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On a Quantum Theory of Gravity
On a Quantum Theory of Gravity
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On a Quantum Theory of Gravity
07/05/2017 09:19:34 »
Gravity is the odd man out in the ‘Standard Model of Particle Physics’. It is ‘credited’ with the unlikely ability of being able to attract matter from across the vastness of space, but, at the same time, ‘debited’ in its ability to bind matter together, even though it demonstrates this capability every day by flexibly binding the whole human race to the earth’s surface.
Einstein based his concept of gravity, upon the four-dimensional bending of ‘space-time’ around a body of matter. This gave an explanation of how a moving object entering into this four-dimensional spatial hollow, settled into an orbit around the body of matter without experiencing any ‘inertial’ or ‘centrifugal’ force. By following the curvature of space, it established an orbit, regardless of the magnitude of its ‘entry velocity’ or its ‘angle of entry’.
But the question still remains as to how Einstein’s model of the gravitational force is able to attract distant objects in the manner of Newton’s classical formula. There is also a requirement for a ‘quantum mechanical’ explanation of gravity, that fits in with the theoretical nature of particle physics.
The development of a ‘quantum theory’ of gravity, requires the adoption of a completely different model of space from that proposed by Einstein, particularly one that has a physical reality. The concept employed here is quite straight forward, being based upon a ‘particle structure’ of space that takes the form of a three dimensional ‘cubic lattice’, in much the same way that atoms order themselves within metals and crystals.
This particle structure of space, functions through the presence of a ‘WIMP’ (Weakly Interacting Massless Particle), sited at each node of the lattice. The particles must be ‘weakly attracting’, for if the attraction was too strong, most of life as we know it, would be crushed.
Each WIMP particle in the cubic lattice has six other identical particles located at its adjoining nodes, with four in the same horizontal plane, plus one above and one below. All six attract the central particle towards themselves and as they are all an equal distance apart and have the same magnitude, they create an equilibrium of forces upon the central particle. This is repeated for every particle in the ‘three-dimensional’ lattice, so the whole lattice is completely stable and just as importantly, it is flexible.
The equilibrium of this universal lattice is only disturbed, when a ‘body of matter’ develops within it. The atomic structure of this body of matter: its protons, neutrons and electrons, all create a displacement of the WIMP particles or ‘gravitons’ as they are often called, forcing them away from their original locations within the lattice structure.
As Archimedes would have put it: “When a body of matter develops within a ‘graviton lattice’, the displacement of the lattice creates an inwardly directed force within and around the body of matter, whose magnitude is directly proportional to the body’s mass.”
Of course, it is not quite this simple, because the gravitational force begins at zero in the centre of the body of matter, increases to a maximum at its surface and then reduces back to zero again, as it extends into the lattice space around the body of matter.
To explain this pattern of the gravitational force, the lattice theory has to show how the force develops internally within a body of matter and is then propagated outwards from its surface, creating an inwardly directed force in the space surrounding it.
The creation of a gravitational force within the universal lattice starts from zero, as the lattice is initially undistorted. But the presence of just one atom causes the horizontal and vertical lattice tiers to be displaced outwards by an amount that is determined by the atom’s mass.
This displacement creates an inwardly directed force acting from all directions around the atom, as the displaced lattice particles remain connected to their six neighbouring particles and are all ‘drawn back’ towards their original locations in the lattice by their inter-particle attracting links.
This force is the beginning of the ‘internal gravitational field' created within a body of matter. The attachment of a second atom to the first atom, leads to both atoms experiencing an ‘increased’ inwardly directed gravitational force acting upon them, as the second displacement of the horizontal and vertical lattice tiers around them, leads to more particles being co-opted into having extended links around the two atoms.
This outwards displacement of the inner lattice tiers towards the next outer tiers of the lattice, develops a stronger force operating between them, as they are now closer together, but the movement towards each other is ‘restrained’ by their outward links to the vertical and horizontal tiers of particles in the surrounding lattice structure.
This ‘restraining’ force of the lattice tiers surrounding the atom, is the source of the development of the ‘external gravitational force’ that exists in the space around every body of matter, however small or large.
A key point to stress about this lattice model, is that the force of gravity is not an inherent capability of the atom, as could be implied from Newton’s formula, but is created by the distortion of the particle lattice, in a similar manner to Einstein’s ‘spacetime’ concept.
This ‘lattice displacement process’ is repeated every time a new atom attaches itself to the body of matter, with the process ending at the surface of the body of matter. Here, the ‘internal gravitational force’ has reached its maximum strength.
But the strength of the ‘internal gravitational field’ at the surface of the body of matter has been matched by the restraining force of the ‘external gravitational field’ that has developed, atom by atom, within the lattice tiers surrounding the body of matter.
As these two forces exist within the ‘same’ universal lattice structure, the two forces are in equilibrium all around the surface of the body of matter. But with the cessation of the atom building process, the external gravitational field settles into a stable state, its strength reducing according to its radial distance from the surface of the body of matter.
With this structural model of gravity to work with, it is now possible to illustrate how two ‘static’ but separate macro bodies of matter, are physically drawn together within the universal lattice framework. Conceptually, it is the same as two atoms, except that atoms have their own mechanism for attaching themselves to each other without collisions.
The presence of a second body of matter in the neighbourhood of the first body of matter, causes the compressed lattice tiers of the universal lattice to be displaced even further outwards in all directions, both ‘through’ and ‘around’ the two bodies of matter, increasing the strength of their joint gravitational field.
But the ‘greatest’ outwards displacement of the lattice tiers occurs at their closest point of contact, this being along a straight line between their two central points. This displacement of the universal lattice tiers through to the rear of each body of matter, creates a joint force between them, which acts to draw the two bodies of matter together.
This inward attracting force is initially at its greatest magnitude, but with the movement of the two bodies towards each other, the force between them lessens, as the displaced tiers of particles behind and between the two bodies of matter return towards their equilibrium state.
But once the movement towards each other has started, the applied force, albit declining, constantly adds to the velocity of their movement towards each other. If left to this force, these two originally static bodies will eventually collide, just as other matter does in our universe.
The only source of escape is if one body of matter is not initially static relative to the other, but is moving in a direction and with an ‘escape velocity’ that enables it to counter this mutually attracting gravitational force.
One of the features of this concept of a universal lattice of particles, is the dynamic nature of the force of the gravitational field created by a ‘moving’ object. When a planet is orbiting around its star, it displaces the lattice particles within and around itself creating its own gravitational field, but as it moves on in its orbit, the lattice passes through it, being reformed again behind it, whilst the lattice in front is displaced, recreating its gravitational field once again.
This process is true for a body of matter moving along the surface of the earth. Just as the ‘magnetic field’ of the earth streams through your body without you being aware of its presence and the neutrinos arriving from outer space, do exactly the same, so the graviton particle lattice is constantly present within you, binding your mass to the earth’s surface, wherever you are located upon it.
There is another aspect of the particle lattice model, that is perhaps a more controversial feature of this particle lattice theory. The number of lattice particles displaced by the mass of a body of matter is a finite quantity and the attracting force acting between the individual lattice particles in their equilibrium state, also has a finite magnitude.
Based upon the principle that energy can be ‘neither created nor destroyed’ and that a body’s mass is a fixed quantity at a particular point in time, then the gravitational field around a body of matter, is itself ‘finite’ in size, coming to an ‘incremental end’ at both the centre of the body of matter and at the outermost undistorted horizontal and vertical tiers of the universal lattice.
This shift from ‘infinite reach’ to a ‘finite reach’ has its consequences. Take, for example, two separate masses of hydrogen atoms situated in the vicinity of each other in space, but growing in size as they accumulate more hydrogen atoms. Until such time as their body masses grow to a size that enables the compressed lattice tiers around them to meet, there will be no gravitational attraction between them, as implied by Newton’s formula. This is why human beings going about their daily business, do not experience a gravitational force acting between them.
The ‘quantum nature’ of the ‘particle lattice’ theory of gravity, also suggests an alternative way of explaining some of the physical effects, highlighted by Einstein’s ‘spacetime’ theory.
1. When two bodies of matter collide, the disturbance created within the universal particle lattice, would generate ‘gravitational waves’ that could be transmitted in all directions through the ‘particle lattice structure’ of space.
2. The bending of light around a large body of matter would be explained by the increased ‘refractive index’ that is created by the compressed particle lattice field that surrounds it.
3. ‘Gravitational lensing’ by clusters of galaxies would also be the result of the same refractive index phenomenon.
4. The ‘gravitational turbulence’ of the particle lattice in the space around a rapidly moving body of matter, such as a satellite, could create a slight delay in the ‘transmission time’ of radio waves that are sent to and received back from the satellite.
5. The apparent ‘circling’ of the space around a spinning black hole could be caused by its massively compressed lattice field, literally dragging the surrounding particle lattice around with it.
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