A-Z of AVIONICS

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Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #550 on: 04/03/2007 20:26:24 »
Lie Detector or Polygraph
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia




A polygraph (commonly yet incorrectly referred to as a lie detector) is a device that measures and records several physiological variables such as blood pressure, pulse, respiration and skin conductivity while the subject is asked a series of questions. The measurements are posited to be indicators of anxiety that accompanies the telling of lies. Thus, measured anxiety is equated with telling untruths. However, if the subject exhibits anxiety for other reasons, or can control his anxiety level voluntarily, a measured response can result in unreliable conclusions. A polygraph test is also questionably used as a psychophysiological detection of deception (PDD) examination.



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Polygraph results are sometimes recorded on a chart recorder
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #551 on: 04/03/2007 20:31:22 »
Micro organisms

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« Reply #552 on: 04/03/2007 20:38:59 »
Nystagmus


Nystagmus is an involuntary eye movement which usually results in some degree of visual loss. The degree and direction of eye movement, amount of visual loss and resulting impairment varies greatly from person to person. This website has been created by the American Nystagmus Network, Inc., a nonprofit organization established in February, 1999 to serve the needs and interests of those affected by Nystagmus.

much more clicking here:     http://www.nystagmus.org/   

« Last Edit: 30/03/2007 16:19:11 by iko »

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« Reply #553 on: 04/03/2007 21:19:23 »
HEE HEE HEE nice picture..Lol!

Oxygen

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #554 on: 04/03/2007 21:47:18 »
Plankton
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Plankton are defined as any drifting organism that inhabits the water column of oceans, seas, and bodies of fresh water. They are widely considered to be some of the most important organisms on Earth, due to the food supply they provide to most aquatic life.










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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #555 on: 04/03/2007 21:53:33 »
Quercetin

Quercetin     From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Quercetin is a flavonoid and more specifically a flavonol. It is the aglycone form of a number of other flavonoid glycosides, such as rutin and quercitrin found in citrus fruit. Quercetin is found to be the most active of the flavonoids in studies,[citation needed] and many medicinal plants owe much of their activity to their high quercetin content. Quercetin has demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity because of direct inhibition of several initial processes of inflammation. For example, it inhibits both the manufacture and release of histamine and other allergic/inflammatory mediators. In addition, it exerts potent antioxidant activity and vitamin C-sparing action.

Quercetin forms the glycosides quercitrin and rutin together with rhamnose and rutinose respectively.

Quercetin also shows remarkable anti-tumour properties. A recent study in the British Journal of Cancer shows that when treated with a combination of quercetin and ultrasound at 20 KHz for 1 minute duration, skin and prostate cancers show a 90% mortality within 48 hours with no visible mortality of normal cells. Note that ultrasound also promotes topical absorption by up to 1,000 times making the use of topical quercetin and ultrasound wands an interesting proposition.

Quercetin may have positive effects in combating or helping to prevent cancer, prostatitis, heart disease, cataracts, allergies/inflammations, and respiratory diseases such as bronchitis and asthma.

Foods rich in quercetin include apples, black & green tea, onions (higher concentrations of quercetin occur in the outermost rings[1]), red wine, red grapes, citrus fruits, broccoli & other leafy green vegetables, cherries, and a number of berries including raspberry, bog whortleberry (158 mg/kg, fresh weight), lingonberry (74 and 146 mg/kg), cranberry (83 and 121 mg/kg), chokeberry (89 mg/kg), sweet rowan (85 mg/kg), rowanberry (63 mg/kg), sea buckthorn berry (62 mg/kg), crowberry (53 and 56 mg/kg),[1] and the fruit of the prickly pear cactus. A study[2] by the University of Queensland, Australia, has also indicated the presence of quercetin in varieties of honey, including honey derived from eucalyptus and tea tree flowers.[3]

In plants, it is a naturally-occurring polar auxin transport inhibitor.

Recent studies have supported that quercetin can help men with chronic prostatitis, possibly because of its action as a mast cell inhibitor.

more from wikipedia:      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quercetin   


« Last Edit: 30/03/2007 16:19:45 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #556 on: 04/03/2007 21:57:08 »
Radiation

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« Reply #558 on: 04/03/2007 22:04:53 »
Science


Science, in the broadest sense, refers to any system of objective knowledge. In a more restricted sense, science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge based on the scientific method, as well as to the organized body of knowledge gained through such research.

Fields of science are commonly classified along two major lines:

    * Natural sciences, which study natural phenomena, including biological life;
    * Social sciences, which study human behavior and societies

These fields are empirical sciences, which means the knowledge must be based on observable phenomena and capable of being tested for its validity by other researchers working under the same conditions.

Mathematics is sometimes classified in a third grouping, called formal science, having both similarities and differences with the natural and social sciences. It is similar to other disciplines in that it involves a careful, systematic study of an area of knowledge; it is different because of its method of verifying its knowledge, using a-priori rather than empirical methods. Mathematics as a whole is vital to the sciences; indeed, major advances in mathematics have often led to critical advances in the physical and biological sciences. Certain mathematical approaches are indispensable for the formation of hypotheses, theories, and laws, both in discovering and describing how things work (natural sciences) and how people think and act (social sciences).

Science as defined above is sometimes termed pure science in order to differentiate it from applied science, the latter being the application of scientific research to specific human needs.
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« Reply #559 on: 04/03/2007 22:05:10 »
GRRRRRRRRRRRRRR !!!!
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« Reply #560 on: 04/03/2007 22:10:08 »
Too late Neilepus!  [;D]

Buy that uaj...I think Science has been Scited before...




Science in the broadest sense refers to any system of objective knowledge. In a more restricted sense, science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge based on the scientific method, as well as to the organized body of knowledge humans have gained by such research. This article focuses on the latter sense of the word.

Fields of science are commonly classified along two major lines:

    * Natural sciences, which study natural phenomena
    * Social sciences, which study human behavior and societies

Whether mathematics is a science is a matter of perspective. It is similar to other sciences in that it is a careful, systematic study of an area of knowledge — specifically, it focuses on a priori knowledge. Mathematics as a whole is vital to the sciences — indeed, major advances in mathematics have often led to major advances in other sciences. Certain aspects of mathematics are indispensable for the formation of hypotheses, theories, and laws, both in discovering and describing how things work (natural sciences) and how people think and act (social sciences).

Science as defined above is sometimes termed pure science in order to differentiate it from applied science, the latter being the application of scientific research to human needs.
« Last Edit: 08/03/2007 23:04:22 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #561 on: 05/03/2007 11:14:05 »
Univalent = 1. Single unpaired, said of a chromosome.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #562 on: 05/03/2007 13:55:08 »
Vernal Equinox
Steven
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In a time of universal deceit - telling the truth is a revolutionary act.

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« Reply #563 on: 05/03/2007 14:42:03 »

Water Fountain

The modern drinking fountain was invented and then manufactured in the early 1900s by two men and the respective company each man founded: Halsey Willard Taylor and the Halsey Taylor Company; and Luther Haws and the Haws Sanitary Drinking Faucet Co. These two companies changed how water was served in public places.


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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #564 on: 05/03/2007 17:45:42 »
X-fragile syndrome


What Is Fragile X?

Fragile X syndrome is the leading cause of inherited developmental and mental impairment.  It is a genetic condition that is caused by a change in the genetic code of a single gene on the X chromosome. This defect inhibits the body's ability to produce a protein called FMRP.

Messages that must be sent and received for proper brain development and functioning are disrupted when this protein is missing. When the gene is altered, it can cause developmental delays and mild to severe learning disabilities including mental retardation.

Most children with fragile X appear completely typical at birth, but gradually, developmental characteristics of the condition become evident.

more from:   http://www.wafragilex.org/What_is_FragileX.htm   
    




« Last Edit: 02/04/2007 15:20:12 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #565 on: 05/03/2007 17:51:35 »
Yellow
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Yellow is any color of light that stimulates both the red and green cone cells of the retina, but not the blue cone cells. Light with a wavelength of 565–590 nm is yellow, though light with both red frequencies and green frequencies, such as mixing orange and lime light, or red and green light, is also yellow, and its scientifically defined complementary color in terms of color mixing using light is blue.



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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #567 on: 05/03/2007 19:26:31 »
AIBO
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


AIBO (Artificial Intelligence roBOt, also means "love" or "attachment" in Japanese, can also mean "partner") is one of several types of robotic pets designed and manufactured by Sony; there have been several different models since their introduction in 1999. Able to walk, "see" its environment via camera, and recognize spoken commands, they are considered to be autonomous robots, since they are able to learn and mature based on external stimuli from their owner or environment, or from other AIBOs. Artist Hajime Sorayama created the initial designs for the AIBO.

On January 26, 2006 Sony announced that it would discontinue AIBO and several other products. It will also stop development of the QRIO robot. AIBO will still be supported until 2013 (ERS7 model), however, and AIBO technology will continue to be developed for use in other consumer products. [1] [2] AIBOware (the name is a trademark of Sony corporation), is the title given to the software the AIBO runs on its pink Memory Stick. The Life AIBOware allows the robot to be raised from pup to fully grown adult while going through various stages of development as its owner interacts with it. The Explorer AIBOware allows the owner to interact with a fully mature robot able to understand (though not necessarily willing to obey) 100 voice commands. Without the AIBOware, the AIBO will run in what is called "clinic mode" and can only perform basic actions.

Many AIBO owners enjoy teaching their pets new behaviors by reprogramming them (in Sony's special 'R-CODE' language). However, in October 2001, Sony sent a cease-and-desist notice to the webmaster of aibopet.com/aibohack.com, demanding that he stop distributing code that was retrieved by bypassing the copy prevention mechanisms of the robot. Eventually, in the face of many outraged AIBO owners, see the protest letter, Sony released a programmer's kit for 'non-commercial' use. The kit has now been expanded into three distinct tools: R-CODE, AIBO Remote Framework, and the OPEN-R SDK. These three tools are combined under the name AIBO SDE (Software Development Environment). All of these tools are free to download and can be used for commercial or non-commercial use (Except for the OPEN-R SDK, which is specifically for non-commercial use). Since the first release of OPEN-R, several AIBO programming tools have been developed by university labs, including URBI, Tekkotsu, Pyro and Cognitive Vision.


The AIBO has seen use as an inexpensive platform for artificial intelligence research, because it integrates a computer, vision system, and articulators in a package vastly cheaper than conventional research robots. The RoboCup autonomous soccer competition has a "Sony Four-Legged Robot League" in which numerous institutions from around the world participate. Competitors program a team of AIBO robots to play games of autonomous robot soccer against other competing teams.




AIBO's complete vision system uses the SIFT algorithm, to recognise its charging station. The newest versions are equipped with a Wi-Fi connection, allowing them to send the pictures they take via email. As a result, the Roblog originated.

AIBO's sounds were programmed by Japanese DJ/avant-garde composer Nobukazu Takemura, considered by many to be highly skilled at fusing mechanic and organic concepts, and the bodies of the "3x" series (Latte and Macaron, the round-headed AIBOs released in 2001) were designed by visual artist Katsura Moshino.


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Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #568 on: 06/03/2007 07:10:03 »
Binary star

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_star




Binary star
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Artist's impression of a binary system consisting of a black hole, with an accretion disc around it, and a main sequence star.A binary star is a stellar system consisting of two stars orbiting around their center of mass. For each star, the other is its companion star. Recent research suggests that a large percentage of stars are part of systems with at least two stars. Binary star systems are very important in astrophysics, because observing their mutual orbits allows their mass to be determined. The masses of many single stars can then be determined by extrapolations made from the observation of binaries.

Binary stars are not the same as optical double stars, which appear to be close together as seen from Earth, but may not be bound by gravity. Binary stars can either be distinguished optically (visual binaries) or by indirect techniques, such as spectroscopy. If binaries happen to orbit in a plane containing our line of sight, they will eclipse each other; these are called eclipsing binaries.

Systems consisting of more than two components, known as multiple stars, are also not uncommon and are generally classified under the same name. The components of binary star systems can exchange mass, bringing their evolution to stages that single stars cannot attain. Examples of binaries are Algol (an eclipsing binary), Sirius, and Cygnus X-1 (of which one member is probably a black hole).


YES INDEEDY, I DID IT!!! YES!!!! BTW NEILY, THE YELLOW SUNFLOWERS ARE SPECTACULAR SO CHEERY AND WARM..YAYYYYYYYYYY!

« Last Edit: 06/03/2007 07:14:18 by Karen W. »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #569 on: 06/03/2007 12:40:36 »
Crop circle
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

   

Crop circles are geometrical formations of flattened crops found in England and elsewhere. They have been found in wheat, barley, canola, rye, corn, linseed and soy.

The phenomenon itself was noticed in its current form after notable appearances in England in the late 1970s. Various explanations were offered for the phenomenon, which soon spread around the world. In 1991, two men, Doug Bower and Dave Chorley, revealed that they had been making crop circles in England since 1978 using planks, rope, hats and wire as their only tools[1][2]. Circlemakers.org[3] a UK-based arts collective founded by John Lundberg have been creating complex crop circles since the early 1990s. [4].

Despite the evidence that crop circles are of human origin, various paranormal theories continue to enjoy some currency, although these all violate Occam's Razor.[5]





Here's one I made earlier !!

« Last Edit: 06/03/2007 12:42:34 by neilep »
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #570 on: 06/03/2007 15:51:25 »
THOSE ARE VERY COOL!!

Dioscuri = Greek mythology, meaning Castor and Pollux, twin sons of zues: identified as stars in the constellation Gemini.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #571 on: 06/03/2007 17:10:01 »
Encyclopædia Britannica
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., a privately held company owned by Swiss billionaire and actor Jacqui Safra. The Britannica is the oldest continuously published English-language encyclopedia.[1] Its articles are written by a dedicated staff of 19 full-time editors and by over four thousand contributors, who typically contribute to a single subject in which they are recognized authorities. The articles are targeted at educated adult readers,[2] although simplified versions have been developed. Despite its name and preference for British spelling, the Britannica has been published in the United States since 1901.[2]

The Britannica was first published from 1768–71 in three volumes under the title Encyclopædia Britannica, or, A dictionary of arts and sciences, compiled upon a new plan, partly as a conservative reaction to the provocative French Encyclopédie of Diderot published 1751-66.[1] Although the Britannica was published in a market with established English-language encyclopedias,[1] it quickly grew in popularity and size, reaching 20 volumes by the publication of its third edition in 1801. Its rising stature allowed the Britannica to recruit eminent authorities for its articles, which has continued for the past two centuries. Up to the 11th edition, the Britannica published new research and scholarly theories; in particular, the 9th and 11th editions (published in 1875-1889 and in 1911, respectively) are regarded as landmark encyclopedias for scholarship. However, beginning with the 11th edition, the American owners of the Britannica chose to simplify and shorten its articles, making them more accessible to lay-readers, with the goal of broadening its North American market. In 1933, the Britannica became the first encyclopedia to adopt a "continuous revision" policy in which the encyclopedia would be revised and reprinted every year, and every article checked at least twice per decade.

Beginning with the current 15th edition, the Britannica adopted a unique three-part structure: a Micropædia of roughly 65,000 short articles (typically with no references, no named authors and fewer than 750 words), a Macropædia of roughly 700 long articles (each article having 2-310 pages, references and named contributors), and a single Propædia volume that seeks to give a hierarchical outline of all human knowledge. The articles of the Micro- and Macropædia are both listed in alphabetical order, but it is intended[3] that readers interested in a given subject will study the Propædia first to grasp its context, then use Micropædia both as a tool to briefly introduce concepts and to find appropriate, more thorough information within the Macropædia articles. The Index was removed from the first 15th edition (1974) but was restored in the second (1985), in response to reader requests. The size of the Britannica has remained constant over the last 70 years, with roughly 40 million words addressing roughly half a million topics.[4]

An increasing number of alternative information sources have reduced the popular demand for print encyclopedias significantly. The Britannica has weathered this competition on the strength of its reputation, and by lowering its price point, reducing its costs drastically and developing electronic versions on CD-ROM, DVD and the World Wide Web. Although its reputation for excellence has been questioned recently by several respectable critics, such criticisms have been challenged vigorously by the Britannica's management.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #572 on: 06/03/2007 17:18:28 »
FUNGUS

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #573 on: 06/03/2007 18:08:51 »
Ganoderma lucidum


Will this ancient oriental herbal remedy join 'our' Medicine?


Língzhī (traditional Chinese: 靈芝; simplified Chinese: 灵芝; Japanese: reishi; Korean: yeongji, hangul: 영지) is the name for one form of the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum.
This fungal species has a worldwide distribution in both tropical and temperate geographical regions, including North and South America, Africa, Europe, and Asia, growing as a parasite or saprophyte on a wide variety of trees.[1] Ganoderma lucidum enjoys special veneration in Asia, where it has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as a herbal medicine for more than 4,000 years, making it one of the oldest mushrooms known to have been used in medicine.

The word lingzhi, in Chinese, means "herb of spiritual potency" and has also been described as "mushroom of immortality".[1] Because of its presumed health benefits and apparent absence of side-effects, it has attained a reputation in the East as the ultimate herbal substance. Lingzhi has now been added to the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia and Therapeutic Compendium.

from wikipedia:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ganoderma_lucidum
     

« Last Edit: 06/03/2007 21:36:39 by iko »

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« Reply #574 on: 06/03/2007 23:31:36 »
Thomas Hancock was an English inventor who founded the British rubber industry. Hancock invented the masticator, a machine that shredded rubber scraps, allowing rubber to be recycled after being formed into blocks or rolled into sheets.

The Masticator

In 1820, Thomas Hancock patented elastic fastenings for gloves, suspenders, shoes and stockings. In the process of creating the first elastic fabrics, Hancock found himself wasting considerable rubber. He invented the masticator to help conserve rubber.

Hancock kept notes during the process of invention. He made the following comments: "pieces with fresh cut edges would perfectly unite; but the outer surface, which had been exposed, would not unite... it occurred to me that if minced up very small the amount of fresh-cut surface would be greatly increased and by heat and pressure might possibly unite sufficiently for some purposes".

Thomas Hancock Invents A Pickle?
An eccentric Thomas Hancock initially did not choose to patent his machine, instead he gave it the deceptive name of "pickle" so that no one else would know what it was.

The first masticator was a wooden machine that used a hollow cylinder studded with teeth - inside the cylinder was a studded core that was hand cranked.


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« Reply #575 on: 07/03/2007 18:34:46 »
« Last Edit: 30/03/2007 16:14:25 by iko »

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« Reply #576 on: 07/03/2007 21:05:45 »
Jupiter

Jupiter (IPA: [ˈdʒu.pə.tɚ], IPA: [ˈdʒu.pɪ.tə]) is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet within the solar system. It is two and a half times as massive as all of the other planets in our solar system combined. Jupiter, along with Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, is classified as a gas giant. Together, these four planets are sometimes referred to as the Jovian planets—Jovian being the adjectival form of Jupiter.

When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of -2.8, making it the third brightest object in the night sky. The planet was known by astronomers of ancient times and was associated with the mythology and religious beliefs of many cultures. The Romans named it after Jupiter, the principal God of Roman mythology, whose name is a reduction of 'Deus Pater', meaning 'God father'.[5]

The planet Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with only a small proportion of helium; it may also have a rocky core of heavier elements. Because of its rapid rotation the planet is an oblate spheroid (it possesses a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the seventeenth century. Surrounding the planet is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. There are also at least 63 moons, including the four large moons called the Galilean moons that were first discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Two of these moons are bigger than the planet Mercury.

Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft, most notably during the early Pioneer and Voyager fly-by missions and later by the Galileo orbiter. Future targets for exploration include the possible ice-covered liquid ocean on the Jovian moon Europa.



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« Reply #577 on: 07/03/2007 21:48:54 »
Kuru


The mistery of kuru

In 1957, a virologist who had studied several infectious diseases among remote peoples, came to New Guinea to study kuru.
Carleton Gajdusek wanted to uncover the cause of this unique and always fatal disease. He searched for sources of toxins in the Fore's diet and environment.
He conducted epidemiological studies and sent samples of brain tissue to the United States to be studied by a neuropathologist. Because there was no sign of inflammation in the bodies or brains of the kuru victims, and because kuru tended to appear within certain families, Gajdusek at first believed kuru was an inherited genetic disorder.
In 1959 Gajdusek's work came to the attention of William Hadlow, a research veterinarian who was studying a remarkably similar disease, called scrapie, in sheep. Like kuru, scrapie was a fatal disease that gradually destroyed the brains of sheep, leaving the brain full of holes and producing no immune response. And very importantly, scientists knew that scrapie was infectious.
The similarities between kuru and scrapie led Gajdusek to begin experiments to show that kuru could be transmitted to chimpanzees. He then went on to show that classic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), another spongiform disease in people, was also transmissible.
Ultimately, the rapid spread of kuru was linked to the Fore's funeral rituals: the Fore cooked and ate their dead relatives. This practice was only carried out by the Fore women and children, who lived apart from the men. This explains why men were rarely infected, and why cases appeared within families. The Fore quickly stopped eating their dead, and the spread of the disease stopped. Unfortunately, because of kuru's long incubation time, there are still a few kuru cases among the Fore each year. The people who come down with kuru today are in their 50s and 60s, which means that they have been harboring the disease ever since they ate infected tissue as young children

for the complete article, click here:  http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/features/prions/kuru.cfm


« Last Edit: 30/03/2007 16:15:04 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #578 on: 08/03/2007 01:59:14 »
William Lear


 "Bill" William Lear was the designer of the Lear Jet executive airplane, inventor of the 8-track stereo, and patented several car radios (U.S. patent 1,944,139 - not the first).

William Lear founded the Lear Electronics Corporation, merging with the Siegler corporation in 1960 to become Lear Siegler Inc. William Lear used the capital he acquired from the Lear Siegler merger* to develop Learjet (a company he eventually sold to Gates rubber Co.) where Lear dedicated his life to the development of an antipollution steam engine and new materials for airplanes.


[attachment=284]
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #579 on: 08/03/2007 03:28:22 »
MARTIANS =Little green men/aliens/NEILY LOL

HEE HEE HEE!!LOL SORRY YOU can delete me , I'll go away!

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #580 on: 08/03/2007 15:49:24 »
LOL..that's oK Karen..I AM a Martian !!


Naturopathic medicine


Naturopathic medicine (also known as naturopathy) is a school of medical philosophy and practice that seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly by assisting the body's innate capacity to recover from illness and injury. Naturopathic practice may include a broad array of different modalities, including manual therapy, hydrotherapy, herbalism, acupuncture, counselling, environmental medicine, aromatherapy, wholefoods, cell salts, and so on. Practitioners tend to emphasise a holistic approach to patient care. Naturopathy has its origins in the United States, but is today practiced in many countries around the world in one form or another, where it is subject to different standards of regulation and levels of acceptance.

Naturopathic practitioners prefer not to use invasive surgery, or most synthetic drugs, preferring "natural" remedies, i.e. relatively unprocessed or whole medications, such as herbs and foods. Licensed physicians from accredited schools are trained to use diagnostic tests such as imaging and blood tests before deciding upon the full course of treatment. Naturopathic Practitioners also employ the use of prescription medications and surgery when necessary and refer out to other medical practitioners.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #581 on: 08/03/2007 18:29:45 »
Origin of life





http://www.rogerwendell.com/images/evolution/dmns_life_in_a_lab_09-02-2006_thumb.jpg

Stanley Miller was a doctoral student working with Harold C. Urey at the University of Chicago, researching possible environments of early Earth. In 1953 he reproduced the early atmosphere of Earth by creating a chamber with only hydrogen, water, methane, and ammonia. Miller used an electric discharge to simulate lightning and, after just a week, had a residue Organic compounds settled in the system. 

Most notable of these compounds were the amino acids, the "building blocks of life," that had formed in Miller's system. Amino acids are necessary for the formation of proteins which form the structure of cells. Miller found glycine, alanine, aspartic, glutamic acid, and other amino acids in the sytem. Fifteen percent of the carbon from the methane had been combined into organic compounds. As amazing as his discovery of amino acids was, it was even more astonishing how easily they had been formed in the system!
Miller's work showed that compounds necessary for life could have been formed in an environment without free oxygen - similar to Earth's early atmosphere. The creation of amino acids from Earth's raw materials may been the begining of evolution. Miller's results also suggests the possibility that similar amino acids could have formed elsewhere, in the Universe, since the Earth's early atmosphere was based on proportions of elements in the Universe...

more from:   http://www.rogerwendell.com/evolution.html   


« Last Edit: 30/03/2007 16:15:34 by iko »

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« Reply #582 on: 08/03/2007 22:15:18 »
Particle accelerator


A particle accelerator is a device that uses electric fields to propel electrically charged particles to high speeds and to contain them. An ordinary CRT television set is a simple form of accelerator. There are two basic types: linear (i.e. straight-line) accelerators and circular accelerators.



Linear high-energy accelerators use a linear array of plates (or drift tubes) to which an alternating high-energy field is applied. As the particles approach a plate they are accelerated towards it by an opposite polarity charge applied to the plate. As they pass through a hole in the plate, the polarity is switched so that the plate now repels them and they are now accelerated by it towards the next plate. Normally a stream of "bunches" of particles are accelerated, so a carefully controlled AC voltage is applied to each plate to continuously repeat this for each bunch.
In early particle accelerators a Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier was responsible for voltage multiplying. This piece of the accelerator helped in the development of the atomic bomb. Built in 1937 by Philips of Eindhoven it currently resides in the National Science Museum in London, England.
In early particle accelerators a Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier was responsible for voltage multiplying. This piece of the accelerator helped in the development of the atomic bomb. Built in 1937 by Philips of Eindhoven it currently resides in the National Science Museum in London, England.

As the particles approach the speed of light the switching rate of the electric fields becomes so high that they operate at microwave frequencies, and so RF cavity resonators are used in higher energy machines instead of simple plates.

DC accelerator types capable of accelerating particles to speeds sufficient to cause nuclear reactions are Cockcroft-Walton generators or voltage multipliers, which convert AC to high voltage DC, or Van de Graaff generators that use static electricity carried by belts.

The largest and most powerful particle accelerators, such as the RHIC, the LHC (scheduled to start operation in 2007) and the Tevatron, are used for experimental particle physics. Particle accelerators can also produce proton beams, which can produce "proton-heavy" medical or research isotopes as opposed to the "neutron-heavy" ones made in fission reactors. An example of this type of machine is LANSCE at Los Alamos.

 Low-energy machines

Everyday examples of particle accelerators are those found in television sets and X-ray generators. Low-energy accelerators such as cathode ray tubes and X-ray generators use a single pair of electrodes with a DC voltage of a few thousand volts between them. In an X-ray generator, the target itself is one of the electrodes. A low-energy particle accelerator called an ion implanter is used in the manufacture of integrated circuits.

[attachment=286]
Opis

1960s vintage 2MeV "High Voltage" vandergraff linear accelerator.

A single ended belt charging linear accelerator made by "High Voltage" used primarily to accelerate H and He from a RF positive ion source. The machine was capable of terminal voltages above 2 million volts. This machine operated at the Australian National University from the early 1960s till 2000.


Photo by Martin Conway (en:User:Martyman) released under the GFDL




[attachment=287]
Aerial photo of Fermilab   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermilab



« Last Edit: 08/03/2007 22:22:21 by neilep »
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #583 on: 08/03/2007 22:55:21 »
Quicksilver


Quicksilver (aircraft)

Quicksilver is a line of ultralight aircraft that evolved from weight shift hang gliders. A company called "Eipper Formance" (founder, Dick Eipper) began manufacturing the early Quicksilver ultralights (Designed by Bob Lovejoy) in the late 1970's when hang gliding was very popular. The Quicksilver hang gliders differed from most hang gliders of that time period in that the Quicksilver had a rigid wing and a tail with a horizontal stabilizer and a rudder. At that time, the majority of the hang gliders were simple Rogallo wing type hang gliders.

Eipper added a seat, wheels, and a small engine behind the wing of the hang glider, and the Quicksilver ultralight was born. This aircraft was controlled by pushing a bar forward and backwards, and side to side, in the same way that hangliders are controlled. This shifted the center of gravity of the aircraft and allowed the pilot to control the plane. Many pilots wanted an aircraft that was controlled with a stick and rudder, similar to the way "typical" light airplanes were controlled, so Eipper added control surfaces to the Quicksilver ultralight, and the Quicksilver MX was born.

The Quicksilver MX evolved over the years. A two-seat model was added for training purposes, although the two-seater was not legally an ultralight. Eipper Formance changed their name to Eipper Aircraft and then Quicksilver Aircraft, and they are still in business, although they are not producing aircraft in the quantity that they were at the height of the ultralight craze in the mid 1980's. They can be found online at Quicksilver Aircraft.

Retrieved from    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quicksilver_%28aircraft%29   



« Last Edit: 30/03/2007 16:16:09 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #584 on: 08/03/2007 23:07:29 »
From wikipedia

RUST

Rust is the oxide that is formed by open-air oxidation of iron. The chemical composition of rust is mainly iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), and under wet conditions may include iron(III) oxide-hydroxide (FeO(OH)). Rusting is the common term for corrosion of iron and its alloys, such as steel. Although oxidation of other metals is equivalent, these oxides are not commonly called rust


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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #586 on: 09/03/2007 14:59:12 »
Troposphere

The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere. It is the densest layer of the atmosphere and contains approximately 75% of the mass of the atmosphere and almost all the water vapor and aerosol.

The troposphere extends from the Earth's surface up to the tropopause where the stratosphere begins. The depth of the troposphere is greatest in the tropics (about 17 km) and smallest at the poles (about 7 km). The lower part, where friction on the Earth's surface influences with air flow, is the planetary boundary layer or peplosphere which is 2 km deep on average, dependent on the landform, and which is separated from the rest of the troposphere by the capping inversion layer.

The word troposphere stems from the Greek "tropos" for "turning" or "mixing". The troposphere is the most turbulent part of the atmosphere and is the part of the atmosphere in which most weather phenomena are seen. Generally, jet aircraft fly just above the troposphere to avoid turbulence.

[attachment=288]
View of Earth's troposphere from an airplane.

[attachment=289]
Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers.
 The layers are not to scale: from Earth's surface to the top
of the stratosphere (50km) is just under 1% of Earth's radius


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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #588 on: 10/03/2007 14:29:48 »
Velcro


Velcro is a brand name of fabric hook-and-loop fasteners used for connecting objects. The term VELCRO is a registered trademark in most countries. Generic terminology for these fasteners includes "hook and loop", "burr" and "touch" fasteners. The VELCRO brand headquarters is in Manchester, New Hampshire, USA.
Contents
[hide]


The hook and loop fastener was invented in 1941 by Georges de Mestral, a Swiss engineer. The idea came to him after he took a close look at the Burdock seeds which kept sticking to his clothes and his dog's fur on their daily walk in the Alps, during the summer. Georges de Mestral examined their condition and saw the possibility of binding two materials reversibly in a simple fashion. He developed the hook and loop fastener and submitted his idea for patent in 1951. De Mestral named his invention "VELCRO" after the French words velours, meaning 'velvet', and crochet, meaning 'hook'. Today, the uses and applications of the product are numerous, and the word velcro has become a generic term for any fastener of this type.[citation needed] It has even found wide use as a verb in the English language, much like "e-mail" or "fax."

Composition

Hook and loop fasteners consist of two layers: a "hook" side, which is a piece of fabric covered with tiny plastic hooks, and a "loop" side, which is covered with even smaller and "hairier" plastic loops. There are many variations to this which include hooks on both sides, for example. When the two sides are pressed together, the hooks catch in the loops and hold the pieces together. When the layers are separated, the strips make a characteristic ripping sound. This creates some disadvantages to the use of velcro in various occasions.


[attachment=292]

Velcro: hooks (left) and loops (right)
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #590 on: 10/03/2007 14:45:07 »









Wulfenite is a nice collection type mineral and is popular as such. Its strong colors, nice luster and one-of-a-kind crystal habits attract the attention of many collectors around the world.
Wulfenite is an enigma in terms of its symmetry. There are conflicting results of various symmetry tests and this usually does not happen. It is either a symmetry of 4 or 4/m. The difference is the disputed existence of a mirror plane perpendicular to the four fold axis. If the mirror exists, then the crystals should have a top that is a mirror image of its bottom. Although most crystals don't show it clearly, the bottom pyramidal faces slant at a different angle from the top pyramidal faces. This demonstrates the symmetry of just 4. However, other tests of its symmetry show a 4/m symmetry. This symmetrical oddity only adds to wulfenite's interest among serious collectors.


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Color is red, orange, yellow, silver and white.
Luster is vitreous.
Transparency: Crystals are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System is tetragonal; 4/m or 4
Crystal Habits include very thin square or octahedral pinacoidal plates with pyramidal faces truncating just the edges of the crystal. At times the pyramids become prominant and psuedo-dipyramidal crystal habits are seen, sometimes because of twinning. Prismatic faces are also seen and can make psuedo-cubic crystals. Also encrusting and cavernous aggregates due to intergrowth of crystal plates.
Cleavage is perfect in one direction.
Fracture is conchoidal.
Hardness is 3.
Specific Gravity is approximately 6.8 (very heavy for translucent minerals)
Streak is white.
Associated Minerals are mimetite, limonite, smithsonite, vanadinite and galena.
Other Characteristics: index of refraction is 2.28-2.40 (very high, but typical of lead minerals).
Notable Occurances include Morocco; Tsumeb, Nambia; Mexico and Arizona and New Mexico, USA.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, color, density and luster.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #591 on: 10/03/2007 14:48:19 »
WHOOPS 2 W'S

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #593 on: 10/03/2007 16:12:40 »
What does it do?

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #594 on: 10/03/2007 16:15:58 »
It enlightens your path
when you're driving!

Unfortunately Neilepibus posted Xenon 3-4 rounds ago!!!

X-files!  (LOL)

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« Reply #595 on: 10/03/2007 16:39:47 »
The Y chromosome is one of the sex-determining chromosomes in humans and most other mammals. In mammals, it contains the gene SRY, which triggers testis development, thus determining maleness.
 Overview


Most mammals have one pair of sex chromosomes in each cell. Males have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. In mammals, the Y chromosome contains the gene that triggers embryonic development as a male. This gene is SRY. Other genes (in addition to SRY) on the Y chromosomes of men and other mammals are needed for normal sperm production.

There are exceptions, however. Among humans, some men have two X's and a Y ("XXY", see Klinefelter's syndrome), or one X and two Y's (see XYY syndrome), and some women have three Xs or a single X (and no Y, "X0", see Turner syndrome). There are other exceptions in which SRY is damaged (leading to an XY female), or copied to the X (leading to an XX male). For related phenomena see Androgen insensitivity syndrome and Intersex.

Many groups of organisms in addition to mammals have Y chromosomes, but these Y chromosomes do not share common ancestry with mammalian Y chromosomes. Such groups include fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster and relatives), some other insects, some fish, some reptiles, and some plants. In fruit flies, the Y chromosome does not trigger male development. Instead, sex is determined by the number of X chromosomes. So XXY fruit flies are female, and fruit flies with a single X (X0), are male but sterile.

Other organisms have mirror image sex chromosomes: the female is "XY" and the male is "XX", but by convention biologists call a "female Y" a W chromosome and the other a Z chromosome. For example, female birds, snakes, and butterflies have ZW sex chromosomes, and males have ZZ sex chromosomes.


[attachment=293]

A Male ' Y' Chromosone looking typically upright and erect !!
« Last Edit: 10/03/2007 16:41:39 by neilep »
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #596 on: 10/03/2007 17:20:15 »
« Last Edit: 30/03/2007 16:18:29 by iko »

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« Reply #597 on: 10/03/2007 17:31:37 »
To friendo Neilepus
Britannicus Posterus

Why
when it comes to the 'Y'
the same thing
hits your eye?

Odd Lyric foil

« Last Edit: 17/09/2007 15:36:29 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #598 on: 10/03/2007 18:58:03 »
To friendo Neilepus
Britannicus Posterus

Why
when it comes to the 'Y'
the same thing
hits your eye?

Odd Lyric foil



LOl....Iko is the BEST at this.

Sorry...did I do Y-Chrmosone before ?


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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #599 on: 10/03/2007 19:17:20 »
 
Randice-Lisa Altschul


   
Disposable Cell Phone - Phone-Card-Phone

In November of 1999 Randice-Lisa "Randi" Altschul was issued a series of patents for the world's first disposable cell phone. Trademarked the Phone-Card-Phone®, the device is the thickness of three credit cards and made from recycled paper products. This is a real cell phone (outgoing messages only) with 60 minutes of calling time and a hands free attachment. You can add more minutes or throw the device away after your calling time is used up. However, with the planned additional magnetic strip the cell phone would double as a credit card, swipeable for purchases with free airtime credits as a bonus. The retail price of the invention should average twenty dollars, with a two or three dollar rebate for returning the phone instead of trashing it.

Altschul thought up the invention after being tempted to toss her cell phone out of her car in frustration over a bad connection. She realized cell phones were too expansive to lose or throw away. After clearing the idea with her patent lawyer and making sure no one else had already invented a disposable cell phone, Randi Altschul together with engineer Lee Volte, patented both the disposable cell phone and the super thin technology (STTTM) needed for the Phone-Card-Phone and other intended products.


[attachment=295]

[attachment=297]

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