David Michaels asked:
Hi Naked Scientists]
I have listened to pretty much all your podcasts, and have built up a lot of dumb questions, and knowing the only dumb question is the one not asked, I have loaded up. (I apologize if any of these have been covered, or if I should have figured them out .)
They say gravity distorts space-time, why do all shows only show the space distortion ? Could you explain the time distortion part ? ( I bet you can explain it on the radio better.)
Great show, I wouldn't change a thing (except for having really naked scientists).
And when the “dumb” or “stupid” question is asked others invariably think or even say, “I’m glad someone asked that question”.
Well, time is a property with a direction, and a 'magnitude' if you like, but it share that definition with three other properties, or 'degrees of freedom' for something to 'move' in SpaceTime. Any event you define in SpaceTime must have all of those properties to get a position. It's not enough with time. Treating it this way it can't be a distortion as I think although your definition of clock and ruler will make other frames of reference 'suspect' both when it comes to time and arrow, as well as when it comes to the distance defined existing at that other frame. yor_on, Fri, 5th Oct 2012
There seem to be basically two kinds of clock in common use those that depend on gravity pendulums which of course are much affected by variations in gravity and those that depend on the electromagnetic force such as springs, crystals and Cesium atomic clocks that are much less affected by the much weaker gravitational force.
in my mind we have 2 engines to consider 1. Newtons and 2nd Einsteins - both may be relevant - if you can think that we exist in a universe comprised of 4 spatial dimensions but the primary 1 thought of as a dynamic.
Kind of nice flow to it, but maybe more fitting for 'New Theories' than our main stream thread Edward. And you said you cited him saying "Space is mathematically meaningless"? It wouldn't be 'Exceeding the speed of light gives a mathematically meaningless ..' that you mean instead? I would dearly like to see a link to that statement if you can find it. yor_on, Sun, 14th Oct 2012
To convert light to energy, Einstein’s formula E=mc2 is transposed to c = √(E⁄m). According to the formula c = √(E⁄m), in the beginning there was no mass, so m = 0. The leaves E in the square root sign. E is compacted and converted to photons, electrons, up quarks, down quarks, neutrinos and many other particles; each particle pushed space energy apart and formed a graviton. A graviton is to gravity what a photon is to light. The gravitons produced by up quarks and down quarks pulled them together to form protons and neutrons. The gravitons produced by protons, neutrons and electrons, pulled them together to form a large variety of atoms. The gravitons produced by atoms pulled different atoms together to create molecules and make different kinds of gases, liquids, and solids. Einstein view about gravity is that it is a distortion in the shape of space-time. To put this in practical terms, the distortion is the compacting of space energy by c =√(E⁄m), when m equals zero. “Space-time” means that it takes a certain amount of time for something to happen in space, and it happens in three dimensions. Sam Chacon, Wed, 5th Jun 2013