sciconoclast - I never got around to commenting on the following claim

"Wave particle duality" is another common but incorrect phrase.

Assertions like this is why I said you have a very poor understanding of quantum mechanics. The wave-particle duality is a fact and the term "wave-particle duality" for the phenomena is a perfect way to express this fact. All quantum mechanics textbooks either use the term outright or they discuss the subject of the wave-particle duality in detail, such as in Young's double slit experiment.

To start your education on the wave-particle duality I recommend starting here:

http://physics.weber.edu/carroll/honors-time/duality.htm E.g. see the part that says

The implications of this (which are described in Chapter 6 of Richard Feynman's The Character of Physical Law) are staggering.

In that book Feynman wrote on page 128

This growing confusion was resolved in 1925 or 1926 with the advent of the correct equations for quantum mechanics. Now we know how the electrons and light behave. But what do we call it? If I say they behave like particles I give the wrong impression; also if I say they behave like waves. They behave in their own inimitable way, which technically could be called the quantum mechanical way. They have in a way that is nothing like you have ever seen before. Your experience is incomplete. The behavior of things on a very tiny scale is simply different. An atom does not behave like a weight hanging n a spring and oscillating. Nor does it behave like a miniature representation of the solar system with planets going around in orbits. Nor does it appear to be like a cloud or a fog of some sort surrounding the nucleus. It behaves like nothing you have ever seen before.

There is one simplification at least. Electrons behave in this respect in exactly the same way as photons; they are both screwy, but in exactly the same way.

That, in essence, is the wave-particle duality! Please learn it -

*correctly.*It's rare not to see a quantum mechanics textbook use the term. Even those who don't use it explain the concept since it's the central idea of quantum mechanics.

See:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wave%E2%80%93particle_dualityWave–particle duality is the fact that every elementary particle or quantic entity exhibits the properties of not only particles, but also waves.

Here are some perfect examples from the quantum mechanics literature where the phrase is

*used*. The following are very well known graduate level texts;

**Quantum Mechanics - 3rd. Ed.** by Eugen Merzbacher, page 2. After describing the dual nature of matter he wrote

Louis de Broglie proposed that the wave-particle duality is not a monopoly of light but is a universal characteristic of nature which becomes evident when the magnitude of *h* cannot be neglected. He thus brought out a second fundamental fact, usually referred to as the *wave nature of matter*.

Chapter 3 of

**Introduction to Quantum Physics** by A.P. French and Edwin F. Taylor, is entitled

**Wave-particle duality and bound states**. So the entire chapter is about something that you claim is wrong. Both of these authors are extremely good physicists and authors of physics. Both either teach or taught at MIT at one time or another. So you are guaranteed that they know the subject a hell of lot better than anybody on this discussion board. If you want to you can download that text and read that chapter from here:

http://bookos-z1.org/book/2316071/f921a2 You have to first register with the site and then login. Registration is free. It's a great place to download almost any text textbook that you want from!

When I was searching for this I came across an entire chapter on the collapse of the wavefunction. You can find it in

**Quantum Mechanics; The Theoretical Minimum** by Leonard Susskind and Art Friedman. I.e.

**4.14 Collapse**

....

But something different happens when an observation is made. An experiment to measure **L** will have an unpredictable outcome, but after the measurement is made, the system is left in an eigenstate of **L**. Which Eigenstate? The one corresponding to the outcome of the measurement. But this is unpredictable. So it follows that during an experiment the state of a system jumps unpredictably to an eigenstate of the observable that was measured. This phenomena is called *the collapse of the wave function*.

Do you get it now? All that "collapse of the wave function" means is is a description of the above described phenomena, period!

Back to wave-particle duality. Section 2 of

**Quantum Mechanics** by Cohen-Tannoudji, Diu and Laloe is entitled

**Wave-particle duality**. You can download this from

http://bookos-z1.org/book/999673/966ae4 This is a graduate level QM text. In fact its the text I myself used in graduate school.

Another graduate QM text that uses it is

**Principles of Quantum Mechanics - 2nd Ed.** by R. Shankar, page 113.

Bohr used something like the convergence of time distance intervals along vector lines to calculated the points for the greatest probability for photon occurrence. This is completely different than the historic calculations of crest to crest increase in amplitude for photon occurrence used in wave functions. His function is only referred to as a wave function out of the historical preference.

Totally irrelevant. I fail to see why you keep bring up Bohr because what he said is of no consequence to the subject matter. That you think it does is just another example of why you need a much better education in physics. Again, no insult intended. Just an honest observation and some good advice. But if you're not honest with us or yourself you'll never be able to learn the correct physics.

Example; You keep on thinking that "wave function" is some sort of historical accident or historical remnant. That's about as wrong as you'll ever get in quantum mechanics and tells me that you've never even read a good quantum mechanics textbook such as that of Griffiths or French and Taylor!