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DNA is the most hydrated molecule in the cell.
Quote from: puppypower on 28/11/2019 16:40:23DNA is the most hydrated molecule in the cell.Says who?
Nucleic acid hydration is crucially important for their conformation and utility , as noted by Watson and Crick . The organized hydration extends to several nanometers from the surface. The strength of these aqueous interactions is far greater than those for proteins due to their highly ionic character [542b]. The DNA double helix can take up several conformations (for example, right-handed A-DNA pitch 28.2 Å 11 bp, B-DNA pitch 34 Å 10 bp, C-DNA pitch 31Å 9.33 bp, D-DNA pitch 24.2 Å 8 bp and the left-handed Z-DNA pitch 43Å 12 bp) with differing hydration. The predominant natural DNA, B-DNA, has a wide and deep major groove and a narrow and deep minor groove and requires the greatest hydration. Lowering the hydration (for example by adding ethanol) may cause transitions from B-DNA to A-DNA  to Z-DNA.
The processing of the genetic information within DNA is facilitated by highly discriminatory and strong protein binding. It has been shown that the interfacial water molecules can serve as 'hydration fingerprints' of a given DNA sequence . The usual 'hydration fingerprint' of the DNA is disrupted by DNA damage, and this facilitates repair protein attachment. The hydration spine (see above) is capable of carrying messages, as facilitated proton movement down the water wire, between binding sites in a similar, if complementary, manner to the electron transfer through the DNA residues  and so coordinate the repair process. The primary driving force for the specificity of protein binding is the entropy increase due to the release of bound water molecules (estimated at 3.6 kJ ˣ mol-1 for minor groove water and 2.3 kJ ˣ mol-1 for major groove water, both at 300 K ), c with the DNA sequence determining the hydration pattern in the major and minor grooves (see above).
Quote from: Bored chemist on Yesterday at 17:07:37 Quote from: puppypower on Yesterday at 16:40:23 DNA is the most hydrated molecule in the cell. Says who?http://www1.lsbu.ac.uk/water/nucleic_acid_hydration.html
Quote from: puppypower on 29/11/2019 11:57:10Quote from: Bored chemist on Yesterday at 17:07:37 Quote from: puppypower on Yesterday at 16:40:23 DNA is the most hydrated molecule in the cell. Says who?http://www1.lsbu.ac.uk/water/nucleic_acid_hydration.htmlSo, nobody actually said it (that page doesn't).DNA is actually held together by hydrophobic interactionshttps://phys.org/news/2019-09-dna-held-hydrophobic.html
DNA is the most hydrated molecule in the cell.
Quote from: puppypower on 28/11/2019 16:40:23DNA is the most hydrated molecule in the cell. Define "most hydrated".
Say we started with a hundred beakers each with a small amount of water; 1ml. The water begins as pure water with an activity of 1.0. To each beadier we add "one" molecule of various substances, The beaker with the DNA will lower the activity the most. DNA is so huge and has many places to directly bind water.
So, the water in a test tube, since it will stay in the tube if it is centrifuged is water of hydration by your definition.You seem not to have noticed that your statements are contradictory.A spin dryer is a centrifuge.Quote from: puppypower on 02/12/2019 20:39:34Say we started with a hundred beakers each with a small amount of water; 1ml. The water begins as pure water with an activity of 1.0. To each beadier we add "one" molecule of various substances, The beaker with the DNA will lower the activity the most. DNA is so huge and has many places to directly bind water. Imagine, instead that you add 1 milligram of various substances.Sugar and salt will be more hydrated than DNA.
Thus, in B-DNA, guanine will hydrogen-bond to a water molecule from both the minor groove 2-amino- and major groove 6-keto-groups with further single hydration on the free ring nitrogen atoms (minor groove N3 and major groove N7). Cytosine will hydrogen-bond to a water molecule from both the major groove 4-amino- and minor groove 2-keto-groups. Adenine will hydrogen-bond to a water molecule from the major groove 6-amino-group with further single hydration on the free ring nitrogen atoms (minor groove N3 and major groove N7). Thymine (and uracil, if base-paired in RNA) will hydrogen-bond to a water molecule from both the minor groove 2-keto- and major groove 4-keto-groups. Phosphate hydration in the major groove is thermodynamically stronger but exchanges faster. There are six (from crystal structures, ) or seven (from molecular dynamics, ) hydration sites per phosphate a, not including hydration of the linking oxygen atoms to the deoxyribose or ribose residues. The deoxyribose oxygen atoms (O3' phosphodiester, ring O4' and O5' phosphodiester) all hydrogen-bond to one water molecule whereas the free 2'-OH in ribose is much more capable of hydration and may hold on to about 2.5 water molecules. b The total for all these hydrations, in a G3 H-bondsC duplex, would be about 26-27 but about 14 of these water molecules are shared. There are many ways in which these water molecules can be arranged with B-DNA possessing 22 possible primary hydration sites per base pair in a G3 H-bondsC duplex but only occupying 19 of them . The DNA structure depends on how these sites are occupied; water providing the zip, holding the two strands together. It should be noted that cations may transiently replace about 2% of the hydrating water molecule sites.
In DNA, the bases are involved in hydrogen-bonded pairings, close to the 0.28 nm bond length found between hydrogen-bonded water molecules in liquid water. The aqueous environment causes a slight lengthening (≈ 1%) of the DNA hydrogen bonds and weakens them significantly (≈ 50%) .d All these groups, except for the hydrogen-bonded ring nitrogen atoms (pyrimidine N3 and purine N1) are capable of one further hydrogen-bonding link to water within the major or minor grooves in B-DNA.
The hydration of the B-DNA minor groove is dependent on the DNA sequence with water-bridge lifetimes varying from 1 to 300 ps , depending on the sequence. The hydration usually involves single water molecules connecting the strands. However, connection via pairs of water molecules, with varying interchange between these forms, may allow greater structural flexibility in the DNA and interactions with specific proteins . There is a spine of hydration running down the bottom of the B-DNA minor groove, particularly where there is the A=T duplex  (see right, where the water oxygen atoms are shown large green and red, where the red atoms are the primary hydration water and the green atoms are the secondary hydration water, ), which is important in stabilizing it . Thus, A=T duplex sequences favor water binding in the minor groove and also protein binding there driven by the large entropy release on this low entropy water's release .
The catalytic grid resets the potentials.
I was comparing DNA, RNA, protein and other large molecules in the cell.
Quote from: puppypower on 04/12/2019 12:04:34The catalytic grid resets the potentials.Word saladQuote from: puppypower on 04/12/2019 12:04:34 I was comparing DNA, RNA, protein and other large molecules in the cell. And I guess you missed out glycogen (in animals) and starch (in plants) because it didn't fit with your idea.
The change in the free energy of the surrounding water aids the conversion of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) into double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) as the water molecules are more stable around dsDNA than around ssDNA even out to about 0.65 nm (3 hydration layers) .
Quote from: ron123456 on 17/12/2019 21:54:19Does the Na+K+ pump not provide 3Na+ out and 2K+ in across the cellular membrane leading to a specific potential difference?......and is this potential difference not less in a cancer cell?......and is this not due to the mitochondria not functioning up to par in a cancer cell according to Otto Warburg? Is this lower membrane potential differences due to damaged local nerve endings or a biofilm coating? Is this what is being suggested here? I don't know and if you could elaborate perhaps it's a start which should be considered.....
, imply a free energy potential will be induced within the cellular water.
Quote from: puppypower on 05/12/2019 20:59:55, imply a free energy potential will be induced within the cellular water.Quote from: Bored chemist on 04/12/2019 19:50:02Word salad
If you started with a packet of baker's yeast, the yeast cells are initially dehydrated and show no signs of life.
This has been explained in an earlier post. In the case of the membrane, ions do not move without coming in intimate contact with water
Quote from: puppypower on 22/12/2019 13:32:01This has been explained in an earlier post. In the case of the membrane, ions do not move without coming in intimate contact with waterOsmosis works with other solvents.Water is weird, but not magic.
What this suggests is each dynamic DNA differentiation, for each differentiated cell, is nothing but an equilibrium configuration with a given water potential.
Quote from: puppypower on 22/12/2019 14:46:43 What this suggests is each dynamic DNA differentiation, for each differentiated cell, is nothing but an equilibrium configuration with a given water potential. No.It does not suggest that.If it was water availability that decided which DNA was expressed and thus what cells became then every time you needed a pee, your bladder would turn into a different organ.The idea really is that stupid.Why are you persisting with it?
I did an analysis of dehydrating cells and replacing water with other solvents. Nothing works.