Dennis Soley asked:
Hi Chris &Co
Love the podcast.
I have one telephone line, ie 2 twisted wires, into my home, as most people have around here.
How is it possble for me to have:
--a telephone conversation
--a download to the main computer
--a download to another computer (WiFi)
--my son listenining to another program or watching a 'u tube' or whatever.
-- watching or listening to the bbc news
All being at a low speed as i'm at the furthest possible distance from my local exchange.
How is this possible over 2 wires?
Hannah - When you talk into a phone the vibrations in the air that make up the sound are converted into vibrations in the electrical current carried by the copper wire of the telephone line. In the same way that your voice is made up of different pitches, this electrical vibration can be a wide-range of different frequencies. But according to Mark Smith, Network Engineer and Telecommunications Consultant, a telephone call uses a narrow range of frequencies.
Mark - Basically, there's a pair of wires from the local exchange, all the way to your phone, but the telephone conversations are actually quite a low-frequency signal, they only go up to 4 kilohertz.
Hannah - This leaves a lot of other frequencies that can transfer data above the range of human hearing. Using an electronic filter, you can transfer data at frequencies above the range that you can hear. A modem or “modulator-demodulator” converts digital data into these vibrations. As this is done at vibrations of at least 25,000 hertz, you can send voice and internet data along the same wire at the same time, without interfering with your telephone conversation.
Mark - The modem uses all the frequencies up to about 10 megahertz and it divides the frequency into bands, a bit like the spectrum of rainbow and based on how good your line is, it allocates different frequencies to different parts of a band. The things like YouTube and just file transfer and you're watching your television, they're all data that needs to go as noughts and ones over the line. All that data’s split into packets of data and it’s sent over a line using a very special modem that decides the maximum amount of data it can get over that and works at how to do that.
With things like video for example, if the line is good enough, you'll always get that, but if the line isn’t good enough, then it will start to break up. If you're transferring things like files, if the line is really good, it would be really quick, and if the line is not good, it will be very slow.
Hannah - On the forum, Evan A-U adds that these packets of data each have an address on the front and a return address like letters in the postal service. The network equipment uses this address to send each packet to the right destination. This means that even though the packets are sent mixed up and out of sequence, the data doesn’t get scrambled. We next move on to reflect on a question just in.
Disclaimer: I've worked as a telecommunications engineer
To add a little to Wolfekeeper's response:
The packets of data over the internet each have an "address" on the front, and a return address (like letters in the Postal Service). The network equipment uses this address to send each packet to the right destination.
BTFON doesn't actually cost you anything; BTFON is essentially a different, lower priority network that shares the same wire and wavelengths (when you're not using it), and if there are pervs on your BTFON network, they're pretty damn stupid, because all their packets are labelled with their (not your) account!
The reason you can get so much information from a single twisted pair is because of superheterodyning (or modulation), putting information on a carrier wave(s), then subtracting the carrier wave frequency to extract the information. Its the same reason why you can have one cable coming into your home yet watch different channels of TV. In its simplest form, superheterodyning circuits created the first carrier wave radio transmission. Your local AM radio station transmits a carrier wave, say 950Mhz, and modulates the audio frequency information-say 10-10Khz, say the traffic report, onto the carrier wave via a mixer. The mixer has two inputs, the desired information and carrier frequency from a local oscillator which are added together. Your phone line has multiple carrier frequencies being transmitted on the same wire, and your individual devices are tuned to receive only specific carrier frequencies that make it so you can have multiple channels of information on one wire. BillionsNbillions, Sun, 9th Sep 2012
Thank you, Billionsnbillions. chris, Mon, 10th Sep 2012
Amplitude and Phase modulation of a Carrier Frequency works well in hardware, when there is a small amount of information in a fairly narrow frequency band (compared to the carrier frequency).
What is the connection with data and frequently imean signals are coming in frequents but we count those thing with giga bytes ARJ, Fri, 31st Oct 2014