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One of the experiments that is claimed as an infallible proof of the wave/particle duality theory of Quantum Mechanics is the three polariser experiment. In this experiment (see Diag A below) a light source is shone through a horizontally oriented polariser and passes on to a light detector. This means that only horizontally oriented light can pass through the filter, the vertical content is eliminated. In this instance a strong signal is detected by the detector:In the second stage of the experiment, a second vertical polariser is put in place between the horizontal polariser and the light detector. The vertical polariser blocks out all vertical content. In this case the result is that no light passes through to the detector:In the third stage a diagonal polariser replaces the filter placed between the hortizontal ( or vertical) polariser and in this case some light passes through to the detector:This makes sense, because if the vertical polariser blocks all horizontal oriented light and the horizontally oriented polariser blocks all horizontal light, no light should get through to the detector and this is proved by the experiment. In the same way when the vertical (or horizontal) filter is replaced by the diagonal filter some light gets through to the detector, since obviously some of the vertical light can now get through, this is also perfectly acceptable and is verified through the experimental results.Here is the eureka factor in the experiment. if a diagonally oriented polariser is now placed between the vertical polariser and the horizontal polariser, some light is seen to get through to the detector. How can this happen? The vertical component, the horizontal component AND the diagonal component have all been blocked, how then is it possible for light to still get through to the detector ?The Quantum Physics ExplanationLet’s start with the A polarizer in the back. It prepares the photons in the vertical polarization state | v >. If we now had just polarizer B, it would measure for horizontal photons. None are coming through A, so no photons get through B.When we interpose C at the oblique angle, it measures for diagonal photons. The vertically polarized photons coming through A can be considered in a superposition of states at a 45 degree angle and a -45 degree angle. Photons at -45 degrees are absorbed by C. Those at +45 degrees pass through C.C makes a measurement of 45 degree photons. It can also be viewed as a preparation of 45 degree photons. Only half the photons come through polarizer C, but they have been prepared in a state of diagonal polarization | d >.The original vertical photons coming through A had no chance of getting through B, but the diagonal photons passing through C (half the original photons) can now be regarded as in a linear superposition of vertical and horizontal photons, and the horizontal photons can now pass through B. Those vertically polarized will get absorbed by B, as usual.Recall from equation (1) that | d > is a superposition of the basis vectors | v > and | h >, with coefficients 1/√2, which when squared give us probabilities 1/2. Fifty percent of these photons emerging from C will pass through B. One quarter or 25% of the original A photons make it through.This happens if we send just one photon through at a time, just as with the two-slit experiment. Just as we can not say that the photon passes through slit A or B (only probabilities are moving in von Neumann’s process 2), we cannot say that our photons are in one state or another. They are in the mysterious linear combination that can collapse instantaneously into one state when a measurement is made.The GAT Gestalt Aether Theory Explanation:In order to understand how polariser filters work, consider a vertical polariser, it is a film with vertical lines etched onto it. The etched lines absorb all light coming towards them while the transparent areas let the light through. This has the effect of polarising the light, the light is now transmitted in narrow vertical stripes. If this vertically polarised light is now sent through a similarly constructed horizontal polariser, then no light would get through to the detector since the vertical lines of light that were let through the first filter are now being blocked by the horizontal lines in the second filter. Consider now the inclusion of a diagonal filter, this would let some of the light from the vertical filter through and slightly less light through the horizontal filter. The actual amount of light would depend on the orientation of the filter, anywhere from between 22.5 degrees and below 45 degrees would let light through, more light would be passed at 22.5 degrees than at 45 degrees. If on the other hand the diagonal filter were placed behind both the vertical and horizontal filters, no light would pass through it and no light would reach the light detector.The GAT Theory therefore observes the same principles of light (photons) moving through matter, namely absorption and emission. It is not necessary to change light into a wave and back into a photon, it retains the same soliton formation, namely that of a wave packet. The soliton formation is induced through the polarisation of bands of energy emitted by an electron, resulting in a solenoidal field being formed around the bands of energy. Since the bands of energy are separated by a di-electric, they form a condensor capable of storing energy. Thus the photon as envisaged by GAT is a true wave packet that is a synthsis of a wave and a particle somewhat similar to a soliton on a micro scale but with a far clearer definition.This illustrates the fact that when one explanation can account for observed phenomena there is no point in looking for more complicated explanations.
Absolutely, as far as the intensity is concerned. An explanation involving photons is what is needed though. With photons (According to GAT) it is the physical construction of the polariser that influences the results more than anything else.