First Proof of GAT (Gestalt Aether Theory):

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Offline McQueen

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First Proof of GAT (Gestalt Aether Theory):
« on: 26/03/2016 00:19:38 »
The reason that photons are not considered as charge carriers when considering an electric current is because it is thought that if a free electron emits or absorbs a photon it will not be able to cope with the forces of recoil because of the mass momentum conservation laws. The mathematics for this phenomenon is as follows :
If a free electron could absorb a photon, then, according to conservation of energy and momentum:
[tex]\hbar\omega+mc{^2}= \sqrt { p{^2}c{^2} +m{^2}c{^4}}[/tex]            eq 1.
[tex]\hbar k = p [/tex]                                                                               eq 2.
where [tex]\omega[/tex] and [tex]k[/tex] are the frequency and wave number of the photon, respectively, m the electron's rest mass, p the momentum of the electron after absorbing the photon. Eq2 leads to:

[tex] p{^2}= h{^2}k{^2}=\hbar{^2}\frac{\omega{^2}}{c{^2}}[/tex]           eq 3.
Insert Eq3 into Eq2, and square of the left side is

[tex] \hbar {^2} \omega{^2} + m{^2}c{^4}[/tex]

when the square of the right side is

[tex] \hbar {^2} \omega{^2} + m{^2}c{^4}[/tex]

So, if Eq1 holds, [tex]\hbar \omega = 0 [/tex]. There is no photon carrying vanishing energy.

Hence, absorbing of a photon by a free electron is forbidden.

Emitting of a photon is Forbidden
Suppose the initial (before photon emitting) and final (after photon emitting) 4-momentum of the electron are separately : [tex] p_\mu, p\prime_\mu[/tex]

[tex] p_\mu = (0,0,0,imc)[/tex], [tex] p_\mu = \left[p,i\frac{mc}{\sqrt 1- \frac{v^2}{c^2}}\right][/tex] Eq. 4

According to conservation of energy and momentum:

       [tex] p_\mu = q_\mu + p\prime_\mu [/tex](Eq5)
   [tex](p_\mu - p\prime_\mu)^2 = q{^2_\mu}[/tex](Eq6)

From Eq5 and Eq6, we have
[tex](p_\mu - p\prime_\mu)^2 = p_\mu^2 -2p_\mu p\prime_\mu+p\prime_\mu^2  =-m^2c^2- 2p_\mu p\prime_\mu -\frac{mc^2}{1-\frac{v^2}{c^2}}    (Eq7)[/tex]
Recall that

 
[tex]p_\mu p\prime_\mu = - \frac {mc^2}{\sqrt 1 - \frac{v^2}{c^2}}[/tex] Eq 8.

Insert Eq. 8 into Eq. 7, we have

  (Eq9)
[tex]p_\mu p\prime_\mu = -m ^2c^2 \left[1-\frac{1}{\sqrt1-\frac{v^2}{c^2}}\right][/tex]

Yet [tex] q^2_\mu= 0 [/tex], so [tex] p_\mu = p\prime_\mu [/tex]   , to ensure Eq.5 and Eq.6 hold. Thus the state of motion of the electron is not disturbed, with no momentum transported to the photon. Hence, emitting of a photon by the free electron is forbidden.

Yet it is often observed  that a free electron accelerated under an electromagnetic field does emit radiation. How is this possible ? Firstly it has been seen through observation that a free electron accelerated linearly will always emit electromagnetic radiation in the radio- wave range it will never emit radiation in the visible spectrum. The reason for this is because the energy of photons in the visible spectrum is too great and that the electron will not be able to cope with the recoil that emitting of such an energetic photon would entail. Without the benefit of the massive nucleus to absorb the recoil forces it is not possible for an electron to emit photons in the visible range and above.  If this is true how is it possible that a free electron that is accelerated under an electromagnetic field can emit radiation. The most acceptable explanation is that this is due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle as applied to time and energy:

[tex] \Delta E \Delta t \geq \hbar [/tex]

 Therefore  a consequence of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is that we can take seriously the possibility of the existence of energy non-conserving processes—provided the amount by which energy is not conserved, Eviolation, exists for a time less than h/4πE violation .  Thus it is possible for a free electron to emit a photon provided that it immediately reabsorbs that photon in an extremely short time. GAT  ( Gestalt Aether Theory ) states that this is how electromagnetic fields are formed, a free electron within the conductor emits a photon , but in order to escape violation of the laws of energy conservation, in this case as related to momentum and recoil, the photon has to be reabsorbed by the same electron or by another electron provided the first electron absorbs another photon of the same energy during the permitted time. This is why the lines of force form around a conductor. When a photon is emitted by a free electron within a conductor it has to be immediately reabsorbed, often the shortest route is to exit the conductor and circle back, in exiting the conductor the  photons of the 'virtual photon' aether line up in the direction of propagation of the real photon resulting in the distinctive lines of force seen around a conductor.
Looked at on a time line it would be as follows: At t1, free electron e1 emits a  photon . In which case, by momentum conservation, e1 will experience recoil in the opposite direction of the emitted photon. (c) At some time t2, less than h/4πE violation later ( and before the recoil can take place), electron e1 re-absorbs the photon in such a way that the total energy of the  electron e1 is equal to what it was before the intermediate virtual state.  In the second scenario at t1 electron e1 emits a photon.   In which case, by momentum conservation, e1 will experience recoil in the opposite direction of the emitted photon.  At some time t2, less than h/4πE violation r ( and before the recoil can take place),  the photon exits the conductor and re-enters and is absorbed by electron e2 which has also emitted a photon, while electron e1 absorbs a photon emitted by another free electron within the same time period. These transactions take place in such a manner that  the total energy of the  electron e1 and electron e2 is equal to what it was before the intermediate virtual state. Still looking at the time line and applying it to real situations e.g., current in a wire it is found that the time stipulation of 10-15 can easily be met.
According to the GAT ( Gestalt Aether Theory) the conduction photons (i.e., the photons that are charge carriers that are emitted by free electrons in an electrical conductor ) [tex]C^p_\lambda[/tex] have a wave-length of 1.2 x 10 -6m , this means that the frequency of the conduction photon [tex]C^p_\omega[/tex] is  c/1.2 x 10 -6 = 3 x 10 8 / 1.2 x 10 -6 = 2.4 x 10 14Hz.  The energy of this 'conduction'  photon therefore will be  [tex]E =\hbar \omega[/tex] = 2.4 x 10 14 x 6.62 x 10-34 = 1.6 x 10 -19 J.
Substituting  [tex]\Delta E \Delta t \geq \hbar [/tex] we get [tex]\hbar / \Delta E = t [/tex]
= 6.62 x 10-34 / 1.6 x 10-19 = 4.14 x 10 -15 secs.
If the actual spatial dimensions are taken into account together with the speed of light (i.e., speed of electromagnetic radiation) then it is possible to see that the figure of 4.14 x10 15 is extremely large compared to the actual times taken for the interaction.  However, it also demonstrates that there must exist something very similar to the aether along the lines suggested by GAT since each line of force is essentially the energy of one conduction photon. This is by way of being the first proof of GAT theory (Gestalt Aether Theory).


« Last Edit: 26/03/2016 12:10:42 by McQueen »
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Offline McQueen

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Re: First Proof of GAT (Gestalt Aether Theory):
« Reply #1 on: 26/03/2016 12:25:35 »
contd......

Continuing to elaborate on the proof of GAT Theory ( I feel like Faraday might have done in a den of mathematicians) the hypotheses (or premise) that an aether must exist is based on the fact that (1) the time constraint of 10 -15 secs would not allow for the electron to emit more than one photon , thus the inference is that the energy of that real photon is passed along a line of connected 'virtual' photons of the aether and back into the conductor (i.e., line of force)(2) the laws of conservation of energy and momentum would forbid the electron from emitting another photon before the forces of recoil were compensated and the electron returned to a prior state by re-absorption of the emitted photon or another photon of the same energy.  Thus the 'lines of force' are proof of the existence of an aether. Even more interesting is the fact that as long as the lines of force have a chance of delivering the real photon energy to a receptive electron within the conductor they are connected in series.


Thus each line of force will possess the energy of a single conduction photon.  If however the destination or the availability of suitable electrons no longer exists ( as in a changing alternating current) the lines of force composed of 'virtual photon' immediately re-orient themselves in parallel and leave the vicinity at the speed of light.

These lines of parallel connected conduction photons are composite waves that we know of as radio waves.
The following are the properties of a conduction photon:
The Quantum charge of the conduction photon  [tex]C^p_e[/tex] = 1.6 x 10-19 C.
The wavelength of the conduction photon  [tex]C^p_\lambda[/tex] = 1.2 x 10-6m
The frequency of the conduction photon Hz. [tex]C^p_\omega[/tex] = 2.4 x 1014 Hz
Similarly the frequency [tex]\omega[/tex] , the wave-length[tex]\lambda[/tex] and the energy e of the composite wavelength may be calculated either using [tex]\hbar\omega[/tex]( planck’s constant x frequency) or by dividing of the quantum energy of the conduction photon by the composite wavelength. Now it is possible to see how the energy of the far field and the near field are produced. In the near field the ‘conduction’ photons are connected in series and each line of force holds the energy of one ‘conduction’ photon, so that in effect each line of force has an energy of 1.6 x 10-19This fits in with well with observed data and conforms with the flow of an electric current. It is possible to see that 1019  lines of force will result in a current flow of 1 amp and so on.  Note that here the drift velocity of the electrons does not matter the ‘conduction’ photons each deliver 1.6 x 10 -19 C . As far as the far field goes, here also the results are in line with observed data. In the far field the ‘conduction’ photons are connected in parallel thus each line of force in the far field contains the energy of one conduction photon divided by the composite wave length. For example, given that we have a 10 m wave length in the far field then its energy will equal :
[tex]Co_e[/tex] = Composite wave, quantum energy.
[tex]Co_\lambda[/tex] = Composite wave, wave length.
[tex]C o_\omega[/tex] = composite wave, frequency.
 [tex]\frac{C^p_e}{C^o_\omega} = Co_e [/tex]
Here
[tex]Co_\lambda = \frac{\omega}{C^p_\omega}= Co_\lambda = \frac{10}{1.2\times{10^-6}} = 8.3\times10^6 [/tex]
therefore
[tex]Co_e = C^p_e/Co_\omega[/tex] = 1.6 x 10 -19/ 8.3 x 105 = 1.927 x 10 -26J
The same result can be reached :[tex]C^P_\omega [/tex]=[tex]\frac{ 3\times 10^8}{8.3 \times 10^6}[/tex] =[tex] C^p_\omega[/tex]
 [tex] Co_e =\frac{1.6\times10^-19}{8.3\times10^6} = 1.92 \times10^{-26} [/tex]
[tex] 37\times6.62\times 10^{-34} = 1.98\times 10^{-26}J [/tex]


To be contd........
« Last Edit: 26/03/2016 12:34:06 by McQueen »
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Re: First Proof of GAT (Gestalt Aether Theory):
« Reply #2 on: 08/05/2016 01:58:59 »
Here is the present day theory for the propagation of electricity in a circuit:

The mechanism of energy transport through a medium involves the absorption and re-emission of the wave energy by the atoms of the material. When an electromagnetic wave impinges upon the atoms of a material, the energy of that wave is absorbed. The absorption of energy causes the electrons within the atoms to undergo vibrations. After a short period of vibrational motion, the vibrating electrons create a new electromagnetic wave with the same frequency as the first electromagnetic wave. While these vibrations occur for only a very short time, they delay the motion of the wave through the medium. Once the energy of the electromagnetic wave is reemitted by an atom, it travels through a small region of space between atoms. Once it reaches the next atom, the electromagnetic wave is absorbed, transformed into electron vibrations and then reemitted as an electromagnetic wave. While the electromagnetic wave will travel at a speed of c (3 x 108 m/s) through the vacuum of interatomic space, the absorption and reemission process causes the net speed of the electromagnetic wave to be less than c.

On the surface nothing wrong with it, unless it is that it completely ignores 'quanta' and packets of energy. Further in space where there are no electrons to 'pass on the energy' fields would be required.  Also currents in a DC circuit are thought to be caused by moving electrons ( even if they are moving at only 10 cms/hr, while the current is established at near c) using the mechanism enumerated above.    While in a circuit carrying an AC current , the current is thought to be due to vibrations of the metallic lattice of the conductor. Two reasons for two different types of current!!
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Online jeffreyH

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Re: First Proof of GAT (Gestalt Aether Theory):
« Reply #3 on: 08/05/2016 13:26:21 »
The reason that photons are not considered as charge carriers when considering an electric current is because it is thought that if a free electron emits or absorbs a photon it will not be able to cope with the forces of recoil because of the mass momentum conservation laws. The mathematics for this phenomenon is as follows :
If a free electron could absorb a photon, then, according to conservation of energy and momentum:
[tex]\hbar\omega+mc{^2}= \sqrt { p{^2}c{^2} +m{^2}c{^4}}[/tex]            eq 1.
[tex]\hbar k = p [/tex]                                                                               eq 2.
where [tex]\omega[/tex] and [tex]k[/tex] are the frequency and wave number of the photon, respectively, m the electron's rest mass, p the momentum of the electron after absorbing the photon. Eq2 leads to:

[tex] p{^2}= h{^2}k{^2}=\hbar{^2}\frac{\omega{^2}}{c{^2}}[/tex]           eq 3.
Insert Eq3 into Eq2, and square of the left side is

[tex] \hbar {^2} \omega{^2} + m{^2}c{^4}[/tex]

when the square of the right side is

[tex] \hbar {^2} \omega{^2} + m{^2}c{^4}[/tex]

So, if Eq1 holds, [tex]\hbar \omega = 0 [/tex]. There is no photon carrying vanishing energy.

Hence, absorbing of a photon by a free electron is forbidden.

Emitting of a photon is Forbidden
Suppose the initial (before photon emitting) and final (after photon emitting) 4-momentum of the electron are separately : [tex] p_\mu, p\prime_\mu[/tex]

[tex] p_\mu = (0,0,0,imc)[/tex], [tex] p_\mu = \left[p,i\frac{mc}{\sqrt 1- \frac{v^2}{c^2}}\right][/tex] Eq. 4

According to conservation of energy and momentum:

       [tex] p_\mu = q_\mu + p\prime_\mu [/tex](Eq5)
   [tex](p_\mu - p\prime_\mu)^2 = q{^2_\mu}[/tex](Eq6)

From Eq5 and Eq6, we have
[tex](p_\mu - p\prime_\mu)^2 = p_\mu^2 -2p_\mu p\prime_\mu+p\prime_\mu^2  =-m^2c^2- 2p_\mu p\prime_\mu -\frac{mc^2}{1-\frac{v^2}{c^2}}    (Eq7)[/tex]
Recall that

 
[tex]p_\mu p\prime_\mu = - \frac {mc^2}{\sqrt 1 - \frac{v^2}{c^2}}[/tex] Eq 8.

Insert Eq. 8 into Eq. 7, we have

  (Eq9)
[tex]p_\mu p\prime_\mu = -m ^2c^2 \left[1-\frac{1}{\sqrt1-\frac{v^2}{c^2}}\right][/tex]

Yet [tex] q^2_\mu= 0 [/tex], so [tex] p_\mu = p\prime_\mu [/tex]   , to ensure Eq.5 and Eq.6 hold. Thus the state of motion of the electron is not disturbed, with no momentum transported to the photon. Hence, emitting of a photon by the free electron is forbidden.

Yet it is often observed  that a free electron accelerated under an electromagnetic field does emit radiation. How is this possible ? Firstly it has been seen through observation that a free electron accelerated linearly will always emit electromagnetic radiation in the radio- wave range it will never emit radiation in the visible spectrum. The reason for this is because the energy of photons in the visible spectrum is too great and that the electron will not be able to cope with the recoil that emitting of such an energetic photon would entail. Without the benefit of the massive nucleus to absorb the recoil forces it is not possible for an electron to emit photons in the visible range and above.  If this is true how is it possible that a free electron that is accelerated under an electromagnetic field can emit radiation. The most acceptable explanation is that this is due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle as applied to time and energy:

[tex] \Delta E \Delta t \geq \hbar [/tex]

 Therefore  a consequence of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is that we can take seriously the possibility of the existence of energy non-conserving processes—provided the amount by which energy is not conserved, Eviolation, exists for a time less than h/4πE violation .  Thus it is possible for a free electron to emit a photon provided that it immediately reabsorbs that photon in an extremely short time. GAT  ( Gestalt Aether Theory ) states that this is how electromagnetic fields are formed, a free electron within the conductor emits a photon , but in order to escape violation of the laws of energy conservation, in this case as related to momentum and recoil, the photon has to be reabsorbed by the same electron or by another electron provided the first electron absorbs another photon of the same energy during the permitted time. This is why the lines of force form around a conductor. When a photon is emitted by a free electron within a conductor it has to be immediately reabsorbed, often the shortest route is to exit the conductor and circle back, in exiting the conductor the  photons of the 'virtual photon' aether line up in the direction of propagation of the real photon resulting in the distinctive lines of force seen around a conductor.
Looked at on a time line it would be as follows: At t1, free electron e1 emits a  photon . In which case, by momentum conservation, e1 will experience recoil in the opposite direction of the emitted photon. (c) At some time t2, less than h/4πE violation later ( and before the recoil can take place), electron e1 re-absorbs the photon in such a way that the total energy of the  electron e1 is equal to what it was before the intermediate virtual state.  In the second scenario at t1 electron e1 emits a photon.   In which case, by momentum conservation, e1 will experience recoil in the opposite direction of the emitted photon.  At some time t2, less than h/4πE violation r ( and before the recoil can take place),  the photon exits the conductor and re-enters and is absorbed by electron e2 which has also emitted a photon, while electron e1 absorbs a photon emitted by another free electron within the same time period. These transactions take place in such a manner that  the total energy of the  electron e1 and electron e2 is equal to what it was before the intermediate virtual state. Still looking at the time line and applying it to real situations e.g., current in a wire it is found that the time stipulation of 10-15 can easily be met.
According to the GAT ( Gestalt Aether Theory) the conduction photons (i.e., the photons that are charge carriers that are emitted by free electrons in an electrical conductor ) [tex]C^p_\lambda[/tex] have a wave-length of 1.2 x 10 -6m , this means that the frequency of the conduction photon [tex]C^p_\omega[/tex] is  c/1.2 x 10 -6 = 3 x 10 8 / 1.2 x 10 -6 = 2.4 x 10 14Hz.  The energy of this 'conduction'  photon therefore will be  [tex]E =\hbar \omega[/tex] = 2.4 x 10 14 x 6.62 x 10-34 = 1.6 x 10 -19 J.
Substituting  [tex]\Delta E \Delta t \geq \hbar [/tex] we get [tex]\hbar / \Delta E = t [/tex]
= 6.62 x 10-34 / 1.6 x 10-19 = 4.14 x 10 -15 secs.
If the actual spatial dimensions are taken into account together with the speed of light (i.e., speed of electromagnetic radiation) then it is possible to see that the figure of 4.14 x10 15 is extremely large compared to the actual times taken for the interaction.  However, it also demonstrates that there must exist something very similar to the aether along the lines suggested by GAT since each line of force is essentially the energy of one conduction photon. This is by way of being the first proof of GAT theory (Gestalt Aether Theory).

I think user Tian WJ says just the same here.
https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/why-cant-a-free-electron-absorb-or-emit-photon.312121/

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Online jeffreyH

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Re: First Proof of GAT (Gestalt Aether Theory):
« Reply #4 on: 08/05/2016 13:31:38 »
I think he may be plaigiarising your idea by jumping into his time machine way back in 2009 and zooming into the future to read all the fantastic new theories on TNS. Or using Occam's razor maybe it is the other way round.

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Re: First Proof of GAT (Gestalt Aether Theory):
« Reply #5 on: 08/05/2016 13:50:45 »
Upon first read of this I was thinking about apologising to you since I had thought you incapable of putting together convincing mathematical arguments. Then I spotted the mistake you made in copying the equations so I searched for a source and it took me less than 1 minute to find it. Since you didn't cite your source you were attempting to pass this off as your own work. That is unacceptable and I certainly think you should apologise for this blatant act of plagiarism.

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Offline Atomic-S

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Re: First Proof of GAT (Gestalt Aether Theory):
« Reply #6 on: 11/05/2016 08:23:33 »
These lines of parallel connected conduction photons are composite waves that we know of as radio waves.
Your diagram shows photons arranged with parallel polarities but in a line.  What is the direction of wave propagation (Poynting vector) in this diagram?  that is, with respect to this diagram, what is the location of the transmitter and the receiver?
« Last Edit: 11/05/2016 08:25:46 by Atomic-S »
 

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Re: First Proof of GAT (Gestalt Aether Theory):
« Reply #7 on: 14/05/2016 21:54:29 »
I agree that the photon is the fundamental electrical unit and not the charge on an electron.  The photon is the fundamental unit of magnetic vibration energy and is measurable in Watt-seconds per unit volume.
A.C.Stevens