A-Z of AVIONICS

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Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #700 on: 17/04/2007 21:02:31 »
Vacuum Tubes, electronic devices, consisting of a glass or steel vacuum envelope and two or more electrodes between which electrons can move freely. The vacuum-tube diode was first developed by the English physicist John Ambrose Fleming. It contains two electrodes: the cathode, a heated filament or a small, heated, metal tube that emits electrons through thermionic emission; and the anode, or plate, which is the electron-collecting element. In diodes, the electrons emitted by the cathode are attracted to the plate only when the latter is positive with respect to the cathode. When the plate is negatively charged, no current flows through the tube. If an alternating potential is applied to the plate, the tube passes current only during the positive halves of the cycle and thus acts as a rectifier. Diodes are used extensively in the rectification of alternating current.

The introduction of a third electrode, called a grid, interposed between the cathode and the anode, forms the triode, which for many years was the basic tube used for amplifying current. (The triode was invented in 1906 by the American engineer Lee De Forest.) The function of the grid is to control the current flow. At a certain negative potential, the grid, because it repels electrons, can impede the flow of electrons between the cathode and the anode. At lower negative potentials, the electron flow depends on the grid potential. The grid usually consists of a network of fine wire surrounding the cathode. The capacity of the triode to amplify depends on the small changes in the voltage between the grid and the cathode causing large changes in the number of electrons reaching the anode.

Through the years more complex tubes with additional grids have been developed to provide greater amplification and to perform specialized functions. Tetrodes have an additional grid, closer to the anode, that forms an electrostatic shield between the anode and the grid to prevent feedback to the grid in high-frequency applications. The pentode has three grids between the cathode and the anode; the third grid, close to the anode, reflects electrons that are emitted by the anode as it is heated by electron impact when the electron current in the tube is high. Tubes with even more grids, called hexodes, heptodes, and octodes, find applications as frequency converters and mixers in radio receivers.

Vacuum tubes have now been almost entirely replaced by transistors, which are cheaper, smaller, and more reliable. Tubes still play an important role in certain applications, however, such as in power stages in radio and television transmitters, and in military equipment that must resist the voltage pulse (which destroys transistors) induced by an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #701 on: 19/04/2007 21:54:23 »
« Last Edit: 19/04/2007 21:58:07 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #702 on: 20/04/2007 15:17:00 »
Xenarthra




The superorder Xenarthra is a group of placental mammals (infraclass Eutheria), extant today only in the Americas. The origins of the order can be traced back as far as the early Tertiary (about 60 million years ago, or only a short time after the end of the dinosaur era). The presence of these animals in North America is explained by the Great American Interchange.

It includes the anteaters, sloths, and armadillos. In the past, these families were classified together with the pangolins and Aardvark as the order Edentata (meaning toothless, because the members do not have front incisor teeth or molars, or have poorly-developed molars). It was subsequently realized that Edentata was polyphyletic—that it contained unrelated families and was thus invalid by cladistic standards. Aardvarks and pangolins are now placed in individual orders, and the new order Xenarthra was erected to group the remaining families (which are all related). The name Xenarthra means "strange joints", and was chosen because their vertebral joints are unlike those of any other mammals. Because they lack characteristics believed to be present in the common ancestor of other known Eutherian mammals, morphological evidence suggests that the Xenarthra are outside the Epitheria, which contains all other known Eutherians today.

The morphology of Xenarthrans generally suggests that the anteaters and sloths are closest together within Xenarthra. The order Xenarthra is more and more often divided into two orders: Pilosa, containing the Vermilingua and Folivora (previously Tardigrada), and the separate order Cingulata. Xenarthra now has the rank of cohort or super-order. The Xenarthra are part of the super-cohort Atlantogenata.
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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #703 on: 20/04/2007 16:42:47 »
Yangtze river




Chinese (Pinyin)  Chang Jiang  or  (Wade-Giles romanization)  Ch'ang Chiang   longest river in both China and Asia and the third longest river in the world, with a length of 3,915 miles (6,300 kilometres). Its basin, extending for some 2,000 miles (3,200 km) from west to east and for more than 600 miles (1,000 km) from north to south, drains an area of 698,265 square miles (1,808,500 square km). From its source on the Plateau of Tibet to its mouth on the East China Sea, the river traverses or serves as the border…

more from:  http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9110538/Yangtze-River



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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #704 on: 20/04/2007 16:52:09 »
Zambales Mountains, mountain range in the north-western Philippines, on western Luzon Island. Lying north to south, the Zambales extend 160 km (100 mi) from Lingayen Gulf and Pangasinan Province in the north, through Zambales Province, and end in Bataan Province in the south. The Zambales are home to Mount Pinatubo, which erupted, causing severe damage, in 1991 and 1992. The mountains reach their highest point at High Peak (2,037 m/6,683 ft) in the north-central part of the range.

The range is a southern extension of the Cordillera Central, that was shifted west of the main range by faulting. Extensions of the Cordillera Central also appear to the south on Mindoro and Palawan islands. The range is a highly tilted block with a high eastern edge facing the Central Plain, a prime sugar- and rice-growing region. Much of the range was formed by the volcanic activity of the Quaternary Period (from 2.5 million years ago to the present). The Zambales include many kinds of volcanic rocks, such as andesites, diorites, and gabbros, all of which are exposed. Many minerals are also found in the range, the most important of which is chromite.

A number of short, rapidly flowing streams, including the Pamatawan, Santo Tomas, Anonang, Jalakak, and Bucao, drain the western slopes and empty into the South China Sea. The slopes of the Zambales are forested with tall hardwood trees and, at higher elevations, pines.
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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #705 on: 20/04/2007 22:07:38 »
A-Z of Anything/Anyone
Associated with Anything Science

...Don't we need a list of the previous terms to avoid repeats?
and who should be in charge of this accessing/excelling business?   [;D] [;D] [;D]

Ikon't   [:o)]

apart from the 'oldies' like me and KarenW and Neilepus...yes! SuperSeany!!!
He's as fast as a rocket and will do it in a second!
So pleeeaaaase ShiningSeany help this dummies and let their silly game continue for another few months...   [:D]

 
« Last Edit: 20/04/2007 22:19:57 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #706 on: 21/04/2007 00:43:41 »
That picture of the Yangtze River is absolutely mesmerising Iko..I've saved it on my pc..I luff it !!

Previous terms ?.who is volunteering to go back 29 pages of ABC stuff ?..not me !!...Karen ?
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #707 on: 24/04/2007 21:24:36 »
Baade, (Wilhelm Heinrich) Walter (1893-1960), German-born American astronomer:


Educated at the University of Göttingen, whose studies of stars in the Andromeda galaxy led him, in the 1950s, to double the common estimate of the size and age of the universe. Begun at Mount Wilson Observatory in 1931, these studies established two major types of stars: the younger, hotter, Population I type and the older, cooler, Population II (see Milky Way). In his career in Germany prior to 1931, Baade discovered the asteroids Icarus and Hidalgo.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #708 on: 24/04/2007 21:42:28 »
Cherenkov radiation

...(also spelled Cerenkov, scientific transliteration: Čerenkov) is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle passes through an insulator at a speed greater than the speed of light in that medium. The characteristic "blue glow" of nuclear reactors is due to Cherenkov radiation. It is named after Soviet scientist Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov, the 1958 Nobel Prize winner who was the first to rigorously characterize it.

« Last Edit: 24/04/2007 21:44:55 by Batroost »
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #709 on: 24/04/2007 21:59:06 »
Digital-to-Analogue Converter or DAC,


Device for converting digital data into current or voltage analogues. DACs are now widely used in compact disc (CD) players, in digital audiotape and videotape players, in digital signal processing audio and video equipment, and in digital radio and television receivers. In their simplest form, DACs use some form of resistor network . Digital data is applied to the resistors in groups of bits. The resistances vary in definite ratios; the current flow in each one relates directly to the binary value of the bit received. In the practical form, a more complicated network involving current switching into a net of different resistance networks is used. The brief successive currents occur end to end in time, so giving a continuously varying current that when converted into a voltage reconstructs the original analogue signal voltage that had been converted into digital form. This voltage still has minute quantized steps in it, but these are simply removed by a low-pass frequency filter.


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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #710 on: 25/04/2007 18:35:34 »
« Last Edit: 29/04/2007 10:58:51 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #711 on: 26/04/2007 00:25:07 »
Fahrenheit, Gabriel Daniel (1686-1736)


 German physicist, born in Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland). He settled in the Netherlands and engaged in the manufacture of meteorological instruments. In 1714 he constructed the first thermometer employing mercury instead of alcohol. Using this thermometer, he devised the temperature scale now known by his name. Fahrenheit also invented a hygrometer of improved design. He discovered that other liquids besides water have a fixed boiling point and that these boiling points vary with changes in atmospheric pressure.


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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #712 on: 26/04/2007 00:26:10 »
Frankenstein



A VERY scary monster. [;D]
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #713 on: 26/04/2007 01:45:13 »
Gadolinium, symbol Gd, silvery-white metallic element with an atomic number of 64. Gadolinium is one of the rare earth elements in the lanthanide series of the periodic table. It is named after the Finnish chemist John Gadolin.

Gadolinium occurs with other rare earth elements in many minerals, such as samarskite, gadolinite, monazite, and some varieties of Norwegian ytterspar. It is the 41st element in order of abundance in the crust of the Earth. Gadolinium melts at about 1313° C (about 2395° F), boils at about 3273° C (about 5923° F), and has a relative density of 7.9. The atomic weight of the element is 157.25.

Gadolinium oxide was first separated from other rare earth elements by the Swiss chemist Jean de Marignac in 1880. The oxide and many salts of gadolinium have been prepared. Gadolinium oxide is white and the salts are colourless.

Because gadolinium has the largest known cross section, or stopping power, for neutrons of any element, it is used as a component of control rods in nuclear reactors (see Nuclear Energy). Like the other rare earth elements, it is used in electronic apparatus such as capacitors and masers; in metal alloys; in high-temperature furnaces; and in apparatus for magnetic cooling.





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Offline Mjhavok

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #714 on: 26/04/2007 02:08:51 »
Hadron
Hahn, Otto
Half life
Hamilton, William Rowan
Steven
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #715 on: 26/04/2007 22:06:46 »
« Last Edit: 29/04/2007 10:57:44 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #716 on: 30/04/2007 06:44:44 »
Joe-pye weed

[The name of an Indian Doctor said to have used the plant as medicine] any of a number of periniel American plants (genus Eupatorium) of the composite family, with whorled leaves and clusters of rayless, pinkish or purple flower heads.

(New World Dictionary of the American Language, second college edition)





« Last Edit: 30/04/2007 06:53:35 by Karen W. »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #717 on: 01/05/2007 02:54:53 »
Klingon

A humanoid being with ... oh .......

Kaolinite

A type of clay mineral that is the chief component of fine china. It is also used for most pottery when it isn't found in a relative impure clay (lots of other clay mineral in the mix.)

[Assumes refined British accent] It is of the latter that you Brown Betty is made, as well as all and sundry other pottery (Sneers)
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #719 on: 01/05/2007 18:31:02 »
McDonnell Douglas


McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. It merged with Boeing in 1997 to form The Boeing Company.

The company was founded from the firms of James Smith McDonnell and Donald Wills Douglas. Both men were of Scottish ancestry, graduates of MIT and had worked for the aircraft manufacturer Glenn L. Martin Company. Douglas had been chief engineer at Martin before leaving to establish Davis-Douglas Company in early 1920 in Los Angeles. He bought out his backer and renamed the firm the Douglas Aircraft Company in 1921.

McDonnell founded J.S. McDonnell & Associates in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1928. His idea was to produce a personal aircraft for family use. The economic depression from 1929 ruined his ideas and the company collapsed. He went to work for Glenn L. Martin. He left in 1938 to try again with his own firm, McDonnell Aircraft Corporation, this time based near St. Louis, Missouri.

World War II was a major earner for Douglas. The company produced almost 30,000 aircraft from 1942 to 1945 and the workforce swelled to 160,000. Both companies suffered at the end of hostilities, facing an end of government orders and a surplus of aircraft. Both heavily cut their work forces.

After the war, Douglas continued to develop new aircraft, including the DC-6 (1946) and the DC-7 (1953). The company moved into jet propulsion, producing their first for the military - the conventional F3D Skyknight in 1948 and then the more 'jet age' F4D Skyray in 1951. Douglas also made commercial jets, producing the DC-8 in 1958 to compete with the Boeing 707. McDonnell was also developing jets, but being smaller they were prepared to be more radical, building on their successful FH-1 Phantom to become a major supplier to the Navy with the F2H Banshee, F3H Demon, and the F-101 Voodoo. The advent of the Korean War helped push McDonnell into a major military fighter supply role, especially with the noted F-4 Phantom II (1958).


Both companies were eager to enter the new missile business, Douglas moving from producing air-to-air rockets and missiles to entire missile systems under the 1956 Nike program and becoming the main contractor of the Skybolt ALBM program and the Thor ballistic missile program. McDonnell made a number of missiles, including the unusual ADM-20 Quail, as well as experimenting with hypersonic flight, research that enabled them to gain a substantial share of the NASA projects Mercury and Gemini. Douglas also gained contracts from NASA, notably for part of the enormous Saturn V rocket. Both companies were now major employers, but both were having problems.




Douglas was strained by the cost of the DC-8 and DC-9, and the companies began to sound each other out about a merger. Inquiries began in 1963; Douglas offered bid invitations from December 1966 and accepted that of McDonnell. The two firms were officially merged on April 28, 1967 as the McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC).
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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #720 on: 01/05/2007 20:03:17 »

Nimbus 4D   



The Nimbus 4D is a high-performance two-seat sailplane, constructed from fiber reinforced plastic, and, with a wing span of 86.94 ft (26,5 m, aspect ratio 39.1), is the largest aircraft so far produced in series by Schempp-Hirth.
With a best L/D of about 1:60 and outstanding abilities at low speed and in circling flight, the Nimbus 4D is a match for the comparable single seaters, but possesses distincly improved flight handling. Both its harmony of controls and maneuverability convey the impression of a considerably smaller two-seater - a result which could only be achieved by the extraordinary aerodynamic design of the wing, combined with an elaborate control system.

Hence the most significant feature of this super two-seat sailpane is - apart from its span - its still unconventional multi-stage swept-back wing leading edge (as also used on the Discus and Ventus 2), the aerodynamic advantages of which are even more enhanced by the dihedral of the wing tips. This wing concept guarantees a perfect utilization of the span and also offers outstanding low speed handling qualities

more from:  http://www.mandhsoaring.com/nimbus4d.html



« Last Edit: 01/05/2007 20:10:49 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #721 on: 01/05/2007 20:26:49 »
Oak, common name for a large genus of hardwood trees that are widespread in the North Temperate Zone. The oak genus contains about 600 species. Oaks are distinguished from the other ten or so genera in the beech family, to which the oak genus belongs, by various technical characteristics of their minute, clustered flowers, but they are easily recognized by their distinctive fruit, the acorn. The related tan oak also produces an acorn but differs from the oak genus in its erect, rather than hanging, male flower clusters.

About 27 species of oak occur in Europe where several are major forest trees. The trees may be deciduous (losing their leaves in the autumn) or evergreen (keeping their leaves in winter). In central and northern Europe, forest species such as sessile oak and pendunculate or English oak are deciduous, but in the Mediterranean region evergreen species, such as kermes oak and holm oak, are dominant in the evergreen forests that formerly occupied much of the region. Oaks grow in a variety of habitats but prefer deep, rich soils, although some species are found in poorer, dry soils. Flowering occurs in the spring, before or just as the new leaves appear, and large quantities of pollen are shed into the wind. Oaks vary considerably in size; some may grow no taller than a shrub while others reach heights of over 30 m (98 ft).

Oaks produce durable, tough wood and are important timber trees. The wood is used in cabinet-making and barrel-making, and for flooring and veneers. Oak wood was long used in the construction of houses and English ships. Corks are made from the thick, spongy bark of the cork oak, which occurs in the Mediterranean region. Several species yield tannins, which are used in the leather-tanning industry, and others yield dyes from their bark. Oaks are of some horticultural importance but, because most grow slowly, they are more often planted in public parks than in private gardens. Scarlet oak and pin oak, however, are moderate- to fast-growing species that are well suited to both purposes.

Scientific classification: Oaks make up the genus Quercus of the family Fagaceae. The sessile oak is classified as Quercus petraea; the pendunculate or English oak as Quercus robur; the holm oak as Quercus ilex; the kermes oak as Quercus coccifera; the cork oak as Quercus suber; the scarlet oak as Quercus coccinea, and the pin oak as Quercus palustris. The tan oak is classified in the genus Lithocarpus.

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Offline Ben6789

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #722 on: 02/05/2007 16:56:26 »
Photosynthesis. The thing plants do to keep the earth running.
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« Reply #724 on: 02/05/2007 22:21:27 »
Robot, self-governing, programmable electromechanical device used in industry and in scientific research to perform a task or a limited repertoire of tasks. Robots are a subcategory of automated devices (see Automation). Although no generally recognized criteria exists that distinguishes them from other automated systems, robots tend to be more versatile and adaptable (or reprogrammable) than less sophisticated devices. They offer the advantages of being able to perform more quickly, cheaply, and accurately than humans in conducting set routines. They are capable of operating in locations or under conditions hazardous to human health, ranging from areas of the factory floor to the ocean depths and outer space.

The concept of robots dates back to ancient times, when some myths told of mechanical beings brought to life. Such automata also appeared in the clockwork figures of medieval churches, and in the 18th century some clockmakers gained fame for the intricately clever mechanical figures that they constructed. Today the term automaton is usually applied to these handcrafted, mechanical (rather than electromechanical) devices that are restricted merely to imitating the motions of living creatures. Some of the “robots” used in advertising and entertainment are actually automata, even with the addition of remote radio control.

The term robot itself is derived from the Czech word robota, meaning “compulsory labour”. It was first used in the 1921 play R.U.R. (which stands for “Rossum's Universal Robots”) by the Czech novelist and playwright Karel Čapek, to describe a mechanical device that looks like a human but, lacking human sensibility, can perform only automatic, mechanical operations. In the play, however, the robots proved much more capable than that, eventually conquering and destroying their makers—a recurrent theme in science fiction since that time. The term androids is now generally reserved for human-like figures of this sort, ranging from electromechanical robots in human form to human-like creatures made entirely of biological materials.

Robots as they are known today are not really imitative of human or other living forms except in the limited aspect of digital dexterity. The roots of their development lie in the effort to automate some or all of the operations required on the factory floor. This effort began in the 18th century in the textile industry, when some looms were designed to perform under the control of punched paper tapes. With the burgeoning of the Industrial Revolution, factories sought to bring a greater degree of automation to the repeated processes of the assembly line. True robots did not become possible, however, until the invention of the computer in the 1940s and the progressive miniaturization of computer parts. One of the first true robots was an experimental model called SHAKEY, designed by researchers at the Stanford Research Institute in the late 1960s. It was capable of arranging blocks into stacks through the use of a television camera as a visual sensor, processing this information in a small computer.

Thereafter engineers tried to adapt robot-like devices to useful tasks. In the mid-1970s, General Motors financed a development programme in which Massachusetts Institute of Technology researcher Victor Scheinman improved upon a motor-driven “arm” he had invented to produce a so-called “programmable universal manipulator for assembly”, or PUMA. The PUMAs that resulted mark the beginning of the age of robots.

Computers today are equipped with a small microprocessor or microprocessors that can handle the data being fed to them by various sensors of the surrounding environment. Making use of the principle of feedback (see Cybernetics), robots can then change their operations to some degree in response to changes in that environment. The commercial use of robots is spreading, with the increasing automation of factories, and they have long since become essential to many laboratory procedures. Japan is in the forefront of nations exploring robot technology. Whether the androids of science fiction will ever become a reality is not yet possible to predict, because duplication of even such seemingly simple acts as bipedal walking has proved enormously difficult. The question of “intelligent” androids must similarly be left to the future of artificial intelligence as a whole. In the meantime, however, robots should continue to expand their applications; the home-made-robot kits available today may be one sign of the future



An Advanced Robot !!




A Robot Fish !!...........which is nice !!
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #726 on: 05/05/2007 19:16:43 »
T cells belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and NK cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface that is called the T cell receptor (TCR). The abbreviation "T", in T cell, stands for thymus since it is the principal organ for their development.

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #727 on: 05/05/2007 22:48:26 »
Urolithiasis




Urinary Calculus analysis

It has been published the typical descriptions of size, shape, color and texture for the diverse uroliths (see Figure 1). Nevertheless, the macroscopic morphology is too diverse as for to allow a diagnosis based on the physical aspect. Besides, many uroliths are composed by two or more substances arranged in several layers, principally in the dogs. It is necessary to carry out a correct analysis of each one of them to determine the types of mineral that they are constituted. The majority of the dogs and cats that form uroliths from metabolic origin, as soon as they did it, they will do it again until a preventive treatment begins.
Some other very useful methods exist to determine the mineral composition of the uroliths as: optical crystallography by oil dip with a polarized light, difractometry of X-rays, electronic microscopy, high pressure liquid chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, nevertheless, we have little experience with the use of these methods in the daily practice of our country.

The only available skill of commercial form in Mexico, to determine the mineral composition of an urolith is the mineral chemical semiquantitative analysis that allows us to determine the percentage of mineral compounds as phosphate, ammonium, magnesium, calcium, oxalate, urate, carbonate and cystine that can form the urolith. As a general rule, is important to send all the uroliths that are extracted from the urinary tract for their analysis.

more reading from:   http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2005&PID=11003&O=Generic

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #728 on: 08/05/2007 00:08:58 »
V-2 Rocket
First fired in 1942, the V-2 rocket was the first successful large liquid-propellant rocket. Developed by German engineer Wernher von Braun, the V-2 was used by the Germans to bombard England during World War II.




« Last Edit: 10/05/2007 19:48:33 by neilep »
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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #729 on: 09/05/2007 18:10:30 »
Hi Neil, why did you CHANGE the previously posted V-2 pic?
...the one from your garden was much better!!!   [;D]


Wernher von Braun

« Last Edit: 10/05/2007 19:19:36 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #730 on: 10/05/2007 18:36:08 »
X-Ray Painting,


 style in Australian aboriginal art in which the skeletons and internal organs of animals, fish, and birds are superimposed with the animals’ external features. X-ray paintings are often highly stylized, with complex, decorative designs. Found in the Northern Territory of Australia, the style appears in paintings on rock faces and bark. The origin of the style can be traced back to the Mesolithic art of northern Europe. Figures painted in the X-ray style can be up to 2.5 m (8 ft) long
.


Men are the same as women, just inside out !

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #731 on: 10/05/2007 18:55:48 »
Yttria= yttrium oxide, Y2 O2  A heavy , white powder, insoluble in water: used in electronics, colored television tubes, etc.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #732 on: 11/05/2007 17:51:43 »
Zoological Gardens

.........known popularly as zoos, in which live animals are kept for public recreation, education, and conservation purposes. Modern zoos offer veterinary facilities, provide opportunities for threatened species to breed in captivity, and usually build environments that simulate the native habitats of the animals in their care. Zoos differ from menageries, in which animals are displayed in cages for profit-making purposes, and from so-called zoological stations, which are established in the actual living areas of animals studied for scientific purposes.

Collections of captive animals have been kept since ancient times by rulers of countries as diverse as Egypt and China, but the concept of a zoological garden or park, in which animals may be given a practicable freedom of movement, is a recent development.

The first modern zoological gardens were the Imperial Menagerie established in Vienna in 1752 and opened to the public in 1765, and the zoo established in 1793 in connection with the Jardin des Plantes (Botanical Garden) in Paris. The famous zoological garden in Regent's Park, London, was established in 1828 by the Zoological Society of London. In 1931 the society opened Whipsnade Park, in Bedfordshire, an area of approximately 230 hectares (567 acres) that has become one of the world's best-known zoos. The oldest zoos in the United States are Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo, opened to the public in 1868, and the Philadelphia Zoo, chartered in 1859 and opened in 1874. The International Wildlife Conservation Park, situated in Bronx Park, New York, and known popularly as the Bronx Zoo, opened in 1899. The Zoo was founded by the New York Zoological Society (now the Wildlife Conservation Society), and has one of the largest collections of animals in the world. Other large and particularly important collections are found in Missouri, California, Mumbai and Kolkata, Cairo, Tokyo, and Berlin and Munich.

From the 19th century onwards, the steel bars formerly used to restrain dangerous animals and protect the public were frequently replaced by ditches or moats, too wide and deep for the animals to cross. Hardy animals are permitted to roam over large, open-air ranges, while in cool seasons and climates, tropical animals are housed in heated buildings. In some zoological gardens animals of different species are exhibited in a common enclosure, sometimes including nearly all the animals of a region. Many modern zoos incorporate aquariums and aviaries for the purpose of accommodating and displaying exotic fish and birds, and frequently include a special children's zoo for very young visitors to play in and to ride on animals such as elephants and camels.

Men are the same as women, just inside out !


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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #734 on: 23/05/2007 08:45:32 »
BI-PLANES

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."


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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #736 on: 01/06/2007 08:14:27 »
Dopplar

DNA

Density



D-Dimer dosage

...fibrinogen degradation products in plasma.
High levels indicate disseminated intravascular coagulation or massive thrombosis.
ikod

What happened to ' X' and ' y ' ?


you mean :

"WHY are they EXcluded ?"

LOL..that's clever Eric ! [:)]


Diagnositc

  

Deoxyribonucleic acid

(DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the biological development of a cellular form of life or a virus. All known cellular life and some viruses have DNAs. DNA is a long polymer of nucleotides (a polynucleotide) that encodes the sequence of amino acid residues in proteins, using the genetic code.



Doppler shift-The "police siren" effect,when waves propagated by a moving body have their wavelength stretched as the body moves away.

Diurnal motion: The apparent daily rotation of the sky from east to west. It is due to the real rotation of the earth from west to east.

Dichotomy: The exact half-phase of Mercury, Venus or the Moon.

Diuretic

A diuretic (colloquially called a water pill) is any drug or herb that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). Diuretics also decrease the extracellular fluid (ECF) volume, and are primarily used to produce a negative extracellular fluid balance. Caffeine, cranberry juice and alcohol are all weak diuretics.

Uses

In medicine, diuretics are used to treat heart failure, liver cirrhosis, hypertension and certain kidney diseases. Diuretics alleviate the symptoms of these diseases by causing sodium and water loss through the urine. As urine is produced by the kidney, sodium and water – which cause edema related to the disease – move into the blood to replace the volume lost as urine, thereby reducing the pathological edema. Some diuretics, such as acetazolamide, help to make the urine more alkaline and are helpful in increasing excretion of substances such as aspirin in cases of overdose or poisoning.

The antihypertensive actions of some diuretics (thiazides and loop diuretics in particular) are independent of their diuretic effect. That is, the reduction in blood pressure is not due to decreased blood volume resulting from increased urine production, but occurs through other mechanisms and at lower doses than that required to produce diuresis. Indapamide was specifically designed with this is mind, and has a larger therapeutic window for hypertension (without pronounced diuresis) than most other diuretics.

Diode
ikod



Delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase


Lead poisoning


Lead has no known biological role in the body. The toxicity comes from its ability to mimic other biologically important metals, the most notable of which are calcium, iron and zinc. Lead is able to bind to and interact with the same proteins and molecules as these metals, but after displacement, those molecules function differently and fail to carry out the same reactions, such as in producing enzymes necessary for certain biological processes.

Most lead poisoning symptoms are thought to occur by interfering with an essential enzyme Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, or ALAD. ALAD is a zinc-binding protein which is important in the biosynthesis of heme, the cofactor found in hemoglobin.
Genetic mutations of ALAD cause the disease porphyria, a disease which was highlighted in the movie The Madness of King George.
Lead poisoning is sometimes mistaken for porphyria but the distinction is that lead poisoning usually causes anemia while true porphyria does not.


more from Wikipedia clicking here:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead_poisoning


Dawkins,Richard = Author of, The Selfish Gene; The Extended Phenotype; The Blind Watchmaker;  River Out Of Eden; and Cimbing Mount Improbable.

Darwins Theory

Desmodromic Valve Control
    (Ducati-Italy)


Dendrochronology


Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree-ring growth patterns. This technique was invented and developed during the 20th century originally by A. E. Douglass, the founder of the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research at the University of Arizona. The technique can date wood to exact calendar years.


Overview

Many trees in temperate zones grow one growth ring each year, the newest ring being under the bark. For the entire period of a tree's life, a year-by-year record or ring pattern is formed that reflects the climatic conditions in which the tree grew. Adequate moisture and a long growing season result in a wide ring. A drought year may result in a very narrow one. Trees from the same region will tend to develop the same patterns of ring widths for a given period. These patterns can be compared and matched ring for ring with trees growing in the same geographical zone and under similar climatic conditions. Following these tree-ring patterns from living trees back through time, chronologies can be built up, both for entire regions, and for sub-regions of the world. Thus wood from ancient structures can be matched to known chronologies (a technique called cross-dating) and the age of the wood determined precisely. Cross-dating was originally done by visual inspection. Nowadays, computers are used to do the statistical matching.

To eliminate individual variations in tree ring growth, dendrochronologists take the smoothed average of the tree ring widths of multiple tree samples to build up a ring history. This process is termed replication. A tree ring history whose beginning and end dates are not known is called a floating chronology. It can be anchored by cross-matching either the beginning or the end section against the end sections of another chronology (tree ring history) whose dates are known. Fully anchored chronologies which extend back more than 10,000 years exist for river oak trees from South Germany (from the Main and Rhine rivers). A fully anchored chronology which extends back 8500 years exists for the bristlecone pine in the Southwest US (White Mountains of California).

In areas where the climate is reasonably predictable, trees develop annual rings of different properties depending on weather, rain, temperature, etc. in different years. These variations may be used to infer past climate variations —



[attachment=151]

Dermatoglyphics   (Fingerprints)


Dialysis


In medicine, dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy which is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. It is a life support treatment and does not treat any kidney diseases. Dialysis may be used for very sick patients who have suddenly lost their kidney function (acute renal failure) or for quite stable patients who have permanently lost their kidney function (end stage renal failure). When healthy, the kidneys remove waste products (for example potassium, acid and urea) from the blood and also remove excess fluid in the form of urine. Dialysis treatments have to duplicate both of these functions as dialysis (waste removal) and ultrafiltration (fluid removal).

Diode

Semiconductor electronic component. Ideally, a diode conducts electricity in one direction and does not allow the current to flow in the opposite direction. Thanks to this property diodes are used to rectify alternating currents, i.e., to convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC).






Diatrophism = The process by which the earths surface is reshaped through rock movements and it's displacements.

Dermatomeri


THOSE ARE VERY COOL!!

Dioscuri = Greek mythology, meaning Castor and Pollux, twin sons of zues: identified as stars in the constellation Gemini.

History of the Depth Charge

The depth charge or bomb is a waterproof weapon used by ships or aircraft to attack submerged submarines.

First Depth Charges
The first depth charges were developed by the British in World War I for use against German submarines or U-boats, beginning in late 1915. They were steel canisters, the size of an oil drum, filled with TNT explosives. They were dropped off the side or stern of a ship, on top of where the crew estimated the enemy submarines were. The canister sank and exploded at a depth that was preset by the use of a hydrostatic valve. The charges often did not hit the submarines but the shock of the explosions still damaged the submarines by loosening the submarine enough to create leaks and forcing the submarine to surface.




The first depth charges were not effective weapons. Between 1915 and the end of 1917, depth charges destroyed only nine U-boats. They were improved in 1918 and that year were responsible for destroying twenty-two U-boats, when depth charges were propelled through the air over distances of 100 or more yards with special cannons, increasing the damage range of the naval ships.


[attachment=299]

Diagramming software


Diagramming software
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Diagramming Software)
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Diagramming software consists of computer programs that are used to produce graphical diagrams.


[edit] Types of diagramming software
User-generated diagrams. As computer users seek to represent visual information, such as a flowchart, tools such as SmartDraw, Boxily, Dia, OmniGraffle, Microsoft Visio, Inspiration, Fun With MindBook, ConceptDraw V, First Diagramming allow them to express the information in the form of a diagram. Such programs are usually GUI-based and feature WYSIWYG diagram editing. There are also several Diagramming tools available for developers, including Corgent Diagram for Microsoft's .NET Platform and JGraph for the Java platform. Some user-generated diagram software is UML compatible, allowing model-driven translation between graphic representation and functional programming languages.
Automatically generated diagrams. Programs are available as debugger front-ends, computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools, or profilers. Diagrams are usually automatically generated by the program in this type of software. Tool examples with automatically generated diagrams are Visustin, Project Analyzer and VB Watch.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diagramming_software"

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Diagramming Software)
Jump to: navigation, search
Diagramming software consists of computer programs that are used to produce graphical diagrams.


[edit] Types of diagramming software
User-generated diagrams. As computer users seek to represent visual information, such as a flowchart, tools such as SmartDraw, Boxily, Dia, OmniGraffle, Microsoft Visio, Inspiration, Fun With MindBook, ConceptDraw V, First Diagramming allow them to express the information in the form of a diagram. Such programs are usually GUI-based and feature WYSIWYG diagram editing. There are also several Diagramming tools available for developers, including Corgent Diagram for Microsoft's .NET Platform and JGraph for the Java platform. Some user-generated diagram software is UML compatible, allowing model-driven translation between graphic representation and functional programming languages.
Automatically generated diagrams. Programs are available as debugger front-ends, computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools, or profilers. Diagrams are usually automatically generated by the program in this type of software. Tool examples with automatically generated diagrams are Visustin, Project Analyzer and VB Watch.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diagramming_software"




Quote

...and NOW?



Dead topic ?

« Last Edit: 05/06/2007 10:05:50 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #737 on: 07/06/2007 07:18:51 »
*tears* Thank you Iko...

EPICENTER= The area of the earths surface directly above the place of origin, focus, of an earthquake: Also epicentrim 2. A focal or central point.


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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #738 on: 11/06/2007 20:44:33 »
Fault= A fracture in the earth's crust which has allowed movement

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #739 on: 15/06/2007 07:21:00 »
GENUS =   An artificial grouping of apparently allied species.
« Last Edit: 15/06/2007 07:22:47 by Karen W. »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #740 on: 16/06/2007 07:13:04 »
Hydrocarbons = A compound such as methane that contains only hydrogen and carbon atoms.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #741 on: 16/06/2007 07:18:20 »
I am a Jolly beaver
Fledgling science site at http://www.sciencefile.org/SF/content/view/54/98/ needs members and original articles. If you can help, please join.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #742 on: 16/06/2007 08:02:30 »
 (KNOWLEDGE is a WEALTH all of it's OWN)

KINETIC =To do with Movement as in "kenetic sculpture race"(from my home town)


   
Kinetic Sculpture Race
The Osgood File (CBS Radio Network): 11/27/03
The Osgood File (CBS Radio Network): 6/25/03

Human powered works of mobile art compete in a race each spring.

The sculptures that competed in the April 2003 Kinetic Sculpture Race are designed to travel on land, through mud and over deep harbor waters, and they are constructed of any imaginable material, including used bicycles, gears, feathers, tin foil and paper mache. Some of the machines are simple crafts piloted by only one brave soul, while others might be as large as 50-foot long, highly sophisticated and well-engineered vehicles powered by a team of pilots. This year 32 entries, including a 14-foot green frog, a 14-foot powder blue elephant and a mobile volcano will compete for prizes in "Art" and "Engineering" categories, as well as the coveted "Mediocre" and "Next to Last" awards.

Art meets engineering at the Kinetic Sculpture Race, which provides an opportunity for anyone to build and race an imaginative work of art. The race started inauspiciously when Hobart Brown, an art dealer and sculptor, was repairing his son's tricycle in 1969. "It was an accident. I didn't know the world was hungry for this kind of thing. I was repairing my son’s tricycle, and I kept building stuff on it and pretty soon it was seven feet tall. And it got in the newspaper and my friend built one (another kinetic sculpture) and we had a race and it (the competition) grew and grew. And I thought, oh my God, now we need to do it right." The race grew into an annual three-day event in Northern California, from Arcata to Ferndale during Memorial Day weekend each year, over a 38-mile route of road, water, sand and mud. Since then, Hobart, known as the "Glorious Founder," has taken his "festival of art and madness" to Baltimore, as well as Boulder, Colorado, Portland Oregon, Port Townsend, Washington and even Poland and Australia.

CONTACTS

Humboldt Kinetic Association
PO Box 4227
Arcata, CA 95518

« Last Edit: 16/06/2007 08:10:57 by Karen W. »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #743 on: 16/06/2007 08:08:26 »
Bloody L Karen!  [:0]
Fledgling science site at http://www.sciencefile.org/SF/content/view/54/98/ needs members and original articles. If you can help, please join.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #744 on: 16/06/2007 08:13:59 »
MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER  [:)] :) :)

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #745 on: 16/06/2007 08:20:43 »

Olivia Neutron-bomb  [:D]
Fledgling science site at http://www.sciencefile.org/SF/content/view/54/98/ needs members and original articles. If you can help, please join.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #746 on: 16/06/2007 08:28:24 »
  ORGANIC CHEMISTRY



Organic chemistry
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_chemistry


Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well as phosphorus, silicon and sulfur.[1][2]
« Last Edit: 16/06/2007 10:32:56 by Karen W. »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #747 on: 16/06/2007 18:25:04 »
Psoralens





“Psoralens are part of a group of plant compounds referred to as furocoumarins. These are predominantly found the umbelliferae family, which includes celery, parsnips, fennel and parsley. Psoralens form part of the plants’ natural defence system and although they’re safe at low levels, their concentrations increase when the plants are damaged, attacked by fungi (mould), or when exposed to extreme temperatures."

The compounds are absorbed into the skin on contact, and they also end up in the skin after being ingested. Not that you would notice… until you went out into the sun, that is. Psoralens are partial to UV-A radiation, and have the amazing ability to absorb three times as much light energy compared to their ground state – and when they release this energy again, the trouble starts. Photochemical reactions take place which damage to the body’s cell membranes and DNA, causing inflammation and blisters, a condition medically referred to as “phytophotodermatitis”. In other words, victims end up with the equivalent of pretty bad sunburn. And because of the DNA damage, there is also an increased cancer risk (as there is with sunburn).

Don’t let this put you off your veg though – you’d have to eat large amounts of mouldy celery to run any serious risk of blistering up while out on the football pitch. The people most at risk from phytophotodermatitis are agricultural workers and food handlers who are exposed to these compounds on a near-daily basis.

Dangerous though they can be, psoralens can also be put to very positive use, by means of a therapeutic application called ‘PUVA’. Psoralen + UV-A therapy can help certain difficult-to-treat skin conditions, such as psoriasis, eczema and vitiligo. The psoralens are applied topically to the affected skin areas or, in more severe cases affecting large areas of the body, they are given orally. The patients are then exposed to UV-A light, and this can help to clear up the condition. The medical team take care not to burn the patients, of course. In vitiligo, the condition Michael Jackson has claimed to suffer from, where the skin’s natural pigment (melanin) is lost, PUVA therapy can help re-pigment the skin. The word of warning though is that during PUVA therapy, patients are advised not to consume psoralen-containing foods in excess.

more from:  http://www.scienceyear.com/about_sy/news/ps_151-175/ps_issue175.html

« Last Edit: 16/06/2007 18:30:25 by iko »

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #748 on: 16/06/2007 19:33:41 »
QUANTUM  ELECTRODYNAMICS = A theory that describes both wave and particle behavior of electromagnetic radiation.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #749 on: 19/06/2007 06:11:32 »
   Recombination = The shuffling of genetic information during the creation of reproductive cells that make offspring different from their parents.

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