A-Z of AVIONICS

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Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #851 on: 08/11/2007 02:10:12 »
HYDROMETER

Hydrometer
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrometer




A hydrometer is an instrument used for determining the specific gravity of liquids. It is usually made of glass and consists of a cylindrical stem and a bulb weighted with mercury or shot to make it float upright. The liquid is poured into a tall jar, and the hydrometer is gently lowered into the liquid until it floats freely.

The point where the surface of the liquid touches the stem of the hydrometer is noted. Hydrometers usually contain a paper scale inside the stem, so that the specific gravity (or density relative to water) can be read directly. Specific gravity is a ratio of one density to that of the density of water. Therefore, specific gravity has no units. See relative density.

In light liquids like kerosene, gasoline, and alcohol, the hydrometer must sink deeper to displace its weight of liquid than in heavy liquids like brine, milk, and acids. In fact, it is usual to have two separate instruments, one for heavy liquids, on which the mark 1.000 for water is near the top, and one for light liquids, on which the mark 1.000 is near the bottom of the stem.

Many industries have more than one set of hydrometers, 1.0-0.95, 0.95-0.9 etc, to provide more precise measurements of density. For measuring density of petroleum products, like fuel oils, the specimen is usually heated in a temperature jacket with a thermometer placed behind it since density is dependent on temperature. Light oils are placed in cooling jackets, typically at 15oC. Very light oils with many volatile components are measured in a variable volume container using a floating piston sampling device to minimize light end losses.

The function of the hydrometer is based on Archimedes principle that a solid suspended in a liquid will be buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced. Thus, the lower the density of the substance, the lower the hydrometer will sink. Some historians credit Hypatia of Alexandria with the invention of the hydrometer although there is little evidence to support this.
« Last Edit: 08/11/2007 02:11:45 by Karen W. »

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Offline Andrew K Fletcher

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #852 on: 08/11/2007 09:02:03 »
« Last Edit: 08/11/2007 09:27:30 by Andrew K Fletcher »
Science is continually evolving. Nothing is set in stone. Question everything and everyone. Always consider vested interests as a reason for miss-direction. But most of all explore and find answers that you are comfortable with

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #853 on: 08/11/2007 18:14:20 »
Joystick (cockpit)



Figure 1. Joystick in a cockpit, 1942.

http://www-sul.stanford.edu/siliconbase/wip/control.html




Joystick in a cockpit, airbus320.

http://www.hansonline.eu/wright100/power.htm
« Last Edit: 08/11/2007 18:17:22 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #854 on: 08/11/2007 19:37:39 »
Karen Warvi

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #855 on: 10/11/2007 18:28:29 »
Looping



Check out the loop performed by the C-27 Spartan,
 the G222's successor, at the 2006 Czech International Air Fair.

 http://www.richard-seaman.com/Aircraft/AirShows/Ciaf2006/Highlights/index.html#C27
 
« Last Edit: 10/11/2007 18:42:34 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #856 on: 10/11/2007 19:26:04 »
Mandelbrot set



The Mandelbrot set is a set of points in the complex plane that forms a fractal. Mathematically, the Mandelbrot set can be defined as the set of complex c-values for which the orbit of 0 under iteration of the complex quadratic polynomial x2 + c remains bounded.[1]

The Mandelbrot set has become popular outside mathematics both for its aesthetic appeal and for being a complicated structure arising from a simple definition. Benoît Mandelbrot and others worked hard to communicate this area of mathematics to the public.

[attachment=1411]

[attachment=1413]

« Last Edit: 10/11/2007 19:39:08 by neilep »
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #857 on: 10/11/2007 21:11:05 »
Nimbus clouds






Nimbus cloud

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A nimbus cloud is a cloud that produces precipitation. Usually the precipitation reaches the ground as rain, hail or snow, however, that is not a requirement, falling precipitation may evaporate as virga.


Etymology
Nimbus is a Latin word meaning cloud or rain storm. The prefix nimbo- or the suffix -nimbus indicates a precipitating cloud; for example, a nimbostratus cloud is a precipitating stratus cloud, and a cumulonimbus cloud is a precipitating cumulus cloud.














« Last Edit: 11/11/2007 18:28:31 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #858 on: 11/11/2007 19:24:19 »
Owen Willans Richardson


Sir Owen Willans Richardson (April 26, 1879 - February 15, 1959) was a British physicist, a professor at Princeton University from 1906 to 1913, and a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1928 "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him".

[edit] Biography

Richardson was born in Dewsbury, Yorkshire, England, the only son of Joshua Henry and Charlotte Maria Richardson. He was educated at Batley Grammar School, and graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge in 1900 having gained First Class Honours in Natural Science.

In 1914 Richardson became professor of physics at King's College London, where he was later made director of research. He retired in 1944.

He was awarded the Hughes Medal by the Royal Society (of which he was a Fellow) in 1920 for his work in thermionics, which is the basis for the vacuum tube.

He also researched the photoelectric effect, the gyromagnetic effect, the emission of electrons by chemical reactions, soft X-rays, and the spectrum of hydrogen.

He was knighted in 1939. He died in 1959 aged 79.

Richardson's nephew was physicist Richard Davisson whose father Clinton Davisson was also a Nobel Prize in Physics laureate.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #859 on: 11/11/2007 19:38:21 »
Pyrotechnics
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Pyrotechnics are used in the entertainment industry

[attachment=1427]




The band Rammstein's stage acts center largely around pyrotechnics

Pyrotechnics can also be used for Fireworks events.

Pyrotechnics is a field of study often thought synonymous with the manufacture of fireworks, but more accurately it has a wider scope that includes items for military and industrial uses. Items such as safety matches, oxygen candles, explosive bolts and fasteners and the automobile safety airbag all fall under the purview of pyrotechnics. Without pyrotechnics, modern aviation and spaceflight would be impracticable;[citation needed] this is because pyrotechnic devices combine high reliabilty with very compact and efficient energy storage: essentially in the form chemical energy which is converted via expanding hot gases often propagated by a shock wave as in bolt and cable cutters. The controlled action of a pyrotechnic device (initiated by any of several means, including an electrical signal, optical signal or mechanical impetus) makes possible a wide range of automated and/or remote mechanical actions; for example, deployment of safety equipment and services, precisely timed release sequences, etc. The majority of the technical pyrotechnic devices use propellants in their function, a minority use materials that are classified as primary or secondary explosives to obtain very fast and powerful mechanical (mostly cutting) actions; for example, Jet Axe.

The use of explosions, flashes, smoke, flames or other propellant driven effects on-stage is known as Proximate Pyrotechnics. Proximate because it's near an audience. Special licencing must be obtained from local authorities to legally prepare and use proximate pyrotechnics.

Many musical groups use pyrotechnics to enhance the quality of their live shows. Some of the earliest bands to use pyrotechnics were Queen, Pink Floyd, and KISS. The band Rammstein uses a large variety of pyrotechnics, from flaming costumes to face-mounted flamethrowers. Also Lordi is known for its vivid pyrotechnics. Many professional wrestlers have also used pyrotechnics as part of their entrances to the ring. One example would be Bill Goldberg, who would use pyrotechnics during his in ring entrance in both WCW and WWE .

Pyrotechnics is, in general, divided into categories based on the main effect produced. The range of effects include: light flashes of various colour, intensity and duration; sounds of many types, like thumps, bangs, pops, hums and whistles, all loud or soft as needed; flames of different colours, sizes, shapes and durations; smoke of any colour or amount; ejected active pyrotechnics, like various short-lived sparks (mostly produced by small metal particles of titanium, magnalium, steel or zirconium; which, being ignited by the primary device, continue to burn while moving through the air) and microstars, including glitter, strobe, colour and comet tailed effects, even coloured matrix comets invented by Myke Stanbridge. The use of ejected passive effects is common, they include: confetti, streamers, tokens, toys, etc.

A basic pyrotechnic device consists of a sufficiently strong and non-flammable container to hold its active contents, which comprise either flammable compositions, like nitrocellouse and/or blackpowder or a mixture of a fuel and oxidiser blended in situ. Various ingredients may be added to provide colour, smoke or sparks. Special additives are used to modify the character of the effect produced, either to enhance or subdue the effect; for example, the production of an effects-wave that changes as the effect progresses from several similar devices - to make the similar effect rise or fall towards or away from a cresendo, etc. In general, such pyrotechnic devices are initiated by a remotely controlled electrical signal that causes an electric match, or e-match, to produce ignition. The remote control may be manual, via a switch console, or computer controlled according to a pre-programmed sequence and/or a sequence that tracks the live performance via stage cues.

If not handled and/or used properly pyrotechnics can be dangerous. In 2003, improper use of pyrotechnic devices caused a fire in a Rhode Island nightclub called The Station. The Station nightclub fire was started when the fireworks the band Great White was using accidentally ignited flammable soundproofing foam, which was not appropriate and/or not installed properly. The foam caused the fire to spread rapidly and the resulting fire led to 100 deaths, ostensibly because their quick escape was blocked by ineffective exit doors.

Indoor and/or proximate pyrotechnics is a sub-specialty that requires additional training beyond that of other professional pyrotechnics areas and additionally requires the use of devices especially made for indoor and/or close proximity use. While the type of foam used and the lack of a required sprinkler system were important factors in the fire, the Great White tragedy could have been prevented had those involved paid even minimal attention to standard safety practices around the use of pyrotechnics.
« Last Edit: 11/11/2007 19:45:26 by Karen W. »

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #860 on: 11/11/2007 22:46:24 »
Que sera sera  (Naval Aircraft)





...

 October 31, 1956: The U.S. Navy R4D (Douglas DC-3) aircraft "Que Sera Sera" became the first airplane to land and take off at the South Pole. Rear Admiral George Dufek and six others ventured out of the plane in -58 degree weather to plant the American flag.

Image: The aircraft Que Sera Sera lands at the South Pole. Navy photo taken by reporter Maurice Cutler.









« Last Edit: 11/11/2007 22:50:22 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #861 on: 11/11/2007 22:52:05 »
Rain Gauges (barometers)

« Last Edit: 11/11/2007 22:57:11 by Karen W. »

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Offline Simulated

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #862 on: 11/11/2007 22:54:40 »
S for sun. (ya'll know what it looks like. haha)

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Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #863 on: 11/11/2007 22:56:25 »
Robert Rosen (27 June 1934, - 28 December 1998, Rochester, New York) was an American theoretical biologist and professor of Biophysics at Dalhousie University.

Robert Rosen was born in 1934 in Brooklyn, New York. He studied physics and theoretical biology, and was a student of physicist and theoretical biologist Nicholas Rashevsky. He received his PhD in mathematical biology from the University of Chicago in 1959 and remained there until 1967.

In 1967 Rosen then went to the State University of New York at Buffalo, holding a joint appointment at the Center for Theoretical Biology. He came to Dalhousie University in 1975 as a Killam Research Professor in the Department of Physiology & Biophysics, and stayed here until his retirement in 1994.[1]

He was president of the Society for General Systems Research in 1980

[edit] Work

Rosen's research was concerned with the most fundamental aspects of biology. Major themes in the work of Robert Rosen were:

    * developing a specific definition of complexity
    * ensuing theoretical framework, now called "Rosennean Complexity". His main focus was the question: "what is life?" ("why are organisms alive?")

Rosen came to realize that the Newtonian model of physics - the world of mechanisms - was inadequate to describe biological systems; that is, one could not properly answer the question "what is life?" in a Newtonian formalism. Rather than biology being a mere subset of already-known physics, it turned out that biology had profound lessons for physics, and science in general.[2].

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Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #864 on: 11/11/2007 23:00:56 »
[size=07pt](Neily what comes after "S"...T.....HEE HEE HEE...)[/size]

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Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #865 on: 11/11/2007 23:01:09 »
Grrrrrrrrrrr !!!!

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #866 on: 11/11/2007 23:01:47 »

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #867 on: 11/11/2007 23:02:43 »
Thunder  (sound barrier)


A friend of mine sent me an email containing images similar to the ones below.

Is this for real or is someone having a really good time with photoshop?











...more supersonic pics here!

« Last Edit: 11/11/2007 23:10:51 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #868 on: 11/11/2007 23:10:06 »
Universe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The Universe is defined as the summation of all particles and energy that exist and the space-time in which all events occur. Based on observations of the portion of the Universe that is observable, physicists attempt to describe the whole of space-time, including all matter and energy and events which occur, as a single system corresponding to a mathematical model.

The generally accepted scientific theory which describes the origin and evolution of the Universe is Big Bang cosmology, which describes the expansion of space from an extremely hot and dense state of unknown characteristics. The Universe underwent a rapid period of cosmic inflation that flattened out nearly all initial irregularities in the energy density; thereafter the universe expanded and became steadily cooler and less dense. Minor variations in the distribution of mass resulted in hierarchical segregation of the features that are found in the current universe; such as clusters and superclusters of galaxies. There are more than one hundred billion (1011) galaxies in the Universe,[1] each containing hundreds of billions of stars, with each star containing about 1057 atoms of hydrogen.

Other ways of exploring and describing the origin and evolution of the universe include religious cosmology and philosophical cosmology.

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Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #870 on: 11/11/2007 23:23:19 »
Wind velocity (apparent wind)

From Wiped, the free encyclopedia




Apparent wind is the wind experienced by a moving object.



In sailing, the apparent wind is the actual flow of air acting upon a sail, or the wind as it appears to the sailor. It differs from the true or prevailing wind seen by a stationary observer in velocity and direction. In nautical terminology, these properties of the apparent wind are expressed in knots and degrees.

[edit] Definition of apparent wind

The Apparent wind is the wind experienced by an observer in motion and is the relative velocity of the wind with respect to the observer, who is moving.

Apparent wind is the vector sum of the True Wind Velocity and the air stream generated by an "object's Velocity over ground"[1] This is the Inverse (mathematics) of the objects actual velocity or more succinctly the apparent wind is defined as the Velocity of the wind minus the Velocity of the object.

[edit] Calculating velocity and angle

A = \sqrt{((H+W*cos(a))^2 + (W*sin(a))^2)}

Where:

    * H = head wind
    * W = true wind velocity
    * a = true pointing angle in degrees (0 = upwind, 180 = downwind)
    * A = apparent wind velocity

The angle of apparent wind (b) can be deducted from the measured boat and wind speeds using the inverse cosine in degrees (AcosD)

b = AcosD((H+(W*cos(a))/\sqrt{((H+W*cos(a))^2 + (W*sin(a))^2)})

[edit] Instruments

The apparent wind on-board is often quoted as a speed measured by a masthead transducer containing an anemometer and wind vane that measures wind speed in knots and wind direction in degrees relative to the heading of the boat. Modern instrumentation can calculate the true wind velocity when the apparent wind and boat velocity are input.

[edit] Implications on sailing speeds

In sailboat racing, and especially in speed sailing, apparent wind is a vitally important factor, when determining the points of sail a sail-boat can effectively travel in. A vessel travelling at increasing speed relative to the prevailing wind will encounter the wind driving the sail at a decreasing angle and increasing velocity. Eventually, the increased drag and diminished degree of efficiency of a sail at extremely low angles will cause a loss of accelerating force. This constitutes the main limitation to the speed of wind-driven vessels and vehicles.

Windsurfers and certain types of boats are able to sail faster than the true wind. These include fast multihulls and some planing monohulls. Ice-sailors and land-sailors also usually fall into this category, because of their relatively low amount of drag or friction.

[edit] Other areas of relevance

In fixed-wing aircraft, apparent wind is what is experienced on-board and it determines the necessary speeds for take-off and landing. Aircraft carriers generally steam directly upwind at maximum speed, in order to increase apparent wind and reduce the necessary take-off velocity. Land-based airport traffic generally take off and land facing upwind for the same reason.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #872 on: 12/11/2007 19:20:27 »
Zefram Cochrane



Dr. Zefram Cochrane was a Human scientist in the 21st century, an eccentric genius, and the inventor of warp drive on Earth.

Cochrane was born in 2032. During the 2060s, he lived in Bozeman, Montana in North America, where he and his team of engineers began developing warp drive and finally built Earth's first warp ship, the Phoenix. After Cochrane's historic first warp flight on April 5, 2063, the Vulcans established first contact with Humanity, thereby ushering in a new era of prosperity for mankind.

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Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #873 on: 12/11/2007 19:30:29 »
Algorithm
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algorithm


In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a definite list of well-defined instructions for completing a task; that given an initial state, will proceed through a well-defined series of successive states, eventually terminating in an end-state.

The concept of an algorithm originated as a means of recording procedures for solving mathematical problems such as finding the common divisor of two numbers or multiplying two numbers. A partial formalization of the concept began with attempts to solve the Entscheidungsproblem (the "decision problem") that David
Hilbert posed in 1928. Subsequent formalizations were framed as attempts to define "effective calculability" (cf Kleene 1943:274) or "effective method" (cf Rosser 1939:225); those formalizations included the Gödel-Herbrand-Kleene recursive functions of 1930, 1934 and 1935, Alonzo Church's lambda calculus of 1936, Emil Post's "Formulation I" of 1936, and Alan Turing's Turing machines of 1936-7 and 1939.
« Last Edit: 12/11/2007 19:32:03 by Karen W. »

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Offline Alandriel

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #874 on: 12/11/2007 20:06:17 »
What happened to the X ?? You know, the one between W - Y.....  [;D]

Boötes / Bootes    or  BOO for short  [;D] / The Bear Driver ~ The Boatsman



Some say that Boötes is the most ancient constellation in the sky. Indeed, it has been reconized by numerous cultures in slightly different forms. Even the Greeks were not clear on its history. The first reference to the name Boötes comes from "The Odyssey" by Homer almost three millenia ago.
In one of his most popular incarnations, he is called the Hunter and, with his Hounds (Canes Venatici), he eternally circles the Bears, Ursa Major and Ursa Minor, around the North Pole. In fact, the brightest star in Boötes is Arcturus, which can be loosely translated as "Bear Guard."

He is also called the Herdsman and his journey around the pole represents his task of keeping the celestial beasts together.

Another legend says that Bootes was the son of Zeus and Callisto. Hera changed Callisto into a bear who was almost killed by Boötes when he was out hunting. Luckily, she was rescued by Zeus and he took her into the sky where she is now Ursa Major, the Great Bear.

Yet another myth says that he was the son of Demeter, the goddess of agriculture. Supposedly he was given a place in the sky for inventing the plow.

Named Stars
ARCTURUS (Alpha Boo)
Nekkar (Beta Boo)
Seginus (Gamma Boo)
IZAR (Epsilon Boo)
Mufrid (Eta Boo)
Asellus Primus (Theta Boo)
Asellus Secondus (Iota Boo)
Asellus Tertius (Kappa 2 Boo)
Alkalurops (Mu 1 Boo)
Merga (38 Boo)


I mean....really........ mu Boo  [::)] whoever......  [;D] [;D]







« Last Edit: 12/11/2007 20:07:56 by Alandriel »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #875 on: 12/11/2007 20:11:46 »
UH OH IKO'S TURN! LOL!

Colloidal silver
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colloidal_silver


Colloidal silver is a colloid of silver particles in water. It has antimicrobial properties and was, in the past, used on external wounds and burns to prevent infection. Some alternative-health practitioners claim that it is a beneficial nutritional supplement. Others also claim that it is a powerful antibiotic[1] which is relatively safe for human consumption, though this is disputed because of the risk of argyria,[2] a permanent blue or gray skin condition which is otherwise benign. The intake of some silver products in large quantities over long periods of time has caused argyria in some people,[3][4][5][6][7] though at dosage levels generally considered normal, the risk for argyria is low.
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« Last Edit: 12/11/2007 20:14:58 by Karen W. »

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #876 on: 12/11/2007 22:22:45 »
« Last Edit: 12/11/2007 22:24:50 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #877 on: 13/11/2007 00:10:46 »
Elion Gertrude B.


Gertrude Belle Elion (January 23, 1918 – February 21, 1999) was an American biochemist and pharmacologist, and a 1988 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Born in New York City to Jewish immigrant parents, she graduated from Hunter College in 1937 and New York University (M.Sc.) in 1941. Unable to obtain a graduate research position due to her gender, she worked as a lab assistant and a high school teacher, before becoming an assistant to George H. Hitchings at the Burroughs-Wellcome pharmaceutical company (now GlaxoSmithKline). She never obtained a formal Ph.D., but she was later awarded an honorary Ph.D from George Washington University.

Working alone as well as with Hitchings, Elion developed a multitude of new drugs, using innovative research methods that would later lead to the development of the AIDS drug AZT. Rather than relying on trial-and-error, Elion and Hitchings used the differences in biochemistry between normal human cells and pathogens (disease-causing agents) to design drugs that could kill or inhibit the reproduction of particular pathogens without harming the host cells.

Elion's inventions include:

    * 6-mercaptopurine (Purinethol), the first treatment for leukemia.[1]
    * Azathioprine (Imuran), the first immuno-suppressive agent, used for organ transplants.
    * Allopurinol (Zyloprim), for gout.
    * Pyrimethamine (Daraprim), for malaria.
    * Trimethoprim (Septra), for meningitis, septicemia, and bacterial infections of the urinary and respiratory tracts.
    * Acyclovir (Zovirax), for viral herpes.

In 1988 Elion received the Nobel Prize in Medicine, together with Hitchings and Sir James Black. Other awards include the National Medal of Science (1991) and the Lemelson-MIT Lifetime Achievement Award (1997). In 1991 she became the first woman to be inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

Gertrude Elion died in North Carolina in 1999, aged 81. She had moved to the Research Triangle in 1970, and for a time served as a research professor at Duke University. She was unmarried.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #878 on: 13/11/2007 00:55:26 »
Gout

Caused by the retention of uric acid in the body which then causes crystals of this substance in the joints, tendons, and causing inflammation of these tissues.

Thought to be hereditary. Eating purines, found in organ tissue (sweet meats) and asparagus and processed food such a sausage, adds a lot of purines to the diet.

The mind is like a parachute. It works best when open.  -- A. Einstein


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Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #880 on: 14/11/2007 22:31:31 »
methinks Iko has a predisposition for avionics !! [;D]

Hawking Stephen


Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist. Hawking is the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, and a Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. He is known for his contributions to the fields of cosmology and quantum gravity, especially in the context of black holes, and his popular works in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general. These include the runaway popular science bestseller A Brief History of Time, which stayed on the British Sunday Times bestseller list for a record-breaking 237 weeks.[1]

His key scientific works to date have included providing, with Roger Penrose, theorems regarding singularities in the framework of general relativity, and the theoretical prediction that black holes should emit radiation, which is today known as Hawking radiation, or sometimes as Bekenstein-Hawking radiation.[2] His scientific career spans more than 40 years and his books and public appearances have made him an academic celebrity and world-renowned theoretical physicist. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts.[3] Hawking is disabled by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), commonly known in the United States as Lou Gehrig's Disease. The illness has progressed over the years and he is now almost completely paralysed.

[attachment=1516]


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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #882 on: 21/11/2007 13:50:58 »
James Cronin


James Watson Cronin (born September 29, 1931) is an American nuclear physicist.

He was born in Chicago, Illinois and attended Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas. Cronin and co-researcher Val Logsdon Fitch were awarded the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physics for a 1964 experiment that proved that certain subatomic reactions do not adhere to fundamental symmetry principles. Specifically, they proved, by examining the decay of kaons, that a reaction run in reverse does not merely retrace the path of the original reaction, which showed that the interactions of subatomic particles are not indifferent to time. Thus the phenomenon of CP violation was discovered.

At present, Jim Cronin is Professor Emeritus at the University of Chicago and a spokesperson for the Auger project. Prof. Cronin is a member of the Board of Sponsors of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists[1]
Men are the same as women, just inside out !

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #883 on: 21/11/2007 18:20:22 »
Kite

...Usually tethered heavier-than-air craft, sustained in the air by its airfoil surfaces being inclined to the wind to generate lift.

http://www.aviastar.org/dictionary_eng.html


« Last Edit: 21/11/2007 18:22:42 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #884 on: 23/11/2007 06:36:55 »
Luis Federico Leloir


(September 6, 1906 – December 2, 1987) was an Argentine doctor and biochemist who received the 1970 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Along with Mario Molina, he is one of the first two Hispanic scientists to ever receive the award. Although born in France, Leloir received the majority of his education at the University of Buenos Aires and was director of the private research group Fundación Instituto Campomar until his death in 1987. Although his laboratories were often plagued by lack of financial support and second-rate equipment, his research into sugar nucleotides, carbohydrate metabolism, and renal hypertension has garnered international attention and fame and has led to significant progress in understanding, diagnosing and treating the congenital disease galactosemia.

[attachment=1630]




Men are the same as women, just inside out !

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #885 on: 23/11/2007 11:59:35 »

methinks Iko has a predisposition for avionics !! [;D]


...me sure he does!
Neilibus likes Nobels or near-Nobel dudes...  [;)]



MAD  (Magnetic Anomaly Detector)





Quote
A magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) is an instrument used to detect minute variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The term refers specifically to magnetometers used either by military forces to detect submarines (a mass of ferromagnetic material creates a detectable disturbance in the magnetic field) or to a geomagnetic survey instrument used to search for minerals by the disturbance of the normal earth-field.

« Last Edit: 23/11/2007 16:41:39 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #886 on: 30/11/2007 17:46:58 »
Nature


[attachment=1709]





Nature, in the broadest sense, is equivalent to the natural world, or the environment, physical universe, material world or material universe. "Nature" refers to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The term generally does not include manufactured objects and human interaction unless qualified in ways such as, e.g., "human nature" or "the whole of nature". Nature is also generally distinguished from the supernatural. It ranges in scale from the subatomic to the galactic.

The word "nature" is derived from the Latin word natura, or "the course of things, natural character." Natura was a Latin translation of the Greek word physis (φύσις), which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord. This is shown in the first written use of the word φύσις, in connection with a plant. The concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion; it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-Socratic philosophers, and has steadily gained currency ever since. This usage was confirmed during the advent of modern scientific method in the last several centuries.

Within the various uses of the word today, "nature" may refer to the general realm of various types of living plants and animals, and in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects – the way that particular types of things exist and change of their own accord, such as the weather and geology of the Earth, and the matter and energy of which all these things are composed. It is often taken to mean the "natural environment" or wilderness – wild animals, rocks, forest, beaches, and in general those things that have not been substantially altered by human intervention, or which persist despite human intervention. This more traditional concept of natural things which can still be found today implies a distinction between the natural and the artificial, with the latter being understood as that which has been brought into being by a human or human-like consciousness or mind.



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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #887 on: 30/11/2007 19:02:35 »
Otto pilot





Airplane! is an American comedy film, first released on 27 June 1980, produced, directed, and written by David Zucker, Jim Abrahams, and Jerry Zucker. Airplane! starred Robert Hays, Julie Hagerty, Leslie Nielsen, Robert Stack, Lloyd Bridges, Peter Graves, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Lorna Patterson. For release in Australia and the Philippines, Airplane! was re-titled as Flying High.

Airplane! is a spoof of the disaster movie genre. It is unique among film parodies in that Airplane! (originally designed for a 20-minute sketch) is a virtual remake of the 1957 Canadian airplane disaster movie Zero Hour! The earlier film featured Dana Andrews in the role of Lt. Striker, for instance, and Airplane! includes numerous jokes and gags that derive directly from the 1957 film.[1] The plot device of the food poisoning incident, which figures prominently in the story line of Airplane!, also came from Zero Hour!



« Last Edit: 30/11/2007 19:07:14 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #888 on: 30/11/2007 19:10:46 »
Pilot (or Aviator)

[attachment=1715]



An Pilot (or aviator) is a person who flies aircraft for pleasure or as a profession. The word is normally applied to pilots, but it can be applied more broadly, for example to include people such as wing-walkers who regularly take part in an aerobatic display sequence. The word aviatrix is sometimes used of women flyers, reflecting the word's Latin root.

The term was more used in the early days of aviation and has connotations of bravery and adventure. Anyone can fly an aircraft, with or without a certificate. However, at all times the aircraft must be under the operational control of a properly certified and current pilot, who is responsible for the safe and legal completion of the flight. The first certificate was delivered by the Aero Club de France to Louis Blériot in 1908, followed by Glenn Curtiss, Leon Delagrange and Robert Esnault-Pelterie. The absolute authority given to the Pilot in Command is derived from that of a ship’s captain.[citation needed]

In the United Kingdom there were (in 2000) 31,885 private pilots and 16,449 airline and commercial pilots (ATPL and CPL) registered with the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA). Among private pilots, only 6% are female (approximately 1800). In the commercial sector this percentage drops to only 2%.

The United States Federal Aviation Administration estimates there are 609,737 active pilots with US Airmen certificates as of December 31, 2005. [1] Of these, about 6% (36,584) are female.

The U.S. state of Alaska has the highest number of pilots per capita: out of an estimated 663,661 residents, 8,550 are pilots, or about one in every 78.


Men are the same as women, just inside out !

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #889 on: 01/12/2007 12:34:58 »
Queen's Aero Design Team





Queen's Aero Design Team - Aerodynamics

The Queen's Aero Design Team is student run and competes every year in a "Design Build Fly" competition in the United States. Each year the criteria for the competition changes preventing a single team from re-entering a winning design year after year. This year's rules can be found at 



« Last Edit: 01/12/2007 12:38:10 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #890 on: 01/12/2007 13:43:14 »
Roger

Used in aeronautic communication to clearly mean "yes" - in other circumstances ......
The mind is like a parachute. It works best when open.  -- A. Einstein

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #891 on: 01/12/2007 14:48:15 »
Sea Hurricane


Hi there,

April stats about the forum traffic are quite amazing...
Number of newbies a bit lower, but almost double posts!
Any suggestion?  [;)]

ikothesis


click here to spot the pilot:      http://file028a.bebo.com/1/large/2007/04/14/21/2083589797a4108042551b65708621l.jpg


Hawker Seany Hurricane Mk X, NX33TF





Quote


http://www.aviationphoto.co.uk/Pictures/Hawker%20Sea%20Hurricane%20MK.IB%20Z7015%20G-BKTH%20Shuttleworth%202004.jpg



...
The Hawker Hurricane was a British single-seat fighter aircraft designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. Some production of the Hurricane was carried out in Canada by the Canada Car and Foundry Co Ltd.

The 1930s design evolved through several versions and adaptations, resulting in a series of aircraft which acted as interceptor-fighters, fighter-bombers (also called "Hurribombers"), and ground support aircraft.
Further versions known as the Sea Hurricane had modifications which enabled operation from ships.The Hurricane was significant in enabling the Royal Air Force (RAF) to win the Battle of Britain of 1940, accounting for the majority of the RAF's air victories. About 14,000 Hurricanes were built by the end of 1944 (including about 1,200 converted to Sea Hurricanes, and about 1,400 that were built in Canada), and served in all the major theatres of the Second World War.









« Last Edit: 02/12/2007 11:19:44 by iko »

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Offline Alandriel

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #892 on: 05/12/2007 20:36:39 »
Quote from: Iko
April stats about the forum traffic are quite amazing...
Number of newbies a bit lower, but almost double posts!
 

 I know it's a quote of a quote of an april date but still....[???] Stats? Where are the stats?


Tropeognathus



Name Of Dinosaur: Tropeognathus mesembrinus
Pronounciation Of Name: Trope-awg-nay-thus meh-sem-bree-nus (bless you!)
Meaning Of Name: Southern Keel Jaw
Diet: Fish and squid
Wingspan: 20 feet
Height: 5 feet (at head when on all fours)
Weight: 25 pounds (that’s my personal estimate)
Time It Lived: Cretaceous Period, 122-112 million years ago
Fossils Found In: Brazil
Information: Considering that Tropeognathus is a Pterosaur (Tare-oh-sore), not a dinosaur, I probably shouldn't have put "Name Of Dinosaur" at the top of this fact file, but I need to keep a strict fact file code. Anyway, Tropeognathus is a very interesting pterosaur. About the size of a hang glider, it was a mid-sized Cretaceous Ornithocheirid (Ore-nih-thoh-kye-rid) Pterosaur, which soared over the Brazilian seas like a gigantic seagull. At the end of its two-foot long bill, Tropeognathus possessed a pair of keels, one on the upper jaw and one on the lower. These keels probably acted as stabilizers when Tropeognathus dipped its bill into the water to grab fish while in flight. The keels allowed the bill to cut smoothly through the water, preventing Tropeognathus from losing its balance, falling into the water, soaking itself, and, unable to become airborne again, leaving it an easy target for marine predators. Like its distant relative, the better-known Pteranodon (Tare-an-oh-dawn), Tropeognathus sported a crest at the back of its skull, but this crest was very small, probably not much more than a bony lump on the back of the head. One very interesting recently discovered fact about pterosaurs is that they possessed a highly sophisticated physiological flight apparatus. CAT scans of Pterosaur braincases reveal that their skulls contained huge brain lobes and tiny inner ear canals. This system, called the flocculus, was apparently capable of linking brain activity with body movement, allowing the Pterosaur to focus on searching for its prey on the ground or in the water below while still keeping full aerodynamic control. Complex muscle structures near the surface of the Pterosaur's wings acted like sensory organs, collecting data on wind speed, air temperature, wing tension and position, and other important aerodynamic factors, and sending it all to the Pterosaur's brain via the flocculus. Then the brain could send information back through the flocculus and to the wings, instructing changes on wing tension, adapting the wings to alter flight speed or direction in accordance to the surrounding conditions. This system would have made the Pterosaurs far more efficient flyers than any bird, bat, or man-made aircraft. So it looks like we can't use the Pterosaur extinction theory of competitive evolutionary pressure by birds any more.

Source link








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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #893 on: 05/12/2007 22:55:41 »
Quote from: Iko
April stats about the forum traffic are quite amazing...
Number of newbies a bit lower, but almost double posts!
 

 I know it's a quote of a quote of an april date but still....[???] Stats? Where are the stats?


We should ask our moderators: when you click 'more stats' now
you get the usual list of top posters and topic starters.
In the old days there was a list at the bottom: number of
new members, new topics and posts in the previous months.
It just disappeared...few weeks ago. We'll survive.
Ciao  [:)]

ikod
« Last Edit: 05/12/2007 23:01:07 by iko »

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paul.fr

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #894 on: 05/12/2007 23:28:31 »
Click the little ' i ' icon at the bottom of the page where it says "forum stats"

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #895 on: 06/12/2007 07:17:58 »
Click the little ' i ' icon at the bottom of the page where it says "forum stats"

I did I did, but no stats per month anymore, paul.fr...
I even looked behind my PC screen: nothing!  [;D]
Just lost somewhere, eaten up by the server, maybe.
Cheers,

ikod

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paul.fr

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #896 on: 06/12/2007 08:28:29 »
It's still there, at the bottom Iko

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #897 on: 07/12/2007 14:30:38 »
Sorry paul.fr,

I opened stats center as usual:
nothing at the bottom of that page...
even checked under the table!  [;D]

ikod

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Offline Alandriel

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #898 on: 08/12/2007 10:18:53 »
hehehe  icon, icod

what does strike me however is *this* : Male to Female Ratio: 1.4:1
I think this is one of the very few MBs with a community (if you get my meaning here) that's not totally female biased. A nice change!  [;D]




THE  U N E X P L A I N E D







  • a 1990s documentary television series
  • a 1992 rock music album
[:o)]



or, let me rephrase for you scientific type:  ANOMALIES

Astronomy
- Eccentric anomaly, the angle between the direction of periapsis and the current position of an object on its orbit
- Flyby anomaly, an unexpected energy increase during Earth flybys of satellites
- Mean anomaly, a measure of time in the study of orbital dynamics
- Pioneer anomaly, the observed deviation of the trajectories of various unmanned spacecraft
- South Atlantic Anomaly, the region where Earth's inner van Allen radiation belt makes its closest approach to the planet's surface
- True anomaly, the angle between the direction of periapsis and the current position of an object on its orbit



Geophysics
 - Bouguer anomaly, an anomaly in gravimetry
- Free-air anomaly, the gravity anomaly that has been computed for latitude and corrected for elevation of the station
- Gravity anomaly, the difference between the observed gravity and a value predicted from a model
- Iridium anomaly, a very rare element in the Earth's crust
- Kursk Magnetic Anomaly, a territory rich in iron ores located within Kursk Oblast, Belgorod Oblast, and Oryol Oblast



Medicine
- Congenital vertebral anomaly, a collection of malformations of the spine in animals and infants
- Collie eye anomaly, a congenital, inherited, bilateral eye disease of dogs involving the retina, choroid, and sclera
- Coronary artery anomaly, a congenital abnormality in the coronary anatomy of the heart
- Ebstein's anomaly, a congenital heart defect in which the opening of the tricuspid valve is displaced towards the right ventricle of the heart
- Uhl anomaly, a very seldom congenital heart disease with a partial or total loss of the myocard muscle in the righter ventricle



Quantum physics
- Anomaly (physics), the failure of a symmetry of a theory's classical action
- Conformal anomaly, a quantum phenomenon that breaks the conformal symmetry of the classical theory
- Chiral anomaly, the anomalous nonconservation of a chiral current
- Gauge anomaly, an effect of quantum mechanics that invalidates the gauge symmetry of a quantum field theory
- Global anomaly, an anomaly in quantum physics
- Gravitational anomaly, an effect of quantum mechanics that invalidates the general covariance of a theory of general relativity
- Mixed anomaly, an effect of quantum mechanics
- Parity anomaly, an anomaly associated with parity




Religion
- Ararat anomaly, an object on Mount Ararat claimed to be Noah's Ark

Other
- Anomaly (comics), a DC Comics villain
- Konishi anomaly, the violation of the conservation of the Noether current associated with certain transformations
- Market anomaly, a price distortion on a financial market
- Anomaly in software, everything that differs from expectation. This expectation can result from a document or from a persons notion or experiences.
- Anomaly (music), a Danish rock'n'metal band
- "Anomaly" (Enterprise episode), a third season episode of Star Trek: Enterprise
- Spatial anomaly, a very broad term for any sort of extraordinary disruption in the space-time continuum in the fictional universe of Star Trek
- Time anomaly, a fictional phenomena from the TV series Primeval
- Anomalies, a musical album by Cephalic Carnage.
- Anomalies, small areas in the game S.T.A.L.K.E.R.: Shadow of Chernobyl which have different effects on the game environment.
- Anna-Molly, a song by Incubus whose title sounds like "anomaly" when sung. It refers to "a woman who may or may not exist in real life".
- which then brings us of course to the Alandriel anomaly, an enigma, see reference just above


[from Wiki of course if you want to read some more of the things that keep life interesting

 [;D]




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Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #899 on: 14/12/2007 16:56:26 »
VERUCCA



A plantar wart (also verruca plantaris or verruca) is a wart caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). It is a small lesion that appears on the sole of the foot (hence the name, from Latin planta pedis, the sole of the foot) and typically resembles a cauliflower. A plantar wart may have small black specks within it that ooze blood when the surface is cut or shaved; these are abnormal capillaries. Though the name plantar wart describes specifically HPV infection on the sole of the foot, infection by the virus is possible anywhere on the body and common especially on the palm of the hand, where the appearance of the wart is often exactly as described above for plantar warts.

[attachment=1800]


Ewe may wish to read more about veruccas right here


Men are the same as women, just inside out !