The reason that photons are not considered as charge carriers when considering an electric current is because it is thought that if a free electron emits or absorbs a photon it will not be able to cope with the forces of recoil because of the mass momentum conservation laws. The mathematics for this phenomenon is as follows :

If a free electron could absorb a photon, then, according to conservation of energy and momentum:

eq 1.

eq 2.

where

and

are the frequency and wave number of the photon, respectively, m the electron's rest mass, p the momentum of the electron after absorbing the photon. Eq2 leads to:

eq 3.

Insert Eq3 into Eq2, and square of the left side is

when the square of the right side is

So, if Eq1 holds,

. There is no photon carrying vanishing energy.

Hence, absorbing of a photon by a free electron is forbidden.

Emitting of a photon is Forbidden

Suppose the initial (before photon emitting) and final (after photon emitting) 4-momentum of the electron are separately :

,

Eq. 4

According to conservation of energy and momentum:

(Eq5)

(Eq6)

From Eq5 and Eq6, we have

Recall that

Eq 8.

Insert Eq. 8 into Eq. 7, we have

(Eq9)

Yet

, so

, to ensure Eq.5 and Eq.6 hold. Thus the state of motion of the electron is not disturbed, with no momentum transported to the photon. Hence, emitting of a photon by the free electron is forbidden.

Yet it is often observed that a free electron accelerated under an electromagnetic field

**does** emit radiation. How is this possible ? Firstly it has been seen through observation that a free electron accelerated linearly will always emit electromagnetic radiation in the radio- wave range it will never emit radiation in the visible spectrum. The reason for this is because the energy of photons in the visible spectrum is too great and that the electron will not be able to cope with the recoil that emitting of such an energetic photon would entail. Without the benefit of the massive nucleus to absorb the recoil forces it is not possible for an electron to emit photons in the visible range and above. If this is true how is it possible that a free electron that is accelerated under an electromagnetic field can emit radiation. The most acceptable explanation is that this is due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle as applied to time and energy:

Therefore a consequence of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is that we can take seriously the possibility of the existence of energy non-conserving processes—provided the amount by which energy is not conserved, E

_{violation}, exists for a time less than h/4πE

_{ violation} . Thus

*it is* possible for a free electron to emit a photon provided that it immediately reabsorbs that photon in an extremely short time. GAT ( Gestalt Aether Theory ) states that this is how electromagnetic fields are formed, a free electron within the conductor emits a photon , but in order to escape violation of the laws of energy conservation, in this case as related to momentum and recoil, the photon has to be reabsorbed by the same electron or by another electron provided the first electron absorbs another photon of the same energy during the permitted time. This is why the lines of force form around a conductor. When a photon is emitted by a free electron within a conductor it has to be immediately reabsorbed, often the shortest route is to exit the conductor and circle back, in exiting the conductor the photons of the 'virtual photon' aether line up in the direction of propagation of the real photon resulting in the distinctive lines of force seen around a conductor.

Looked at on a time line it would be as follows: At t1, free electron e1 emits a photon . In which case, by momentum conservation, e1 will experience recoil in the opposite direction of the emitted photon. (c) At some time t2, less than h/4πE

_{violation} later ( and before the recoil can take place), electron e1 re-absorbs the photon in such a way that the total energy of the electron e1 is equal to what it was before the intermediate virtual state. In the second scenario at t1 electron e1 emits a photon. In which case, by momentum conservation, e1 will experience recoil in the opposite direction of the emitted photon. At some time t2, less than h/4πE

_{ violation} r ( and before the recoil can take place), the photon exits the conductor and re-enters and is absorbed by electron e2 which has also emitted a photon, while electron e1 absorbs a photon emitted by another free electron within the same time period. These transactions take place in such a manner that the total energy of the electron e1 and electron e2 is equal to what it was before the intermediate virtual state. Still looking at the time line and applying it to real situations e.g., current in a wire it is found that the time stipulation of 10

^{-15 }can easily be met.

According to the GAT ( Gestalt Aether Theory) the conduction photons (i.e., the photons that are charge carriers that are emitted by free electrons in an electrical conductor )

have a wave-length of 1.2 x 10

^{-6}m , this means that the frequency of the conduction photon

is c/1.2 x 10

^{-6} = 3 x 10

^{8} / 1.2 x 10

^{-6} = 2.4 x 10

^{14}Hz. The energy of this 'conduction' photon therefore will be

= 2.4 x 10

^{14} x 6.62 x 10

^{-34} = 1.6 x 10

^{-19} J.

Substituting

we get

= 6.62 x 10

^{-34} / 1.6 x 10

^{-19} = 4.14 x 10

^{-15} secs.

If the actual spatial dimensions are taken into account together with the speed of light (i.e., speed of electromagnetic radiation) then it is possible to see that the figure of 4.14 x10

^{ 15} is extremely large compared to the actual times taken for the interaction. However, it also demonstrates that there must exist something very similar to the aether along the lines suggested by GAT since each line of force is essentially the energy of one conduction photon. This is by way of being the first proof of GAT theory (Gestalt Aether Theory).