** The Propagation of Electricity Contd……. :** One of the outcomes of this extremely rapid emission and absorption of photons by free electrons within the conductor carrying a current are the lines of force that appear around any current carrying conductor. These lines of force are the manifestation of the ‘virtual’ photon Aether which line themselves up in the line of propagation of the real photon forming the complicated patterns that surround a conductor carrying electricity. Thus for those who constantly complain, where is this ‘aether’ that you are talking about ? The answer is that it is literally all around you, right out there in the open, surrounding the power line which comes to the house, in the electricity that runs the TV and the computer in and out of the numerous light fittings, in and around the compressor in the fridge and so on. Look at the following picture:

As is demonstrated by the pictures shown above it can be seen that seemingly an almost

*infinite* number of lines of force emerge from and re-enter the electrical conductor. In actual fact these lines of force are not infinite in number and can be very accurately calculated using the fact that 1 coulomb is equal to 1.6 x 10

^{19}electrons approx. These lines of force is where the electrical energy is stored. As has been stated the drift velocity of electrons under the influence of an electrical difference of potential is extremely slow: Drift velocity is expressed in the following equations

[tex]j = pv_avg , V_avg = \mu E[/tex] where

J is the current density,

[tex]\rho[/tex] is charge density (in units C/m3), and

Similarly the frequency [tex]\omega[/tex]the wave-length [tex]\lambda[/tex] and the energy e of the composite wavelength may be calculated either using [tex]\hbar\omega[/tex] planck’s constant x frequency or by dividing of the quantum energy of the conduction photon by the number of photons comprising the composite wavelength. Now it is possible to see how the energy of the far field and the near field are produced. In the near field the ‘conduction’ photons are connected in series and each line of force holds the energy of one ‘conduction’ photon, so that in effect each line of force has an energy of [tex]1.6\times10^{-19} C[/tex]This fits in with well with observed data and conforms with the flow of an electric current. Note that here the drift velocity of the electrons does not matter the ‘conduction’ photons each deliver [tex]1.6\times10^{-19} C[/tex] .

As far as the far field goes , here also the results are in line with observed data. In the far field the ‘conduction’ photons are connected in parallel thus each photon contains the energy of one conduction photon divided by the composite wave length. For example, given that we have a 0.75 m wave length in the far field then its energy will equal :

[tex]\frac {C_e^p}{Co\lambda} = C_oe[/tex]

Here [tex]C_oe = \frac {C_e^p}{C_o\lambda} = \frac {0.75}{1.2\times 10^{-6}}= 6.2\times10^{5}[/tex]

Therefore [tex]e = \frac{1.6\times10^{-19}}{6.2\times10^{5}}= 2.56\times10^{-25}J[/tex]

Using conventional formula the same result can be reached :

[tex]3.99.10^{9}.h = e = 2.56.10^{-25}[/tex]

[tex]e = \frac {1.6.10^{-19}}{6.2.10^{5}}= 2.56.10^{-25}J[/tex]

We can also see that if a voltage of one I volt is applied to the conductor and a current of 1 coulomb is made to flow then total current I = 6.241509324.10^{18} conduction photons or [tex]1.6.10^{-19} \times 6.241509324.10^{18} = 0.999 Amp[/tex] . Delivered at the speed of light C !

Returning to the subject of the drift velocity of electrons in a conductor carrying an electric current. The picture that is given for the transmission of electricity in most Institutions goes something like this: ‘ Imagine a tube filled with ping pong balls (the ping pong balls represent electrons) if sufficient ping pong balls are present when one is put in at this end another pops out of the other end.’

v_avg is the drift velocity, and where is the electron mobility (in units m

^{2}/V•s) and

T is the electric field (in units V/m) Assume a current

I = 3 amperes, and a wire of 1 mm diameter (radius = 0.0005 m). This wire has a cross sectional area of

[tex]7.85\times 10^{\aa7} m^2 \left ( A = \pi . 0.0005^2\right)[/tex].

The charge of 1 electron is [tex]= 1.6 \times 10 ^{-19}[/tex] Coulombs.

The drift velocity therefore can be calculated:

[tex]v = \frac {I}{nAq} \frac {3}{\left(8.5.10^{28}\right )\left(7.185.10^{-7}\right)\left(-1.6.10^{-19}}\right) v = -0.00028 m[/tex]

Therefore in this wire the electrons are flowing at the rate of

[tex]2.9\times10^{-5}m/s[/tex] , or very nearly −1.0 m/hour. The photons emitted by free electrons under such conditions are ‘relatively’ low energy photons and have been named ‘conduction’ photons as opposed to optical photons which are normally emitted and absorbed by bound electrons in the atom and generally have larger energies. The following are the properties of a conduction photon: The Quantum charge of the conduction photon

[tex]C_e^p = 1.6.10^{-19}C[/tex]

The wavelength of the conduction photon

[tex]C_\lambda^p = 1.2.10^{-6} m[/tex]

The frequency of the conduction photon Hz.

[tex]C_\omega^p = 2.4.10^{14} Hz[/tex]

Similarly the frequency [tex]\omega[/tex] the wave-length [tex]\lambda[/tex]and the energy e of the composite wavelength may be calculated either using [tex]\hbar\omega[/tex] planck’s constant x frequency or by dividing of the quantum energy of the conduction photon by the number of photons comprising the composite wavelength. Now it is possible to see how the energy of the far field and the near field are produced. In the near field the ‘conduction’ photons are connected in series and each line of force holds the energy of one ‘conduction’ photon, so that in effect each line of force has an energy of [tex]1.6\times10^{-19} C[/tex] This fits in with well with observed data and conforms with the flow of an electric current. Note that here the drift velocity of the electrons does not matter the ‘conduction’ photons each deliver [tex]1.6\times10^{-19} C[/tex] .

As far as the far field goes , here also the results are in line with observed data. In the far field the ‘conduction’ photons are connected in parallel thus each photon contains the energy of one conduction photon divided by the composite wave length. For example, given that we have a 0.75 m wave length in the far field then its energy will equal :

[tex]\frac {C_e^p}{Co\lambda} = C_oe[/tex]

Here [tex]C_oe = \frac {C_e^p}{C_o\lambda} = \frac {0.75}{1.2\times 10^{-6}}= 6.2\times10^{5}[/tex]

Therefore [tex]e = \frac{1.6\times10^{-19}}{6.2\times10^{5}}= 2.56\times10^{-25}J[/tex]

Using conventional formula the same result can be reached :

[tex]3.99\times10^{9}.h = e = 2.56\times10^{-25}[/tex]

[tex]e = \frac {1.6\times10^{-19}}{6.2\times10^{5}}= 2.56\times10^{-25}J[/tex]

We can also see that if a voltage of one I volt is applied to the conductor and a current of 1 coulomb is made to flow then total current I = [tex]6.241509324\times10^{18}[/tex] conduction photons or [tex]1.6\times10^{-19} \times 6.241509324\times10^{18} = 0.999 Amp[/tex] . Delivered at the speed of light C !

Returning to the subject of the drift velocity of electrons in a conductor carrying an electric current. The picture that is given for the transmission of electricity in most Institutions goes something like this: ‘ Imagine a tube filled with ping pong balls (the ping pong balls represent electrons) if sufficient ping pong balls are present when one is put in at this end another pops out of the other end.’

This is the picture of the transmission of electricity that has been passed on for at least as long as electricity has been known. In actual fact electrons within the atom itself are separated by huge distances and the distance between one electron and another in the interstitial spaces of the conductor is almost too huge to imagine. It would be like trying to hit one billiard ball with another from a distance of 250,000 Kms, which says it all. The above explanation for the conduction of electricity in a conductor is hardly satisfying. A little less satisfying is the Quantum Mechanics explanation for the propagation of an electric current. The reasoning is as flows. Once the direct physical contact to contact of electrons is eliminated there are few alternatives left. The alternatives that are left are electric and magnetic fields, could the electricity be passed along by these fields ? This would be acceptable if not for the fact that it is the electron that is the fundamental charge carrier, what part would it have to play in this scenario? How would electrical energy travel in these fields ? Are there electrons present in electromagnetic waves ? If a fluctuating electric and magnetic field alone is enough to convey electrical energy without any electrons at all present, what part do electrons play in all this, how do electrons, if it is electrons that have imparted the initial energy to the field, in turn receive energy from the field. These are difficult questions to answer even leaving out the fact that it completely ignores the particle aspect of the photon, since a field is exclusively wave-like at least in this particular instance, it is impossible to introduce the particle like behavior represented by planck’s constant. Most important is the fact that it is not electric and magnetic fields that are seen to mediate between electrons but photons. It is photons that are the mediators of energy between electrons. Gestalt Aether Theory submits that it is not electrons that are the fundamental charge carriers but photons. The observable evidence in support of this conclusion is considerable and answers all questions without leaving any unanswered lacunae whatsoever. This is in sharp contrast to any other theory which all leave huge unsatisfactory gaps in their theories of electrical conduction. Quantum Mechanics for instance or QED to be more exact, has no reasonable explanation for electromagnetic fields and certainly cannot differentiate these fields on the basis of frequency. It is in the renormalistaion process that infinities amounting to 10

^{12} are routinely brought back to zero ! Gestalt Aether Theory can accurately predict the near field energies for any given flow of current as well as the energies of the far field for that same current. Returning to the question of the drift velocity of electrons under the influence of a difference of potential, this has been observed to be very slow on the order of a thousandth of a centimeter a second. As explained in the last post, the main argument against free electrons in an electric conductor are the conservation of momentum laws, if a bound electron emits an electron the forces of recoil can be absorbed by the atom, but if a free electron emits an electron it has nowhere to absorb the recoil. It has been explained that this circumstance has been overcome by a free electron emitting an electron and instantaneously absorbing another so that the conservation laws are not violated according to Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle. The electrons are under the influence of a difference of potential which gradually forces them towards the positive end of the conductor, thus although in a very large percentage of instances, the forces of recoil are cancelled out by the opposing forces of emission and absorption, there is still enough discrepancy to account for the ‘drift velocity’. This applies to electrons moving under the influence of a direct current. What happens to electrons when they are in an alternating current The answer when viewed from any other view=point but that of the photon as charge carrier put forward by Gestalt Aether Theory, is surprising. The electrons stop moving, there is no movement at all it is as if the electrons are frozen in place. From the point of view of Gestalt Aether Theory this is perfectly logical because once the influence of the difference of potential going in one direction only has been neutralized, the emission and absorption of photons cancels out all forces of recoil and the electrons stay in one place. Compare the explanation given above to the answer given by present day physics. The Quantum Mechanics explanation for the flow of current in a conductor is as follows: For Direct Current: It is well established that a moving electric charge gives rise to electromagnetic waves which are alternating magnetic and electric fields, thus when a difference of potential is established across the ends of the conductor and a direct current is established, even though the electrons are moving very slowly due to the drift velocity ( about 10

^{-3} cms/sec they are moving and this gives rise to an electromagnetic field which nudges the next electron in line along and so on. Since electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light the electric current is established very fast. Thus as can be seen the Quantum Mechanics explanation for current is little better than the ping pong ball explanation given earlier. But the picture gets worse ! Look at the explanation for the flow of current in a conductor carrying an Alternating current ! Here since it has been verified that there is no drift movement at all of electrons in a conductor carrying an Alternating current, in fact the electrons are almost frozen in place, it is assumed that the electrons are oscillating in place and that it is this oscillation of the electrons which gives rise to an electromagnetic field and the transmission of electric current and so on.

The thing about the Gestalt Aether theory on the propagation of electricity is that no longer are the lines of force around a conductor carrying an electric current infinite in number, we KNOW that in a wire carrying 1 ampere of current there will be

10

^{16} lines of force present.

And that in a wire carrying 10 amperes of current there will be 10

^{17} lines of force surrounding the conductor and so on.

Further Gestalt Aether theory also states that once the photons in these lines of force change their orientation from being connected in series to being connected in parallel they can no longer take part in the conduction process. Therefore in AC current Gestalt Aether theory states that each time the current reverses polarity there is a chance of a large percentage of the current being lost since only those lines of force closest to the conductor can be re-absorbed when polarity changes, the lines of force that have re-oriented into parallel orientation are lost. In a wire carrying DC current, since there is no change in the direction of current the lines of force are almost totally connected in series. This means that an electrical conductor moving through these lines of force will result in a flow of current being generated within the conductor. Moving of the conductor causes free electrons to move, giving them the correct energy to attract photons from the lines of force surrounding the DC current carrying wire. And that in a wire carrying 10 amperes of current there will be 10

^{17} lines of force surrounding the conductor and so on.

Further Gestalt Aether theory also states that once the photons in these lines of force change their orientation from being connected in series to being connected in parallel they can no longer take part in the electrical conduction process. Therefore in AC current Gestalt Aether theory states that each time the current reverses polarity there is a chance of a large percentage of the current being lost since only those lines of force closest to the conductor can be re-absorbed when polarity changes, the lines of force that have re-oriented into parallel orientation are lost. In a wire carrying DC current, since there is no change in the direction of current the lines of force are almost totally connected in series. This means that an electrical conductor moving through these lines of force will result in a flow of current being generated within the conductor. Moving of the conductor causes free electrons to move, giving them the correct energy to attract photons from the lines of force surrounding the DC current carrying wire.