Quantum teleportation, or action-at-a-distance, is the current interpretation of the appearance of entanglement. When two objects are entangled, the state of one is linked to that of the other... if one has a spin "up", for example, the other might be required to have a spin "down". This is true even if the particles' states are unobserved and indeterminate and each particle has a state of 1/2 "up" and 1/2 "down". The fact that the unobserved states are really a combination of both (mutually exclusive) states and not some definite values that are merely unobserved (called hidden variables) was proven in an experiment designed by John Bell... Bell's Inequality. But, when one observes the state of one particle, one finds simultaneously what the state of the other particle will be observed to be... even if the other particle is very far away.

The interpretation most common in quantum mechanics (and not accepted by Einstein) is that the act of observation instantly changes the state of the universe across whatever distance separates the particles.

There are problems with this. Not only does it require information to travel faster than **c**, the speed of light, but the communication must be instantaneous. There cannot be any intervening time. While exceeding the speed limit **c** would be problematical, it could be dealt with. The problem with instantaneous communication is that it doesn't have any physical meaning. Not only the rate of time's passage differs for observers in different reference frames, the sequence of events isn't guaranteed to be the same (unless they are causally linked like a series of dominoes knocking each other down in sequence). In a real physical universe where spacetime isn't really flat anywhere and pretty much everything is moving relative to other things, there cannot be any uniquely identifiable time assigned to any two events.

Basically, Einstein proved "non-simultaneity"... there cannot be any way to define two events as simultaneous except for observers sharing a reference frame. Two physically separate events, (A) & (B), could be simultaneous from the perspective of one observer while from another observer's (equally valid) perspective, (A) will precede (B), and for a third perspective, (B) will precede (A).

Action-at-a-distance requires that Relativity be wrong in some very fundamental way.

Another problem is the idea that an observation alters the universe. In my opinion, that's silly on the face of it. Observation alters the observer.

An alternative interpretation for the observed consequences of entanglement is that, by altering the state of the observer, the set of possible observations the observer can make is altered. This, however, requires that we exist in a multiverse in which all possibilities "exist", potentially, and that it's only the state of the observer that constrains what can actually be observed. Since this is entirely consistent with Bell's experiment's results, this seems like a more reasonable interpretation.

Quantum mechanics has shown that, until an observation is made, every allowable state coexists for the system in question. Once the observation is made, the quantum state of the observing system becomes entangled with one specific state and any contrary observation is then disallowed by the rules of quantum mechanics.

Any system (including any observer) can be described by a quantum state matrix of eigenvalues. When the known physical laws are satisfied, the system can be described by a matrix that’s balanced about the main diagonal, a Hermitian matrix. If a system were to interact with even one quantum that violates the rules, the resulting matrix will be non-Hermitian. Schrödinger described such systems as, “unobservable.” I presume that only observers with Hermitian state matrices are allowed, so no observer could ever make an observation that violated the rules (in this case, the entangled states).

I think of this as Schrödinger’s Filter. It provides a “local” (slower than light) explanation for the appearance of action-at-a-distance. It also eliminates the non-causal nature of quantum mechanics.

Tossing in another idea of mine… all models of causal systems, like our physical universe, break down at time = zero, where they require an effect without a prior cause. So, what if the “prior” condition *was* non-causal. Difficult to imagine but one can at least identify some characteristics it would not have… there would be no conservation laws, no space, no time, no restrictions on “something” turning into “nothing” or vice-versa. I hypothesize that such a condition might possess boundless information. If Schrödinger’s Filter is correct, then it’s all that’s necessary to extract every possible observation by every possible observer in every possible causally-consistent universe from this pre-time = zero Chaos. From a non-causal background state, a complete multiverse would spontaneously occur and every possible observation by every possible observer would “find itself.”