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The standard model of the atom is a mathematical model that has many different fundamental particles, some with mass and size, some massless and some with mass but no size, and four different forces.

There is also no physical structure that can account for therules and components of the model.

This hypothesis resurrects a 2500 year old idea of Democritus that there is a smallest possible piece of matter. He called it an atomon later shortened to atom by Daltrey and it remained the smallest possible piece of matter until the beginning of the 20th century when sub-atomic particles were discovered and identified. It is posited that Democritus was indeed correct and that even the fundamental particles of the standard model are in fact composites of a much smaller particle, the smallest piece of matter that can exist. This particle will almost certainly be down on the Planck scale and In order to differentiate from any other particle this particle will referred to as a bead.

Immediately two facts are apparent :-- The bead is spherical- The bead is inelasticTo be otherwise would require a dimension to become less than the minimum permitted.

They will be contra-rotating to prevent the angular momentum causing the string to distort. These strings will form a pattern. They will all align and if all are spinning at the same velocity the pattern will be grid where when triangulated all angles are 60 degrees.

These strings will have mutual attraction so a new force must be introduced to keep the strings apart. This is achieved by the strings forming into rings that rotate around a central string.

This process continues and in order to continue to preserve symmetry the string successively discard beads until a composite particle in the shape of a double cone is created.

The electron will physically orbit but the rings will rotate by awakening and killing beads as the energy rotates around the ring much like Christmas lights appear to move but don’t.

This signature enables individual atoms to bond with like atoms by resonance but not dissimilar atoms, so tin atoms will readily form with other tin atoms to form a cohesive solid but will have no attraction to lead atoms.

With the central string still in place, surrounded by a rotating ring of 6 beads. This ring continues through the cone. The top layer in the cone willcontain 1 bead. The second layer will contain a central bead surrounded by six beads, the third layer will be 1 bead ,by 6 beads, surrounded by a further 12 beads, subsequent layers will have the same 1 bead, by 6 beads, but by 18,24 30 and so on. If the second layer represents n=1, then each subsequentlayer has n times 6 beads.

This velocity is C and ties in neatly with Clerk-Maxwell’s discovery that C is fixed and absolute.

Despite the counter-intuitive nature of entanglement it must exist. If we consider light travelling as quanta, either as a photon or by spinning bead, for there to be a wave the first quanta must somehow know when the second quanta is released, otherwise how can it determine the wavelength between them? The second quanta must be able to communicate with the first and yet the first has already left and is travelling away at the speed of light. The only way is for the second to send information instantly.

Bead theory has the potential to explain gravity. Any theory on gravity must consider thefollowing :-- All mass is attracted to all other mass- The force is very small- The force is proportional to mass- It is in the form of a field obeying Clerk-Maxwell’s lawsWhat is not clear is whether the field is in a wave form. It seems probable that it is not, as attraction would require some form of resonance

The electron ‘spare’ creates a wave form field as it orbits, but both the neutron and proton have ‘spares’ whose centre of spin remain stationery in respect of the atom.

If bead theory had been proposed before discovery of the dark matter effects it would have to have predicted it. In order to establish whether this interpretation is possible a considerable amount of mathematical analysis would be required.