen rolling
 over a paper surface,
 leaving behind a trail
 of ink.


« Last Edit: 18/02/2007 17:58:19 by neilep »
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paul.fr

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #489 on: 18/02/2007 19:33:53 »
Diode

Semiconductor electronic component. Ideally, a diode conducts electricity in one direction and does not allow the current to flow in the opposite direction. Thanks to this property diodes are used to rectify alternating currents, i.e., to convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC).




« Last Edit: 18/02/2007 19:36:21 by paul.fr »

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paul.fr

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #490 on: 18/02/2007 19:42:26 »
Electromagnetic radiation



Electromagnetic radiation, or light, can be considered to be composed of particles (photons) or waves. Its properties depend on its wavelength: longer waves are less energetic than shorter waves - photons with long wavelength have less energy than short-wavelength photons. Electromagnetic radiation is usually described as bands of radiation of similar wavelength, e.g., infrared, radio waves, microwaves, gamma rays, X-rays... (These bands of radiation roughly correspond to the range of wavelengths which can be detected by different instruments.) Only a small fraction of the entire range of electromagnetic radiation can be detected by the human eye: visible light, or what in everyday-life is referred to simply as light. The human eye cannot detect wavelengths longer than those of the visible light, such as those of infrared light, microwaves (wavelengths of centimetres), or radio waves (wavelengths of metres). Wavelengths shorter than visible light cannot be seen either: ultraviolet light, X-rays, gamma rays (the most energetic). Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of wavelength (L), measured in metres (m), or frequency (f), measured in hertz (Hz). The relationship between these two is given by: f = L/c where c= speed of light.


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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #491 on: 18/02/2007 21:06:47 »
FET  (Field Effect Transistor)


Field effect transistor


Large power N-channel field effect transistorThe field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that relies on an electric field to control the shape and hence the conductivity of a 'channel' in a semiconductor material. FETs are sometimes used as voltage-controlled resistors. The concepts related to the field effect transistor predated those of the bipolar junction transistor (BJT). Nevertheless, FETs were implemented only after BJTs due to the simplicity of manufacturing BJTs over FETs at the time.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_effect_transistor 



« Last Edit: 18/02/2007 21:19:00 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #492 on: 18/02/2007 21:37:31 »
Gram
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The gram or gramme (Greek/Latin root grámma); symbol g, is a unit of mass.

Originally defined as "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of a meter, and at the temperature of melting ice"[1] (later 4 °C), a gram is now defined as one one-thousandth of the SI base unit, the kilogram, or 1×10−3 kg, which itself is defined as being equal to the mass of a physical prototype preserved by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures.


[attachment=246]

BIC pen cap, about 1 gram.
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paul.fr

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #493 on: 19/02/2007 19:19:15 »
Hubble

From the Europen Space Agencys' Website

About Hubble
History: How Hubble Came About
The Earth's atmosphere is the bane of astronomers. The idea of sending a telescope into space to avoid it was first proposed long before the first satellites were launched, long before anyone even dreamt of sending astronauts to space.


German rocket scientist Herman Oberth was a pioneering thinker of his time and suggested a space bound telescope as early as 1923 in his book "Die Rakete zu den Planeträumen". A space telescope avoids frustrating problems such as cloudy and misty observing nights, the twinkling of stars even on clear nights and absorption of the ultraviolet and infrared parts of the spectrum.

It took many years before technology caught up with Oberth's idea. The American Lyman Spitzer proposed a more realistic plan for a space telescope in 1946 and lobbied for his idea for almost 30 years. In the 1970s NASA and the European Space Agency took up the idea and proposed a 3 metre space telescope. Funding began to flow in 1977 and it was decided to name the telescope after Edwin Powell Hubble who had discovered the expansion of the Universe in the 1920s. Although the Hubble Space Telescope was down-sized to 2.4 metres the project started to attract significant attention from astronomers.

The precision-ground mirror was finished in 1981 and the assembly of the entire spacecraft was completed in 1985. The plan called for a launch on NASA's Space Shuttle in 1986, but just months before the scheduled launch the Challenger disaster caused a year long delay of the entire Shuttle programme. Hubble was finally launched in 1990 and the tension built up as astronomers examined the first images through Hubble's eyes.

As in all good adventures, success does not come easily: it did not take more than two months to realise that Hubble's mirror had a serious flaw. A focusing defect prevented Hubble from taking sharp images - the mirror edge was too flat by a mere fiftieth of the width of a human hair. Over the next months scientists and engineers from NASA and ESA worked together and came up with a superb corrective optics package that would restore Hubble's eyesight completely.

A crew of astronauts carried out the repairs necessary to restore the telescope to its intended level of performance during the first Hubble Servicing Mission (SM1) in December 1993. Although the two subsequent servicing missions were at least as demanding in terms of complexity and workload, SM1 captured the attention of both astronomers and the public at large to a degree that no other Shuttle mission since has achieved. Meticulously planned and brilliantly executed, the mission succeeded on all counts. It will go down in history as one of the highlights of human spaceflight. Hubble was back in business.

Since SM1 three other Servicing Missions have been carried out: during SM2 in 1997 two new instruments were installed, in SM3A, 1999, many of Hubble's crucial technical systems were exchanged, and in 2002 came SM3B when Hubble again got new science instruments.

The final planned Servicing Mission will be in 2008, when Servicing Mission 4 is scheduled to upgrade Hubble's scientific capabilities again.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #495 on: 19/02/2007 22:31:37 »
Robert Jarvik
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Jarvik was born in Midland, Michigan to Dr. Norman Eugene Jarvik and Edythe Koffler Jarvik and raised in Stamford, Connecticut. [1]

Jarvik is a graduate of Syracuse University. He later worked at the University of Utah.

Jarvik is married to Parade magazine columnist Marilyn vos Savant, who was long regarded as having the world's highest IQ. They live together in New York.

Starting in 2006, Jarvik has been appearing as a spokesman for Pfizer Pharmaceutical's cholesterol medication Lipitor.

Artificial heart

Jarvik worked jointly with William J. Kolff of Stamford, Connecticut on the Jarvik-7.

Ultimately, what came to be known as the Jarvik-7, the name associated with this development, was in fact the final product of the collaboration of many researchers who came before him, and their contributions to this project. One area of research was conducted at the Cleveland Clinic, which was later upgraded to the Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute, a new, independent arm of the hospital, where crucial elements of the fully implantable organ were produced. [citation needed]

The first implanting of the Jarvik-7, into retired dentist Barney Clark, took place at the University of Utah. The next several implantations of the Jarvik 7 heart were conducted by Humana, a national hospital chain. The second patient, Bill Schroeder, survived 620 days.

Later, Jarvik formed Symbion, Inc. to manufacture the heart, but he lost the company in a hostile takeover. He then founded Jarvik Heart, Inc., and began work to create the Jarvik 2000, a lifetime ventricular assist device.
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paul.fr

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #497 on: 23/02/2007 01:52:24 »
Leonardo da Vinci



Perhaps even more impressive than his artistic work are his studies in science and engineering, recorded in notebooks comprising some 13,000 pages of notes and drawings, which fuse art and science. He was left-handed and used mirror writing throughout his life. Explainable by fact that it is easier to pull a quill pen than to push it; by using mirror-writing, the left-handed writer is able to pull the pen from right to left.

His approach to science was an observatory one: he tried to understand a phenomenon by describing and depicting it in utmost detail, and did not emphasize experiments or theoretical explanations. Throughout his life, he planned a grand encyclopedia based on detailed drawings of everything. Since he lacked formal education in Latin and mathematics, Leonardo the scientist was mostly ignored by contemporary scholars.

He participated in autopsies and produced many extremely detailed anatomical drawings, planning a comprehensive work of human and comparative anatomy. Around the year 1490, he produced a study in his sketchbook of the Canon of Proportions as described in recently rediscovered writings of the Roman architect Vitruvius. The study, called the Vitruvian Man, is one of his most well-known works.


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jolly

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #499 on: 24/02/2007 20:09:44 »
neodymium.lol