A-Z of AVIONICS

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #200 on: 22/11/2006 17:33:38 »
This was been it my friendo Neilepus! G and H combined in a special occasion...
Gastric ulcer and...

Helicobacter pylori

...they always go together, but it took almost half a century to 'discover' this association.
« Last Edit: 23/11/2006 23:26:23 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #201 on: 22/11/2006 17:59:17 »
Lyot filter (monochromatic filter): A device used for observing the suns prominenses and other features of solar atmosphere, without the necessity of waiting for a total eclipse.It was invented by the french astronomer B. Lyot.

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #202 on: 22/11/2006 18:38:43 »
Marconi Guglielmo   (1874-1937)


...and human communication took off.

Nobel Prize 1909 (Physics)
« Last Edit: 23/06/2007 21:41:31 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #203 on: 22/11/2006 19:24:36 »
Neutrino: A fundamental Partical which has no mass and no electric charge-which makes them extremely difficult to detect!

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #204 on: 22/11/2006 19:37:20 »
Onchocerciasis
(River blindness)

A disease occurring in tropical Africa and Central America, transmitted by black flies and caused by infestation with filariform nematodes of the genus Onchocerca, especially O. volvulus, and characterized by nodular swellings on the skin and lesions of the eyes. Also called river blindness, volvulosis.

arrow = parasite, arrowhead = normal conjunctival epithelial cell, N = neutrophils 
« Last Edit: 23/06/2007 21:42:01 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #205 on: 22/11/2006 19:53:37 »
Perigee: The point in the orbit of the moon or an artificial satellite at which the body is closest to the earth. The most distant point is the apogee.

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #206 on: 22/11/2006 23:24:31 »
Quackery?


...Near the beginning of TB treatment in sanatoria, it became known that the sun helped to kill TB bacteria (see heliotherapy). When the Sun's UV rays hit human skin, vitamin D is produced. Naturally, when cod fish were found to be rich in vitamin D, it followed that their oil was sold as "liquid sunshine" (this was a real advertisement in the Valley Echo, March 1944). Cod Liver Oil is still used in "traditional" medicine today, and as an important dietary supplement, but no real evidence exists that it helps to cure tuberculosis.

http://www.lung.ca/tb/tbhistory/treatment/



Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response.


Liu PT, Stenger S, Li H et al.
In innate immune responses, activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers direct antimicrobial activity against intracellular bacteria, which in murine, but not human, monocytes and macrophages is mediated principally by nitric oxide. We report here that TLR activation of human macrophages up-regulated expression of the vitamin D receptor and the vitamin D-1-hydroxylase genes, leading to induction of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We also observed that sera from African-American individuals, known to have increased susceptibility to tuberculosis, had low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and were inefficient in supporting cathelicidin messenger RNA induction. These data support a link between TLRs and vitamin D-mediated innate immunity and suggest that differences in ability of human populations to produce vitamin D may contribute to susceptibility to microbial infection.
Science. 2006 Mar 24;311(5768):1770-3. Epub 2006 Feb 23.


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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #207 on: 23/11/2006 02:22:12 »
Reflection: The bouncing of a wave off a surface or boundry.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #208 on: 23/11/2006 17:30:34 »
« Last Edit: 23/06/2007 21:42:58 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #209 on: 23/11/2006 17:52:29 »
OOOOH Pretty!LOL

Thermodynamics: The study of heat flow!


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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #211 on: 23/11/2006 20:06:08 »
Velocity


The velocity of an object is simply its speed in a particular direction. Since velocity is defined as a vector, both speed and direction are required to define it.
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #212 on: 23/11/2006 20:33:42 »
Wave particle duality- paradoxical behavior of light as both a wave and a partical, which applies to all forms of electromagnetic radiation as well as matter.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #213 on: 23/11/2006 21:53:55 »
X-RAY Imaging

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #214 on: 23/11/2006 22:13:51 »
Year- Time taken for the earth to go round the sun once! In every day life it is taken to be 365 days. (366 days in leap year.) (1) sidereal year: The true revelution period of the Earth : 365.26 days, or 365 days 6 hours 9 minutes 10 seconds. Etc.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #215 on: 23/11/2006 23:22:30 »
Zinc deficiency


Longitudinal Incident Case Study of Caretakers and Providers:
 An Adequacy Performance Evaluation of Scaling up Zinc in Bangladesh Rural and Urban Populations
.

     Zinc deficiency has been found to be widespread among children in developing countries, and occurs in most of Latin America, Africa, the Middle East and South Asia. Although the theoretical basis for a potential role of zinc in cellular growth and in the function of the immune system has been postulated for quite some time, actual convincing evidence for its importance for child health has come from randomized controlled trials of zinc treatment or supplementation over the past decade. Children between 6 months and 5 years of age who receive zinc for the treatment of a diarrheal illness (20 mg/day for 10 days) recover faster, have a 30% reduction in the likelihood of developing prolonged diarrhoea, and have an estimated 50% reduction in non-injury mortality over the next 6 months.

     Some of the potential constraints to the use of zinc on a large scale should be recognized, since some of these have hampered the more wide scale use of zinc in public health programs.  Firstly, unlike vitamin A, zinc is not stored in the body, and it was thought that this micronutrient would have to be administered on a daily basis.  From a practical viewpoint, daily supplements with zinc tablets to young children would seem impossible and thus the decision was to introduce zinc as a 10 day treatment. A second theoretical concern is the interaction that can occur between the absorption of zinc and certain other micronutrients, especially copper and iron.  An understanding of these interactions is important when considering daily supplementation, but these interactions are much less relevant when considering a brief course of treatment for a diarrhoeal illness.

     A concern that this project also intends to address is that of equity. Most new health interventions are preferentially used by the more well-to-do, but the poor often do not have access to the new technologies. This project intends to monitor and make corrections for the inequities (e.g. by gender or income) that might otherwise occur. ICDDR,B will undertake evaluations to verify that the poorest of the poor will be benefiting from the program.

     The treatment protocol to be scaled up in Bangladesh is a 10 day course of 20 mg of zinc daily provided as a dispersible tablet. The tablets are converted from a solid tablet to syrup with the addition of a few drops of water. The tablets will be packaged and sold in a 10 tablet blister pack.  The choice of a 10 day treatment is based upon expectations regarding the expected length of compliance (to be monitored) and current production patterns and technology which are set at 10 days.

     The purpose of this protocol is to evaluate the overall performance and impact of the national scaling up exercise in two sub-districts of Bangladesh, one rural, the other urban.
....



ikod
« Last Edit: 23/06/2007 21:44:00 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #216 on: 24/11/2006 00:09:31 »
Aequeosalinocalcalinoceraceoaluminosocupreovitriolic :)


scientific word describing the spa waters at Bath, England, is attributed to Dr Edward Strother (1675-1737)[11].

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #217 on: 24/11/2006 00:19:55 »
Base=A substance that disolves in water to form an alkali.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #218 on: 24/11/2006 10:42:56 »
« Last Edit: 23/06/2007 21:44:28 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #219 on: 24/11/2006 17:19:03 »
Dichotomy: The exact half-phase of Mercury, Venus or the Moon.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #220 on: 24/11/2006 18:42:45 »
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)

Herpes virus, pathogen in infectious mononucleosis


ikod

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #221 on: 24/11/2006 18:50:02 »
Faculae: Bright temporary patches on the surface of the sun, usually (although not always) associated with sunspots.Faculae frequentlyappear in a position near which a spot group is about to appear, and may persist for some time in a region of a group which has disappeared.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #222 on: 24/11/2006 19:04:59 »
Galileo Galilei  (1564-1642)



ikod
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #223 on: 24/11/2006 19:15:13 »
Halcyon is a genus of the tree kingfishers, near passerine birds in the family Halcyonidae.





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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #224 on: 24/11/2006 19:17:02 »
Iko

Wonderful poster and lover of all things COD !!!  [;)]
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #225 on: 24/11/2006 19:23:23 »
Iceland spar: A transparent colorless calcite, found especially in Iceland:it is used by opticians for makingdouble refracting prisms.
« Last Edit: 26/11/2006 23:46:29 by Karen W. »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #226 on: 24/11/2006 19:25:41 »
Too much honour, dear friendo Neilepus,
but actually I should spend my time 'surfing'
through parents websites (do they have any?),
instead of playing around here!


Lindberg Charles Augustus Jr. (1902-1974)
...known as "Lucky Lindy" and "The Lone Eagle", was an American aviator famous for piloting the first solo non-stop flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927.

Some believe Lindbergh tarnished his good name by his leadership in the movement to keep the US out of World War II. He was a great advocate for the peace movement and the peaceful resolution of conflict with Germany.


ikod
« Last Edit: 23/06/2007 21:46:32 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #227 on: 24/11/2006 19:32:48 »
Millibar: A unit which is used as a measure of atmospheric pressure. It is equal to 1000 dynes per square centimetre. The standard atmospheric pressure is  1013.25 millibars (75.97 centimetres of mercury).

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #228 on: 24/11/2006 19:41:01 »
Nutrition Science

Nutritional supplement:


ikod
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #229 on: 24/11/2006 20:16:02 »
Occulltation: The covering up of one celestial body by another. Thus the moon may pass in front of a star or ( occasionally) a planet; A planet may occult a star; and there have been cases when one planet has occulted another- for instance, Venus occulted Mars in 1950. Strickly speaking, solar eclipses are occultations of the Sun by the Moon.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #230 on: 24/11/2006 22:47:52 »
Paragonimiasis


Paragonimus westermani (Lung Fluke)

Epidemiology
Lung fluke is most commonly encountered in parts of Asia, Africa and South America.
Morphology
It is a plump reddish brown oval worm measuring 10 by 4 mm. The ovum measures 85 by 55 micrometers
Life cycle
Lung fluke infects man (and domestic carnivores) when crabmeat infested with encysted metacercaria is consumed. The metacercaria reach the small intestine, exit their shell and bore their way, as young flukes, through the intestinal wall, through the thoracic diaphragm and penetrate the lung. There, they become enclosed in 1 to 2 cm cysts and reach maturity. The eggs are found in the sputum or, if swallowed, in the feces, 2 to 3 months after infection. The eggs, when introduced in fresh water produce a miracidia which penetrates the suitable snail. In the snail they develop into cercaria which break out in water and penetrate gills, muscle or viscera of fresh water crabs and become encysted in flesh as metacercaria.
Symptoms
The fluke provokes the development of a fibrous tissue capsule with bloody purulent material containing eggs. There is inflammatory infiltrate around the capsule. The symptoms include a dry cough, followed by production of blood stained rusty brown sputum. Pulmonary pain and pleurisy may develop. Worms may migrate to the brain where they lay eggs and cause a granulomatous abscess resulting in symptoms similar to epilepsy.
Diagnosis
Diagnosis is based on history and symptoms. Eggs are found in rust colored sputum, often being examined for tuberculosis.
Treatment and control
Praziquantel taken orally is quite effective. Adequate cooking of crustaceans is a preventive measure. Improved sanitary conditions have lowered the infection rate in endemic areas.
from:  http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/parasitology/trematodes.htm



ikod
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #231 on: 26/11/2006 17:52:32 »
Schistosomiasis

I did a talk on this subject and I think it went well. Amazing how nervous you think you will be doing a talk. Once I went over it with my partner a few times I was actually confident and couldn't wait to do it :-D.
Steven
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #232 on: 26/11/2006 18:18:53 »
No Q OR R? [;)]


Tension (mechanics)


Tension is a reaction force applied by a stretched string (rope or a similar object) on the objects which stretch it. The direction of the force of tension is parallel to the string, towards the string.

Tension exists also inside the string itself: if the string is considered to be composed of two parts, tension is the force which the two parts of the string apply on each other. The amount of tension in the string determines whether it will break, as well as its vibrational properties, which are used in musical instruments.

The magnitude of the force of tension typically increases with the amount of stretching. For small stretching, the force is often described by Hooke's law.

String-like objects in relativistic theories, such as the strings used in some models of interactions between quarks, or those used in the modern string theory, also possess tension. These strings are analyzed in terms of their world sheet, and the energy is then typically proportional to the length of the string. As a result, the tension in such strings is independent of the amount of stretching.
« Last Edit: 26/11/2006 18:30:00 by Karen W. »
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #233 on: 26/11/2006 18:33:08 »
Uranium

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #234 on: 26/11/2006 19:13:35 »
Von Willebrand Factor

Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a protein that is involved in blood clotting after injury to a blood vessel. When a vessel is torn, platelet cells collect in the cut region and create a fibrous mesh that seals off the area and stops further bleeding. The VWF serves two major functions: it helps attach platelets to the site of blood vessel injury, and it helps transport the "factor VIII" (factor 8) clotting protein to the site of injury.

There are several inherited genetic disorders related to abnormal function of VWF. Symptoms may be similar to those of hemophilia, although the underlying causes are different. Some forms of VWF are quite mild and may remain undiagnosed, while others are more like hemophilia and result in serious bleeding and blood clotting problems.
http://www.soe.ucsc.edu/classes/bme220/Spring05/homework1/alexgw/



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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #235 on: 26/11/2006 19:18:19 »
Wallace Alfred Russel


Alfred Russel Wallace, OM, FRS (January 8, 1823 November 7, 1913) was a Welsh naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist and biologist. He independently proposed a theory of natural selection which prompted Charles Darwin to publish his own more developed and researched theory sooner than he had intended. Wallace is sometimes called the "father of biogeography".





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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #236 on: 26/11/2006 21:14:14 »
No Q OR R? [;)]


Tension (mechanics)


Tension is a reaction force applied by a stretched string (rope or a similar object) on the objects which stretch it. The direction of the force of tension is parallel to the string, towards the string.

Tension exists also inside the string itself: if the string is considered to be composed of two parts, tension is the force which the two parts of the string apply on each other. The amount of tension in the string determines whether it will break, as well as its vibrational properties, which are used in musical instruments.

The magnitude of the force of tension typically increases with the amount of stretching. For small stretching, the force is often described by Hooke's law.

String-like objects in relativistic theories, such as the strings used in some models of interactions between quarks, or those used in the modern string theory, also possess tension. These strings are analyzed in terms of their world sheet, and the energy is then typically proportional to the length of the string. As a result, the tension in such strings is independent of the amount of stretching.

I'm sure they where there when I posted. Oh well.
Steven
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In a time of universal deceit - telling the truth is a revolutionary act.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #237 on: 27/11/2006 00:51:02 »
X-Chromosomes

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #238 on: 27/11/2006 02:26:13 »
Y-chromosomes :)

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #239 on: 27/11/2006 08:17:23 »
Zener effect

Zener diode


http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/solids/imgsol/diod10.gif
http://www.robotroom.com/RoundaboutPCBs/ZenerDiode.jpg


The Zener Effect
With the application of sufficient reverse voltage, a p-n junction will experience a rapid avalanche breakdown and conduct current in the reverse direction. Valence electrons which break free under the influence of the applied electric field can be accelerated enough that they can knock loose other electrons and the subsequent collisions quickly become an avalanche. When this process is taking place, very small changes in voltage can cause very large changes in current. The breakdown process depends upon the applied electric field, so by changing the thickness of the layer to which the voltage is applied, zener diodes can be formed which break down at voltages from about 4 volts to several hundred volts.
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/solids/zener.html

« Last Edit: 23/06/2007 21:49:17 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #240 on: 27/11/2006 10:59:36 »
ATP
Steven
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #241 on: 27/11/2006 12:08:09 »
"Boole, George (1815-64)was an English mathmatician who became a professor at QueensCollege, Cork. He set out to devise an algebraic formula for logic by replacing logical statements by set-collections of mathematical objects." (quote Taken from a "Brief history of Science" consultant editor John Gribbin, Published by "The ivy press limited 1998")

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« Reply #243 on: 27/11/2006 22:38:36 »
Diuretic

A diuretic (colloquially called a water pill) is any drug or herb that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). Diuretics also decrease the extracellular fluid (ECF) volume, and are primarily used to produce a negative extracellular fluid balance. Caffeine, cranberry juice and alcohol are all weak diuretics.

Uses

In medicine, diuretics are used to treat heart failure, liver cirrhosis, hypertension and certain kidney diseases. Diuretics alleviate the symptoms of these diseases by causing sodium and water loss through the urine. As urine is produced by the kidney, sodium and water which cause edema related to the disease move into the blood to replace the volume lost as urine, thereby reducing the pathological edema. Some diuretics, such as acetazolamide, help to make the urine more alkaline and are helpful in increasing excretion of substances such as aspirin in cases of overdose or poisoning.

The antihypertensive actions of some diuretics (thiazides and loop diuretics in particular) are independent of their diuretic effect. That is, the reduction in blood pressure is not due to decreased blood volume resulting from increased urine production, but occurs through other mechanisms and at lower doses than that required to produce diuresis. Indapamide was specifically designed with this is mind, and has a larger therapeutic window for hypertension (without pronounced diuresis) than most other diuretics.
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Offline Mjhavok

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #244 on: 27/11/2006 23:18:07 »
Erythromycin
Steven
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Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #245 on: 28/11/2006 13:21:57 »
Evolution

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."

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Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #246 on: 28/11/2006 13:25:14 »
Fossil Record: the Evidence of past life preserved in a fossil form.

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #247 on: 28/11/2006 19:02:28 »
Garlic antifungal intravenous  preparations
(Allium sativum)



Enhanced diallyl trisulfide has in vitro synergy with amphotericin B against Cryptococcus neoformans.
Shen J, Davis LE, Wallace JM, Cai Y, Lawson LD.
Department of Microbiology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, USA.

Although amphotericin B remains the drug of choice for systemic fungal infections, its use is limited by considerable side effects. In The Peoples' Republic of China, commercial Allium sativum derived compounds are widely used as an antifungal drug to treat systemic fungal infections. To evaluate the scientific merit of using A. sativum derived compounds as antifungal agents, we studied a Chinese commercial preparation, allitridium. This preparation contained mainly diallyl trisulfide as confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography. Allitridium, with and without amphotericin B, was tested to determine its efficacy in killing three isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the commercial preparation was 50 micrograms/ml and the minimum fungicidal concentration was 100 micrograms/ml against 1 x 10(5) organisms of C. neoformans. In addition, the commercial preparation was shown to be synergistic with amphotericin B in the in vitro killing of C. neoformans. This study demonstrates that diallyl trisulfide and other polysulfides possess potent in vitro fungicidal effects and their activity is synergistic with amphotericin B. These observations lend laboratory support for the treatment of cryptococcal infections with both amphotericin B and the Chinese commercial preparation.

Planta Med. 1996 Oct;62(5):415-8.


Unfortunately these data had not been confirmed...yet.

ikod
« Last Edit: 23/06/2007 21:50:53 by iko »

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Offline Mjhavok

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #248 on: 28/11/2006 22:24:11 »
Hydrophobic interactions
Steven
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Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #249 on: 28/11/2006 23:06:33 »
I band


The I band is the range of radio frequencies from 8 GHz to 10 GHz in the electromagnetic spectrum. This is equal to wave lengths between 3.75 cm and 3 cm. The I band is in the SHF range of the radio spectrum.

The I band lies in the X band of the older classification system.
Men are the same as women, just inside out !