A-Z of AVIONICS

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #650 on: 22/03/2007 23:21:35 »
Zafferano  (Saffron)




Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf.ɹən] / [ˈsæf.ɹɑn]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. The flower has three stigmas, which are the distal ends of the plant's carpels. Together with its style, the stalk connecting the stigmas to the rest of the plant, these components are often dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. Saffron, which has for decades been the world's most expensive spice by weight,[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia.[2][3] It was first cultivated in the vicinity of Greece.[4]
Saffron is characterised by a bitter taste and an iodoform- or hay-like fragrance; these are caused by the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal.[5][6] It also contains a carotenoid dye, crocin, that gives food a rich golden-yellow hue. These traits make saffron a much-sought ingredient in many foods worldwide. Saffron also has medicinal applications.
The word saffron originated from the 12th-century Old French term safran, which derives from the Latin word safranum. Safranum is also related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán.[7] Safranum comes from the Arabic word aṣfar (أَصْفَر‎), which means "yellow," via the paronymous zaʻfarān (زَعْفَرَان‎), the name of the spice in Arabic.

from:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saffron  



« Last Edit: 25/03/2007 23:31:05 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #651 on: 23/03/2007 00:00:41 »
Mary Anderson

 

Patent drawing
Mary Anderson's
windshield wiper






Prior to the manufacture of Henry Ford's Model A, Mary Anderson was granted her first patent for a window cleaning device in November of 1903. Her invention could clean snow, rain, or sleet from a windshield by using a handle inside the car. Her goal was to improve driver vision during stormy weather - Mary Anderson invented the windshield wiper.

During a trip to New York City, Mary Anderson noticed that streetcar drivers had to open the windows of their cars when it rained in order to see, as a solution she invented a swinging arm device with a rubber blade that was operated by the driver from within the vehicle via a lever. The windsheld wipers became standard equipment on all American cars by 1916.

The automobile gave women ample opportunity for invention. In 1923, of the 345 inventions listed under "Transportation" in the Women's Bureau Bulletin No.28, about half were related to automobiles and another 25 concerned traffic signals and turn indicators. Among these inventions -- a carburetor, a clutch mechanism, an electric engine starter, and a starting mechanism.

During the 1930s, Helen Blair Bartlett developed new insulations for spark plugs. A geologist by training, her knowledge of petrology and mineralogy was critical in the development of innovative uses of alumina ceramics.

Another woman inventor named Charlotte Bridgwood invented the first automatic windshield wiper. Charlotte Bridgwood, president of the Bridgwood Manufacturing Company of New York, patented her electric roller-based windshield wiper called the "Storm Windshield Cleaner" in 1917. However, her product was not a commercial success.
« Last Edit: 23/03/2007 00:06:11 by neilep »
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #652 on: 23/03/2007 04:35:39 »
Biotit

Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg, Fe)3AlSi3O10(F, OH)2. More generally, it refers to the dark mica series, primarily a solid-solution series between the iron-endmember annite, and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite; more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite. (WIKp)

It is the most common type of mica found in granites intruded plutonic rocks) and rhyolites (1*) worldwide and one of the three minerals that form these rock. The other two are feldspars (many different types) and quartz.


*1 (granitic magma chambers that have been some how opened to the surface so the crystals are smaller from more rapid cooling)
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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #653 on: 23/03/2007 09:53:22 »
Calodendrum capense   (Cape Chestnut)


Calodendron capense – Cape Chestnut   (Rutaceae)

Attractive tree with a dense, compact and rounded, symmetrical crown, 10-12 mt high native to South Africa. Prefers warmer conditions, frost tender when young, growth slow. Summer flowering, flesh pink in large terminal sprays, covering almost the entire crown.
 
« Last Edit: 26/03/2007 18:02:36 by iko »

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« Reply #654 on: 23/03/2007 10:05:54 »
Disposable Diapers - (Donovan, Marion )

(or as disposable diapers are known in Britain the disposable nappy )
Marion Donovan was a young mother in the post-war baby boom era. She came from a family of inventors and inherited the inventing 'gene'.

The Boater
Unhappy with leaky, cloth diapers that had to be washed, she first invented the 'Boater', a plastic covering for cloth diapers. Marion Donovan made her first Boater using a shower curtain.

Disposable Diapers
A year later she carried her ideas further. Using disposable absorbent material and combining it with her Boater design, Marion Donovan created the first convenient disposable diaper.

Business For Herself

Manufacturers thought her product would be too expansive to produce. Marion Donovan, left unable to sell or license her diaper patent, went into business for herself. A few years later, she was able to sell her company for $1 million.

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« Reply #656 on: 23/03/2007 14:31:22 »
Ferris Wheel - George W. Ferris

The first ferris wheel was designed by George W. Ferris, a bridge-builder from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Ferris began his career in the railroad industry and then pursued an interest in bridge building. He understood the growing need for structural steel, Ferris founded G.W.G. Ferris & Co. in Pittsburgh, a firm that tested and inspected metals for railroads and bridge builders.

He built the Ferris Wheel for the 1893 World's Fair, which was held in Chicago to commemorate the 400th anniversary of Columbus's landing in America. The Chicago Fair's organizers wanted something that would rival the Eiffel Tower. Gustave Eiffel had built the tower for the Paris World's Fair of 1889, which honored the 100th anniversary of the French Revolution.

Finding a suitable design proved difficult: Architect Daniel H. Burnham, who was in charge of selecting the project for the Chicago World's Fair, complained at an engineer's banquet in 1891 about having found nothing that "met the expectations of the people". Among the audience was George Washington Gale Ferris Jr., owner of a firm that tested iron and steel. He had an inspiration and scribbled the design for the Ferris Wheel on a napkin during the dinner.

It was considered an engineering wonder: two 140-foot steel towers supported the wheel; they were connected by a 45-foot axle, the largest single piece of forged steel ever made up until that time. The wheel section had a diameter of 250 feet and a circumference of 825 feet. Two 1000-horsepower reversible engines powered the ride. Thirty-six wooden cars held up to sixty riders each. The ride cost fifty cents and made $726,805.50 during the World's Fair. The original Ferris Wheel was destroyed in 1906, but there are other ferris wheels at theme parks and carnivals everywhere.


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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #657 on: 23/03/2007 21:21:55 »
Galena detector


This is a particular of a galena crystal  used as radio rivelator in the first receivers called "galena radios". Those receivers works without supply; The RF (Radio Frequency) signal itself drove the piezo headphones.

more "old devices" in:   http://www.radiopistoia.com/compo_.htm

« Last Edit: 25/03/2007 23:09:27 by iko »

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« Reply #658 on: 23/03/2007 22:01:36 »
Hills Hoist

A Hills Hoist is an inexpensive rotary clothes line developed and marketed by Australian, Lance Hill in 1945. However, Lance Hill finally patented his rotary clothes line on March 22, 1956.

Hills Hoist


The Hills Hoist is a rotary clothes line fitted with a hoist operated by a crown and pinion winding mechanism which allows the frame to be raised and lowered. It was developed and marketed by Lance Hill in 1945 after he returned from the war.


Lance Hill invented the Hill's Hoist because his wife asked him if he could think of something better than the old clothes line and prop that she had.

1955 Model

« Last Edit: 23/03/2007 22:04:45 by neilep »
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #659 on: 23/03/2007 23:43:34 »
Infantile scurvy  (Barlow's disease)

This X-ray of an infant afflicted by scurvy shows some of the skeletal effects of the disease, including bowed legs, stunted bone growth, and swollen joints. Infants who are fed only cow's milk are at risk of developing scurvy, since cow's milk is not an adequate source of vitamin C. [Photograph by Lester V. Bergman. Corbis Images. Reproduced by permission.]



Scurvy is a condition characterized by hemorrhages around the hair follicles of the arms and legs, generalized weakness, anemia, and gum disease (gingivitis) resulting from a lack of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the diet. Early epidemics of scurvy occurred during the Renaissance (1600–1800s) among explorers and seafaring men. In 1746, James Lind, a British naval surgeon, established that eating lemons and oranges cured the disease.

Vitamin C is destroyed by heat, and thus not present in pasteurized and commercially processed foods. Children and teenagers who consume too many processed foods and few fresh fruits and vegetables may be getting inadequate amounts of vitamin C. (In 1914, an increased incidence of scurvy among infants was attributed to consumption of heated (pasteurized) milk and vitamin C–deficient commercially processed foods.) Though rare, scurvy is now frequently observed among elderly persons, alcoholics, and malnourished adults. In addition, smokers have higher requirements for vitamin C, and are therefore more at risk.

Kiran B. Misra

from:   http://www.faqs.org/nutrition/Pre-Sma/Scurvy.html


« Last Edit: 25/03/2007 23:10:11 by iko »

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« Reply #660 on: 24/03/2007 01:44:55 »
Johnson ,Lonnie   Super Soaker -

The Super Soaker ® was invented in 1988 under the original name of the "Power Drencher" and a whole new era of power water squirters began. Invented by Lonnie Johnson, an Aerospace Engineer from Los Angeles, California, the Power Drencher was the first water blaster to incorporate air pressure into its design. Three years later in 1991 when Johnson received his patent, the Power Drencher was renamed "Super Soaker" and a nation-wide advertising campaign was launched.
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« Reply #662 on: 24/03/2007 12:59:09 »
Laboratory




Michael Faraday, 19th century physicist and chemist, in his lab.



Biochemistry laboratory at the University of Cologne.



Advanced Photon Source linear accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory.

A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific research, experiments, and measurement may be performed. The title of laboratory is also used for certain other facilities where the processes or equipment used are similar to those in scientific laboratories. These notably include:

    * the film laboratory or photographic laboratory
    * the computer lab
    * the medical lab
    * the clandestine lab for the production of illegal drugs

Scientific laboratories can be found in schools and universities, in industry, in government or military facilities, and even aboard ships and spacecraft. A laboratory might offer work space for just one to more than thirty researchers depending on its size and purpose.

Characteristics of scientific laboratories

Labs used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science. A physics lab might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber, while a metallurgy lab could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength. A chemist or biologist might use a wet laboratory, while a psychologist's or economist's lab might be a room with one-way mirrors and hidden cameras in which to observe behavior. In some laboratories, computers (sometimes supercomputers) are used for either simulations or the analysis of data collected elsewhere. Scientists in other fields will use still other types of laboratories.

Despite the great differences among laboratories, some features are common. The use of workbenches or countertops at which the scientist may choose to either sit or stand is a common way to ensure comfortable working conditions for the researcher, who may spend a large portion of his or her working day in the laboratory. The provision of cabinets for the storage of laboratory equipment is quite common. It is traditional for a scientist to record an experiment's progress in a laboratory notebook, but modern labs almost always contain at least one computer workstation for data collection and analysis.

Lab safety

In some laboratories, conditions are no more dangerous than in any other room. In many labs, though, hazards are present. Laboratory hazards are as varied as the subjects of study in laboratories, and might include poisons; infectious agents; flammable, explosive, or radioactive materials; moving machinery; extreme temperatures; or high voltage. In laboratories where dangerous conditions might exist, safety precautions are important. Rules exist to minimize the individual's risk, and safety equipment is used to protect the lab user from injury or to assist in responding to an emergency.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #663 on: 24/03/2007 14:33:40 »
Multiple Myeloma


Background: Multiple myeloma is a debilitating malignancy that is part of a spectrum of diseases ranging from monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) to plasma cell leukemia. First described in 1848, multiple myeloma is a disease characterized by a proliferation of malignant plasma cells and a subsequent overabundance of monoclonal paraprotein. An intriguing feature of this disease is that the antibody-forming cells (ie, plasma cells) are malignant and, therefore, may cause unusual manifestations.

Myeloma can be asymptomatic or insidious. The disease can cause systemic ailments, including infections and renal failure, and local catastrophes, including pathologic fractures and spinal cord compression. Although patients benefit from treatment (ie, longer life, less pain, fewer complications), currently no cure exists. Recent advances in therapy have helped to lessen the occurrence and severity of adverse effects.

Pathophysiology: Multiple myeloma can cause a wide variety of problems. The proliferation of plasma cells may interfere with the normal production of blood cells, resulting in leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. The cells may cause soft tissue masses (plasmacytomas) or lytic lesions in the skeleton. Feared complications of this malignancy are bone pain, hypercalcemia, and spinal cord compression. The aberrant antibodies that are produced lead to impaired humoral immunity, and patients have a high prevalence of infection, especially with encapsulated organisms. The overproduction of these antibodies may lead to hyperviscosity, amyloidosis, and renal failure.

Frequency:
In the US: Age-adjusted annual incidence is 4.3 cases per 100,000 white men, 3 cases per 100,000 white women, 9.6 cases per 100,000 black men, and 6.7 cases per 100,000 black women.
...

more from e-medicine:   http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic1521.htm

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #664 on: 24/03/2007 15:37:54 »
Napier John







John Napier 1550 - 1617

John Napier was a Scottish mathematician and inventor. Napier is famous for creating mathematical logarithms, creating the decimal point, and for inventing Napier's Bones, a calculating instrument.


While better known as a mathematician, John Napier was a busy inventor. He proposed several military inventions including: burning mirrors that set enemy ships on fire, special artillery that destroyed everything within a radius of four miles, bulletproof clothing, a crude version of a tank, and a submarine-like device. John Napier invented a hydraulic screw with a revolving axle that lowered water levels in coal pits. Napier also worked on agricultural innovations to improve crops with manures and salt.

As a Mathematician, the highlight of John Napier's life was the creation of logarithms and the decimal notation for fractions.
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His other mathematical contributions included: a mnemonic for formulas used in solving spherical triangles, two formulas known as Napier's analogies used in solving spherical triangles, and the exponential expressions for trigonometric functions.

In 1621, English mathematician and clergyman, William Oughtred used Napier's logarithms when he invented the slide rule. Oughtred invented the standard rectilinear slide rule and circular slide rule.

Napier's bones were multiplication tables written on strips of wood or bones. The invention was used for multiplying, dividing, and taking square roots and cube roots
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #665 on: 24/03/2007 16:45:38 »
Oncotic pressure

Oncotic pressure

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In blood plasma, the dissolved compounds have an osmotic pressure. A small portion of the total osmotic pressure is due to the presence of large protein molecules; this is known as the colloidal osmotic pressure, or oncotic pressure. Because large plasma proteins can't easily cross through the capillary walls, their effect on the osmotic pressure of the capillary interiors will, to some extent, balance out the tendency for fluid to leak out of the capillaries. In conditions where plasma proteins are reduced, e.g. from being lost in the urine (proteinuria) or from malnutrition, the result of the too low oncotic pressure can be edema – excess fluid buildup in the tissues.
It is represented by the symbol π
Related to hydrostatic pressure, starling equation.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oncotic_pressure


« Last Edit: 25/03/2007 23:12:01 by iko »

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« Reply #666 on: 24/03/2007 20:37:21 »
Blaise Pascal  (1623-1662)
Blaise Pascal is credited with inventing an early calculator.

Blaise Pascal, the French scientist was one of the most reputed mathematician and physicist of his time. He is credited with inventing an early calculator, amazingly advanced for its time. A genuis from a young age, Blaise Pascal composed a treatise on the communication of sounds at the age of twelve, and at the age of sixteen he composed a treatise on conic sections.

The Pascaline
The idea of using machines to solve mathematical problems can be traced at least as far as the early 17th century. Mathematicians who designed and implemented calculators that were capable of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division included Wilhelm Schickhard, Blaise Pascal, and Gottfried Leibnitz. In 1642, at the age of eighteen Blaise Pascal invented his numerical wheel calculator called the Pascaline to help his father a French tax collector count taxes. The Pascaline had eight movable dials that added up to eight figured long sums and used base ten. When the first dial (one's column) moved ten notches - the second dial moved one notch to represent the ten's column reading of 10 - and when the ten dial moved ten notches the third dial (hundred's column) moved one notch to represent one hundred and so on.

Roulette Machine
Blaise Pascal introduced a very primitive version of the roulette machine in the 17th century. The roulette was a by-product of Blaise Pascal's attempts to invent a perpetual motion machine.

Wrist Watch
The first reported person to actually wear a watch on the wrist was the French mathematician and philosopher, Blaise Pascal. With a piece of string, he attached his pocket watch to his wrist. 

Pascal (Pa
)
Unit of atmospheric pressure named in honor of Blaise Pascal, whose experiments greatly increased knowledge of the atmosphere. A pascal is the force of one newton acting on a surface area of one square meter. It is the unit of pressure designated by the International System. l00,OOO Pa= 1000mb 1 bar

Pascal

Blaise Pascal's contribution to computing was recognized by computer scientist Nicklaus Wirth, who in 1972 named his new computer language Pascal (and insisted that it be spelled Pascal, not PASCAL).

Blaise Pascal - Biography
Blaise Pascal was born at Clermont on June 19, 1623, and died at Paris on Aug. 19, 1662. His father, a local judge and tax collector at Clermont, and himself of some scientific reputation, moved to Paris in 1631, partly to prosecute his own scientific studies, partly to carry on the education of his only son, who had already displayed exceptional ability. Blaise Pascal was kept at home in order to ensure his not being overworked, and with the same object it was directed that his education should be at first confined to the study of languages, and should not include any mathematics. This naturally excited the boy's curiosity, and one day, being then twelve years old, he asked in what geometry consisted. His tutor replied that it was the science of constructing exact figures and of determining the proportions between their different parts. Blaise Pascal, stimulated no doubt by the injunction against reading it, gave up his play-time to this new study, and in a few weeks had discovered for himself many properties of figures, and in particular the proposition that the sum of the angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles.

At the age of fourteen Blaise Pascal was admitted to the weekly meetings of Roberval, Mersenne, Mydorge, and other French geometricians; from which, ultimately, the French Academy sprung. At sixteen Blaise Pascal wrote an essay on conic sections; and in 1641, at the age of eighteen, he constructed the first arithmetical machine, an instrument which, eight years later, he further improved. His correspondence with Fermat about this time shews that he was then turning his attention to analytical geometry and physics. He repeated Torricelli's experiments, by which the pressure of the atmosphere could be estimated as a weight, and he confirmed his theory of the cause of barometrical variations by obtaining at the same instant readings at different altitudes on the hill of Puy-de-Dôme.

In 1650, when in the midst of these researches, Blaise Pascal suddenly abandoned his favorite pursuits to study religion, or, as he says in his Pensées, "contemplate the greatness and the misery of man''; and about the same time he persuaded the younger of his two sisters to enter the Port Royal society.

In 1653, Blaise Pascal had to administer his father's estate. He now took up his old life again, and made several experiments on the pressure exerted by gases and liquids; it was also about this period that he invented the arithmetical triangle, and together with Fermat created the calculus of probabilities. He was meditating marriage when an accident again turned the current of his thoughts to a religious life. He was driving a four-in-hand on November 23, 1654, when the horses ran away; the two leaders dashed over the parapet of the bridge at Neuilly, and Blaise Pascal was saved only by the traces breaking. Always somewhat of a mystic, he considered this a special summons to abandon the world. He wrote an account of the accident on a small piece of parchment, which for the rest of his life he wore next to his heart, to perpetually remind him of his covenant; and shortly moved to Port Royal, where he continued to live until his death in 1662. Constitutionally delicate, he had injured his health by his incessant study; from the age of seventeen or eighteen he suffered from insomnia and acute dyspepsia, and at the time of his death was physically worn out.



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Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #667 on: 25/03/2007 09:52:25 »
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_leap

Quantum leap

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the physical phenomenon. For the television program, see Quantum Leap (TV series).
In physics, a quantum leap or quantum jump is a change of an electron from one energy state to another within an atom. It is discontinuous; the electron jumps from one energy level to another instantaneously. The phenomenon contradicts classical theories, which expect energy levels to be continuous. Quantum leaps are the sole cause of the emission of electromagnetic radiation, including that of light, which occurs in the form of quantized units called photons.


[edit] Vernacular usage
In the vernacular, the term quantum leap has come to mean an abrupt change or "step change", especially an advance or augmentation. The term dates back to early-to-mid-20th century. The vernacular usage usually implies a large and abrupt change, while the term typically refers to a small change in quantum mechanics, often the smallest. The usages agree, however, in that both describe a change that happens all at once, rather than gradually over time. A 'quantum leap in technology' is thus a revolutionary advance, rather than an evolutionary one.


[size=07pt]( Neily, I know this is not the right place, because I missed it, but WOWWWWWW! That Ferris wheel was beautiful! So Pretty!)[/size]
« Last Edit: 25/03/2007 10:05:25 by Karen W. »

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« Reply #669 on: 25/03/2007 14:23:43 »
Henry Shrapnel (1761–1842)

According to Britannica.com: "Shrapnel is a type of antipersonnel projectile named for its inventor, Major-General Henry Shrapnel, an English artillery officer. Shrapnel projectiles contained small shot or spherical bullets, usually of lead, along with an explosive charge to scatter the shot as well as fragments of the shell casing. Henry Shrapnel invented his shrapnel shell for cannons in 1784, which was later adopted by the British army in 1803 for cannons and rifles. Shrapnel was born in 1761 and died in 1842."




This photo (above) depicts two shrapnel balls from a World War I era 75-mm.
shrapnel projectile and a fragment from a World War I era 75-mm. high explosive shell.


The intended destructive effect of the shrapnel projectile against men and animals came from the shrapnel balls. The projectile casing, which merely acted as a carrier for the shrapnel balls, was not designed to fracture or fragment. Some World War I era shrapnel projectiles contained a mixture of two sized balls. The smaller balls, intended for anti-personnel use, constituted approximately ninety per cent of the shrapnel round. The remaining percentage of larger balls were included to disable or kill horses.

The intended destructive effect of high explosive rounds came from the action of the high explosive charge coupled with the fragmentation of the projectile casing. Whereas a shrapnel round was intended to kill or injure people and animals, high explosive rounds were originally designed to damage or destroy inanimate objects such as buildings and field guns.

Historical Background on Shrapnel

Henry ShrapnelOne of the earliest kinds of scatter projectiles was case shot, or canister, used at Constantinople in 1453. The name comes from its case, or can, usually metal, which was filled with scrap, musket balls, or slugs. Somewhat similar, but with larger iron balls and no metal case, was grape shot, so-called from the grape-like appearance of the clustered balls. A stand of grape in the 1700's consisted of a wooden disk at the base of a short wooden rod that served as the core around which the balls stood. The whole assembly was bagged in cloth and reinforced with a net of heavy cord. In later years grape was made by bagging two or three tiers of balls, each tier separated by an iron disk. Grape could disable men at almost 900 yards and was much used during the 1700's. Eventually, it was almost replaced by case shot, which was more effective at shorter ranges (400 to 700 yards). Incidentally, there were 2,000 sacks of grape at the Castillo in 1740, more than any other type projectile.

Spherical case shot was an attempt to carry the effectiveness of grape and canister beyond its previous range, by means of a bursting shell. It was the forerunner of the shrapnel used so much in World War I and was invented by Lt. Henry Shrapnel, of the British Army, in 1784. There had been previous attempts to produce a projectile of this kind, such as the German Zimmerman's "hail shot" of 1573—case shot with a bursting charge and a primitive time fuse, however, Henry Shrapnel's invention was the first air-bursting case shot which, in technical words, "imparted directional velocity" to the bullets it contained. Henry Shrapnel's new shell was first used against the French in 1808, but was not called by its inventor's name until 1852.


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« Reply #671 on: 25/03/2007 23:08:01 »
Star Uplifting

..........is any of several hypothetical processes by which a highly advanced civilization (at least Kardashev-II) could remove a substantial portion of a star's matter in a controlled manner for other uses. The term appears to have been coined by David Criswell.

Stars already lose a small flow of mass via solar wind, coronal mass ejections, and other natural processes. Over the course of a star's life on the main sequence this loss is usually negligible compared to the star's total mass; only at the end of a star's life when it becomes a red giant or a supernova is a large amount of material ejected. The star lifting techniques that have been proposed would operate by increasing this natural plasma flow and manipulating it with magnetic fields.

Stars have deep gravity wells, so the energy required for such operations is large. For example, lifting solar material from the surface of the Sun to infinity requires 2.1 × 1011 J/kg. This energy could be supplied by the star itself, collected by a Dyson sphere; using only 10% of the Sun's total power output would allow 5.9 × 1021 kilograms of matter to be lifted per year (0.0000003% of the Sun's total mass). The Dyson sphere would need to be designed to allow the lifted material to egress through it.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #673 on: 01/04/2007 17:37:03 »
Watt-Hour = A unit of elecrical energy or work ,equal to one watt, acting for one hour,or 3,600 joules

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« Reply #674 on: 01/04/2007 20:02:12 »
« Last Edit: 01/04/2007 20:05:01 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #675 on: 04/04/2007 17:05:20 »
yttrium-aluminium-garnet(YAG) laser
Yawning
Yaws
Y Chromosome
Yeast
Yellow Fever
Yersinia Pestis
Yolk (deutoplasm)
Yolk Sac (vitelline sac)
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #676 on: 04/04/2007 18:37:53 »
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome



Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a disorder where increased levels of the hormone gastrin are produced, causing the stomach to produce excess hydrochloric acid. Often, the cause is a tumour of the pancreas producing the hormone gastrin. Gastrin then causes an excessive production of acid which can lead to peptic ulcers.

Gastrin works on stomach parietal cells causing them to secrete more hydrogen ions into the stomach lumen. In addition, gastrin acts as a trophic factor for parietal cells, causing parietal cell hyperplasia. Thus, there is an increase in the number of acid secreting cells and each of these cells produces acid at a higher rate. The increase in acidity contributes to the development of peptic ulcers in the stomach and duodenum. High acid levels lead to multiple ulcers in the stomach and small bowel.

Patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome may experience abdominal pain and diarrhea. The diagnosis is also suspected in patients without symptoms who have severe ulceration of the stomach and small bowel.

Gastrinomas may occur as single tumors or as multiple, small tumors. About one-half to two-thirds of single gastrinomas are malignant tumors that most commonly spread to the liver and lymph nodes near the pancreas and small bowel. Nearly 25 percent of patients with gastrinomas have multiple tumors as part of a condition called multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). MEN I patients have tumors in their pituitary gland and parathyroid glands in addition to tumors of the pancreas.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zollinger-Ellison_syndrome

 


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« Reply #677 on: 11/04/2007 00:37:39 »

Archimedes
Archimedes (287-212 bc), pre-eminent Greek mathematician and inventor, who wrote important works on plane and solid geometry, arithmetic, and mechanics.

Archimedes was born in Syracuse, Sicily, and educated in Alexandria, Egypt. In pure mathematics he anticipated many of the discoveries of modern science, such as the integral calculus, through his studies of the areas and volumes of curved solid figures and the areas of plane figures. He also proved that the volume of a sphere is two-thirds the volume of a cylinder that circumscribes the sphere.

In mechanics, Archimedes defined the principle of the lever and is credited with inventing the compound pulley. During his stay in Egypt he invented the hydraulic screw for raising water from a lower to a higher level. He is best known for discovering the law of hydrostatics, often called Archimedes' principle, which states that a body immersed in fluid loses weight equal to the weight of the amount of fluid it displaces. This discovery is said to have been made as Archimedes stepped into his bath and perceived the displaced water overflowing.

Archimedes spent the major part of his life in Sicily, in and around Syracuse. He did not hold any public office but devoted his entire lifetime to research and experiment. During the Roman conquest of Sicily, however, he placed his gifts at the disposal of the state, and several of his mechanical devices were employed in the defence of Syracuse. Among the war machines attributed to him are the catapult and—perhaps legendary—a mirror system for focusing the Sun's rays on the invaders' boats and igniting them.

After the capture of Syracuse during the Second Punic War, Archimedes was killed by a Roman soldier who found him drawing a mathematical diagram in the sand. It is said that Archimedes was so absorbed in calculation that he offended the intruder merely by remarking, “Do not disturb my diagrams.” Several of his works on mathematics and mechanics survive, including Floating Bodies, The Sand Reckoner, Measurement of the Circle, Spirals, and Sphere and Cylinder. They all exhibit the rigour and imaginativeness of his mathematical thinking.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #678 on: 11/04/2007 01:18:54 »
Baryons
Bethe, Hans
black holes
Bogan, Louise
Bohr, Neils
Brahe, Tycho
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #679 on: 11/04/2007 02:30:34 »
Capacitor

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A capacitor is an electrical device that can store energy in the electric field between a pair of closely-spaced conductors (called 'plates'). When voltage is applied to the capacitor, electric charges of equal magnitude, but opposite polarity, build up on each plate.

Capacitors are used in electrical circuits as energy-storage devices. They can also be used to differentiate between high-frequency and low-frequency signals and this makes them useful in electronic filters.

Capacitors are occasionally referred to as condensers. This is now considered an antiquated term.
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« Reply #680 on: 11/04/2007 02:51:47 »
Domagk, Gerhard Johannes Paul (1895-1964), German bacteriologist and pathologist who was responsible for the discovery of the first antibacterial drug. Domagk was born in 1895 in Lagow, Brandenburg. In 1927 he was made head of the Department of Experimental Pathology at IG Farbenindustrie in Elberfeld, and in 1929 he was also made Head of Bacteriology. In 1932, he demonstrated the antibacterial effects of a sulphonamide called prontosil in mice with streptococcal infections. Prontosil is a synthetic azo dye, and is also known as sulphamidochrysoidine. It has been shown that the drug dissociates in the living organism to liberate a sulphonamide radical, which has the desired antibacterial effect.

Domagk was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1939, but was unable to accept it until 1947, as Hitler had forbidden German citizens to accept the Nobel Prize. After World War II, Domagk continued his work on chemotherapy, introduced the use of thiosemicarbazone for the treatment of tuberculosis, and also worked on chemotherapy for cancer until his retirement in 1960.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #681 on: 11/04/2007 21:41:43 »
Enrico Fermi  (1901-1954)


The "Last Universal Scientist" Takes Charge

In New York City in 1940, Enrico Fermi continued to conduct nuclear fission experiments at Columbia University. Fermi's team, including Leo Szilard and Walter Zinn, confirmed that absorption of a neutron by a uranium nucleus can cause the nucleus to split into two nearly equal parts, releasing several neutrons and enormous amounts of energy. The potential for a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction had become a strong possibility.
...
from:   http://www.anl.gov/Science_and_Technology/History/Anniversary_Frontiers/unisci.html#fermi


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« Reply #682 on: 11/04/2007 21:49:14 »
Frankenstein  [::)] [;D]
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« Reply #683 on: 11/04/2007 22:17:31 »
Gabbro,

...........general name for a large group of granular igneous rocks, the intrusive equivalents of basalt, composed of plagioclase feldspar with a predominance of dark minerals, usually pyroxenes, hornblende, or olivine. The rocks are heavy, often greenish in colour. Gabbros make up the Black Cuillins on the island of Skye, Scotland, and occur in the highlands along the north shore of Lake Superior.




Gabbro Specimen
« Last Edit: 11/04/2007 22:19:39 by neilep »
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« Reply #684 on: 12/04/2007 05:09:55 »
Halogens

A series of the elements, inert gases that save money on electric costs.

"The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 (old-style: VII or VIIA; Group 7 IUPAC Style) of the periodic table, comprising fluorine, F, chlorine, Cl, bromine, Br, iodine, I, and astatine, At."
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« Reply #686 on: 12/04/2007 14:35:20 »
J .Robert Oppenheimer,. (1904-1967),




[attachment=362]


American physicist and government adviser, who directed the development of the first atomic bombs.

Oppenheimer was born in New York on April 22, 1904, and was educated at Harvard University and the universities of Cambridge and Göttingen. After serving with the International Education Board (1928-1929), he became a professor of physics at the University of California and the California Institute of Technology (1929-1947), where he built up large schools of theoretical physics. He was noted for his contributions relating to quantum theory, the theory of relativity, cosmic rays, positrons, and neutron stars.

During a leave of absence (1943-1945), Oppenheimer served as director of the atomic-bomb project at Los Alamos, New Mexico. His leadership and organizational skills earned him the Presidential Medal of Merit in 1946. In 1947 he became director of the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton, New Jersey, serving there until the year before his death. He was also chairman of the General Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from 1947 to 1952 and served thereafter as an adviser. In 1954, however, he was suspended from this position on charges that his past association with Communists and so-called fellow travellers made him a poor security risk. This action reflected the political atmosphere of the time, as well as the dislike of some politicians and military figures for Oppenheimer's opposition to the development of the hydrogen bomb and his support of arms control; his loyalty was not really in doubt. Subsequently, efforts were made to clear his name, and in 1963 the AEC conferred on him its highest honour, the Enrico Fermi Award. Oppenheimer devoted his final years to the study of the relationship between science and society; he died in Princeton on February 18, 1967. His writings include Science and the Common Understanding (1954) and Lectures on Electrodynamics (published posthumously, 1970).


   
   
   
 
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« Reply #688 on: 13/04/2007 22:26:14 »
Lower Mantle.

........part of the interior of the Earth, about 2,300 km (1,430 mi) thick. Even though temperatures are higher here, this part of the mantle is solid. Tremendous pressures keep the rock material from melting.







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« Reply #689 on: 14/04/2007 01:32:41 »
Magnifying Glass

A magnifying glass is a single convex lens which is used to produce a magnified image of an object. The lens is usually mounted in a frame with a handle.

A magnifying glass works by creating a magnified virtual image of an object behind the lens. The distance between the lens and the object must be shorter than the focal length of the lens for this to occur. Otherwise, the image appears smaller and inverted, and can be used to project images onto surfaces.
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« Reply #690 on: 15/04/2007 11:57:14 »
Negri Adelchi


Italian physician, pathologist, and microbiologist, born August 2, 1876, Perugia; died February 19, 1912, Pavia.
 
...short biography from:    http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/2175.html

Adelchi Negri was born in Perugia and studied medicine and surgery at Pavia University. While still a student he was assistant to Camillo Golgi (1843-1926) at the institute of pathology. He graduated 1900 and became Golgi's assistant. He was habilitated as lecturer in general pathology five years later, and in 1909 was appointed professor of bacteriology, thus becoming the first official teacher of that subject in Pavia. He became professor extraordinary in 1910.

Negri's first works were on histology, haematology, cytology, protozoology, and hygiene. From 1899 to 1902 he worked mainly on the structure of red blood corpuscles and the origin of blood platelets as well as the cytology of glandular structures in mammals and the changes which took place in blood elements during clotting.

In 1903, on the advice of Golgi, Negri began histological research to clarify the aetiology og rabies. On March 27, 1903, he announced to the Pavia Medical Society his fundamental scientific contribution of the rabies corpuscles - Negri's bodies. He was soon was able to see and demonstrate that the bodies which bear his name were a constant feature in the nervous system in animals and man infected with the disease.

Negri mistakenly regarded the bodies as parasitic protozoa and the pathological agent of rabies. Some months after Negri's discovery, however, Alfonso Di Vesta in Naples, and Paul Remlinger at Riffat Bey in Constantinople, showed that the etiological agent of rabies is a filterable virus.

Other contributions included work on bacillary dysentery, and his demonstration that vaccinia virus passed through bacterial filters then in use. During the last years of his life he became particularly interested in malaria and took a very active role in endeavours to eliminate it from Lombardy.

In 1906 Negri married his colleague Lina Luzzani and six years later, at the age of thirty-five, died of tuberculosis.


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« Reply #691 on: 15/04/2007 14:13:18 »
Obsidian, dark, semi-translucent volcanic glass of the same composition as rhyolite, produced when molten igneous rock (magma) pushes its way up to the Earth's surface as lava and cools so rapidly that its constituent ions do not have time to crystallize. Obsidian is usually black, but may also be red or brown. Because it is easy to shape by flaking, it was prized by early peoples, who used it to make weapons and tools.


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« Reply #692 on: 15/04/2007 17:24:37 »
Nichol Plated Steel

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« Reply #693 on: 15/04/2007 18:18:17 »
Paca, common name for two species of large rodents found in forests from Mexico to central South America. The heavyset paca measures up to 80 cm (31 in) long and weighs up to 12 kg (26 lb). Its large head has bony cheek structures, and its brown fur is marked by white spots arranged in lines from front to rear. The animal lives in burrows near streams or marshy areas, and the usual litter of one or two young is born during the winter or early spring. Sometimes a second litter is born in July. The paca's flesh is considered delicious, and the possibility has been raised of breeding the animal for food.

Scientific classification:
Pacas belong to the family Dasyproctidae. The two species are classified as Agouti (or Cuniculus) paca and Agouti (or Cuniculus) taczanowskii.


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« Reply #694 on: 15/04/2007 18:23:16 »
Questran (Cholestyramine)





Cholestyramine (Questran®): These resins used for sequestering bile acids in order to decrease cholesterol, can decrease gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of vitamin B12.
It is unlikely that this interaction will deplete body stores of vitamin B12 unless there are other factors contributing to deficiency. In a group of children treated with cholestyramine for up to 2.5 years there was not any change in serum vitamin B12 levels. Routine supplements are not necessary.

from:    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_B12

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« Reply #695 on: 15/04/2007 18:53:47 »
Radar Gun

Radar guns are used in some countries to detect speeding motorists. Here, a gun transmits waves at a given frequency (shown in blue) toward an oncoming car. Reflected waves (shown in red) return to the gun at a different frequency, depending on how fast the car being tracked is moving. A device in the gun compares the transmission frequency to the received frequency to determine the speed of the car. In this case, the high frequency of the reflected waves indicates the motorist in the red car is speeding.


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« Reply #696 on: 16/04/2007 00:14:43 »
Science Forum = A place to read and participate in learning about science and to exchange ideas theories and interesting facts , studies experiments results and and how things work in this universe.. Hee hee

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« Reply #697 on: 16/04/2007 22:43:00 »
Table Mountain, mountain overlooking Cape Town, South Africa. It is a distinctive flat-topped mountain 1,086 m (3,563 ft) high, flanked by Lion’s Head (669 m/2,195 ft) to the north-west and Devil’s Peak (1,001 m/3,284 ft) to the east. One of the world’s most famous landmarks, Table Mountain provides a dramatic setting for the harbour and city of Cape Town. Its northern face is a sheer precipice 3 km (2 mi) long, broken only by the deep cleft of Platteklip gorge. The top 600 m (2,000 ft) is formed of horizontal layers of sandstone, deposited on the floor of a shallow sea between 400 million and 500 million years ago, resting on a foundation of slates and granites.

The mountain is covered in fynbos—a major vegetation type unique to South Africa that includes proteas, ericas, and plants found nowhere else. A large variety of wildflowers blooms on the mountain, including Disa uniflora, a species of orchid known as the Pride of Table Mountain. The mountain top is rocky and treeless. Animal life includes baboons, dassies (the rock hyrax), and also Himalayan mountain goats descended from animals that escaped from the nearby Groote Schuur Zoo.

In summer a strangely neat cap of cloud often unrolls across the flat summit and drapes itself over the edges, forming a “tablecloth”. When Cape Town’s strong south-easterly winds collide with the mountains of the Cape Peninsula they are forced to rise. As soon as they reach the cooler altitudes of the mountaintops they condense into thick white clouds.

The National Botanical Gardens (1913) at Kirstenbosch on the eastern slopes of Table Mountain were originally a gift from Cecil Rhodes to the nation in 1895. About 9,000 of the 21,000 southern African flowering plants are cultivated in the 560-hectare (1,400-acre) garden. A cable car, built in 1929, takes visitors to the summit. It is used by over 300,000 passengers each year. There are also 350 recognized paths to the top.




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« Reply #698 on: 16/04/2007 22:43:56 »
Besides the posters.......does anyone actually read this section ?...please let me know !!
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« Reply #699 on: 16/04/2007 23:19:42 »
Uranus



Uranus (IPA: [ jʊˈɹeɪ.nəs, ˈjʊ.ɹə.nəs ], named after the Greek god of the sky (Uranus , Οὐρανός), is the seventh planet from the Sun. It is a gas giant, the third largest by diameter and fourth largest by mass. Its astronomical symbol is . The symbol is a combination of the devices for the Sun and Mars, as Uranus was the personification of heaven in Greek mythology, dominated by the light of the Sun and the power of Mars. It is also the alchemical symbol of platinum.

Uranus is the first planet discovered in modern times. Sir William Herschel formally discovered the planet on March 13, 1781; the other planets (from Mercury out to Saturn) have been known since ancient times, since they are visible to the naked eye. Uranus' discovery expanded the boundaries of the solar system for the first time in modern human history. It was also the first planet discovered using technology (a telescope) rather than the naked eye

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