I have my own

Fractal Foam Model of Universes, in which the cosmic foam (galaxy clusters surrounding voids) of our universe IS the aether foam of the next larger-scale universe (our super-universe), and the aether foam of our universe IS the cosmic foam of a smaller-scale universe (our sub-universe).

Based on a wild guess, (gotta start somewhere) I propose that the median volume of an aether-foam bubble is the Planck volume (4.22419×10

^{−}^{105 }m

^{3}). In other words, half the volume of any region of space is occupied by aether-foam bubbles smaller than the Planck volume, and half by larger bubbles. Another starting assumption is that the Planck volume remains constant despite the expansion of space.

As our space expands, the volume of our cosmic-foam bubbles increases. The galaxy clusters that form the walls of that expanding bubble are therefore stretched across the increasing surface area of the bubble. There comes a time when this stretching exceeds the material strength of the bubble wall, and POP! It may take billions of years to this "pop" to transpire. The net result of a popping bubble wall (from our perspective) is one less cosmic-foam bubble in our universe. From a super-universe perspective, the number of those bubbles has increased by one, adding one super-universe Planck volume to our super-universe. In other words, the arrow of time reverses from one universe to the next.

Our space expands because the number of aether-foam bubbles per cubic meter is constant, but those bubbles are un-popping; i.e., popping in reverse time due to expansion of sub-universe space in reverse time. So expanding space in each universe, together with time reversal from one universe to the next, perpetuates the expansion of space to all such universes.

**The expansion of space generates dark energy, which consists of aethereal pressure waves. **Each time a cosmic-foam bubble pops, pressure waves are produced. For simplicity sake, imagine a a sea of cubic bubbles. One square bubble wall pops; the molecules (or galaxies) near the initial point of the rupture accelerate toward the edges, gaining energy and momentum, which is conserved by waves radiating in the plane of the ruptured bubble wall. These waves compress the galaxies closer together before finding a new equilibrium state. (Numerous galaxy collision also occur.) So positive-going pressure waves radiate outward.

Due to the removal of forces pulling the edges of the ruptured bubble wall toward the middle, the edges end up farther from the rupture point. Stresses in the surrounding bubble walls then pull the ends of newly joined pair of bubbles closer together. Where there had been two cubic bubbles, you now have one bubble which occupies the space of two truncated pyramids. Drawing the ends of this bubble closer together generates a pair of negative-going pressure waves radiating perpendicular to the ruptured bubble wall. Such pressure waves are generated, whether the bubbles are cubic or random.

If we could match our velocity to the preferred reference frame in which the aether is stationary, and look thru a magical Planck microscope, we would see dark-energy pressure waves converging to a point where they cause sub-universe galaxies to rearrange themselves into a new bubble wall. We would be watching a bubble pop in reverse time; i.e. un-popping.

Each time one of our aether-foam bubbles un-pops, a Planck volume of new space is added to our universe. This happens approximately 10

^{88} times per second per cubic meter, which yields the present value of the Hubble expansion.

Dark energy pressure waves propagate at least 2 x 10

^{10} times faster than light, which consists of aethereal shear waves. The speed of dark energy is the speed of gravity as well as the speed of electrostatic force and all the other fundamental forces.

The ultimate source of aethereal shear waves is this: Near the Planck scale, the aether's density is somewhat lumpy. As a dark-energy pressure wave passes thru one of those lumps, the lump is moved out of its equilibrium position, and shear forces in the surrounding medium pull it back. This generates shear waves (photons) perpendicular to the path of the pressure wave.

Subsequently, other pressure waves collide with the shear waves, and there is an exchange of momentum between them. The quantity of exchanged momentum is a function of the angle between the pressure wave's path and the plane of the shear wave's polarity. Consequently, the dark energy flux is perturbed by the presence of a shear wave in a pattern which is symmetrical relative to a plane, rather than spherical symmetry.

The dark energy flux arriving at one shear wave is influenced by the presence of another shear wave. Consequently, there are forces of attraction or repulsion between the two shear waves, depending on the orientation of their planes of polarity relative to one another. This is the ultimate source of all the forces of nature.

One of those attractive forces (not yet known to science; perhaps related to zero-point energy) is responsible for holding two or more shear waves (photons) in orbit around one another. When free photons become locked in orbit around one another, their energy (plus some zero point energy) is converted to proper mass of the particle thus formed.

The orbiting photons continue to perturb the dark-energy flux as they did when free, but now that flux disturbance is being spun into a precessing spiral pattern. The spiraling flux disturbances of neighboring particles may mesh like gears to form larger particles. At greater distances, the precessing spirals become indistinguishable from spherically symmetrical fields, and we get the familiar inverse-square forces, including gravity.

I suspect that gravity is an imbalance in the net effect of all those spiraling flux disturbances due to the expansion of space. No clue how to demonstrate that mathematically.

Particles pass thru the aether as easily as photons because particles ARE photons. There is no reason to suppose that matter drags the aether.

There is a preferred reference frame which is stationary relative to the aether. Our only clue, as far as I know, about our velocity relative to that reference frame is the blueshift of the CMB in the direction of Virgo. This suggest that we are moving toward Virgo at roughly 500 km/s. A fixed particle of the aether passes thru planet Earth, and Earth thru it, in about 24 seconds.

Three key unknown parameters to my model:

- inertial density of aether
- compression modulus of aether
- shear modulus of aether

Applying the formulas of acoustics, we could calculate the speed of gravity and speed of light, if we knew those values.

The aether is extremely dense and extremely hard and stiff. For all I know, a sub-universe galaxy may have as much inertia as a comparable galaxy in our universe. A Planck volume of aether might have as much inertia as a supercluster of galaxies. If so, that would make it unlikely that anything in our universe could ever rip the fabric of space-time.