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What is the first law of Universe ?========= The Physics is first of all Vacuum. Vacuum is :T=0K.Once upon a time, 20 billions of years ago, all matter (all elementary particles and all quarks and their girlfriends- antiparticles and antiquarks, all kinds of waves: electromagnetic, gravitational, muons… gluons field ….. etc.) – was assembled in a “single point”. It is interesting to think about what had surrounded the “single point”.The answer is : EMPTINESS- NOTHING….!!! Ok! But why does everyone speak about EMPTINESS- NOTHING in common phrases rather than in specific, concrete terms? I wonder why nobody has written down this EMPTINESS- NOTHING in the form of a physical formula ? You see, every schoolboy knows that is possible to express the EMPTINESS- NOTHING condition by the formula T=0K.
What is the second law of Universe ? To answer of this question we must ask: " What geometrical and physical parameters have the particles in Vacuum T=0K? "a).The Classical physics says, that when we reachthe temperature T=0K all moving of particles stops, and the Energy of this space is equal to zero. It means that the space T=0K is died one.Therefore it is impossible something to say about T=0K.b)But Quantum physics says that the Energy of this space is not equal to zero. Quantum physics says that in T=0K “ virtual” particles exist. Why does nobody recognize the geometrical and physical parameters of “ virtual” particles?For example: “ Can they have volume?”No.Because according to J. Charles law ( 1787),when the temperature falls down on 1 degreethe volume decreases on 1/273. And when the temperature reaches -273 degree the volume disappears. The particles become flat figures.From them the most optimal is circle: C/D=pi.c) According to SRT quantum of light flieswith speed c = 1. And in this moving it cannot have volume. It means that quantum of lighthas a geometrical form of circle: C/D = 3,14….d)A quantum of light is a privileged particle. Only a light quantum has the absolute speed: c=1.No other particle can travel with the speed: c = 1.Other particle can travel only with the speed: s=d/t.And I was taught at school from the first class:that the incommensurable quantities cannot be compared.To connect incommensurable quantities it is similar to the decision of a problem:"What will be if the whale will attacks the elephant?"======== If quantum of light flies always only rectilinearly with speed c=1, it is a mad one.No. Quantum of light have two kinds of spins , as a result of which the particle attains motion.
1)Under the action of Planck,s spin (impulse), which is equal to the unit ( h =1) a quantum of light flies rectilinearly with speed (c = 1).The geometrical form of a circle: (C/D = 3,14).A quantum of light behaves as a particle. 2) Under the action of Goudsmit-Uhlenbeck's spin , ( h = h / 2pi) a quantum of light rotates around of its diameter with the speed more of light quanta : c>1 and is known as electron. The geometrical form of a circle is transformed into a sphere. This kind of movement is described by Lorentz's transformations . In this action the wave properties of light quantum are shown. The dualism of a particle becomes clear. The paradox of dualism disappears completely. ===================
Vacuum , “ideal gas “and particles.===========================To solve some difficult problem the physicists create a simple abstract model.Beginning from this simple model they learned to solve practical and difficult tasks.In that time it was the right way to solve that problem. Take, for example, the theory of “ideal gas “.The " ideal gas " represents one theoretical model of gas and the physicists say it does not exist in nature.It was found, that properties of real gases are very close to “ideal gas”. The result “ very close “ was quite satisfied for physicists. But from time of creation the theory of" ideal gas " about 100 years have passed and thequantum theory was created. And from the quantum theory we know that to use the expression "very close" it is impossible. Why?Because very small (insignificant) changes in the microworldis a cause of radical transformation in system.We must be very cautious, using words "very close …, almost equally”.=========…
I offer to consider model "ideal gas" as real model of the vacuum.Why?Because the temperature of " ideal gas " is equal to -273 degrees.And temperature of pure vacuum is the same.Now it is considered that the Universe, as an absolute frame of reference is in a condition of T = 2,7K (rests of relic radiation of the Big Bang ). But, the relic radiation is extended and in the future will change and decrease down to Т=0К, isn’t it?Now everyone knows, that absolute temperature T=0Kcannot be reached. But is it enough reason to thinkthat space T=0K doesn't exist?If Columbus did not discover America,there was not America, was it?We have all theoretical and logical rights to investigatethe vacuum T=0K. ==========
Einstein said, "… we have not proven that the Aether does not exist, we have merely proven that we do not need it (for computations)"It is correct. Vacuum does not have influence on behaviour of particles. Therefore we will say nothing about vacuum.But...What is it possible to say about particles in vacuum?1.The first question: “ Can they have volume?”No.Because according to J. Charles law ( 1787),when the temperature falls down on 1 degreethe volume decreases on 1/273. And when the temperature reaches -273 degree the volume disappears. The physicists say, if the particle has completely lost its volume then:a)the substance, matter disappearsb)the physical parameters of particles becomes infinite.But such statement contradicts the "Law of conservation and transformation energy". And then we must understand what the sense of the "Law of conservation and transformation energy" is,we should understand and accept thatwhen volume of the particles disappear they become "indefinitely flat figures ". What do "indefinitely flat figures " mean? They mean, that we cannot reach Absolute Vacuum T=0K and we also cannot reach density of the particle in the T=0K.
The “ Charles law” was confirmed by other physicists: Gay-Lussac ( 1802), W. Nernst ( 1910), A. Einstein ( 1925) .These "indefinitely flat figures " have the geometrical form of a circle, as from all flat figures the circle has the most optimal form: C/D=pi= 3,14. P.S.We can see the same situation in quantum theory too,when electron interacts with vacuum, its physical parameters become infinite. We see the “relay race” of misunderstanding in the physics, which goes from one generation to another one,only because at the beginning the " ideal gas " wasn’t understood.2.Let us take some area of Vacuum and mark it with letter R. The number of particles in this area we will mark with letter N. Then every particle of this area has gravity/ mass of rest: R/N= k.
3.Classic physics asserts, that in a Vacuum T=0K the motion of particles stops, and the energy of Vacuum is equal to zero. The quantum physics asserts, that in a Vacuum T=0K there is motion of particles, and the energy of Vacuum is not zero. Therefore, let us take some energy area of Vacuum and mark it with letter E. The mass of this energy area of Vacuum we will mark with letter M. Then every particle of this area has energy/mass of rest: E/M= c^2, ( E=Mc^2, M=Ec^2.)
4.As these particles are in the state of rest condition their impulse is equal to zero ( h=0).5. Mathematical point. In mathematics, such condition of the particles in Vacuum is characterized with the imaginary quantity : i^2 = -1. ============================== Now we have the whole bouquet of formulas to begin to paint the picture of creating the Existence. P.S.The quantum physics approves that “virtual particles” exist in Vacuum Astrophysics approve that “ latent mass, invisible particles, dark matter ” exist in Vacuum. Everything was created from them. But nobody knows what they are. Now maybe somebody will understand these “virtual, invisible, latent particles”. =====================
We have many kinds of dimension spaces: 3D, 4D and etc. Is it hard to see the three dimension. . . No. 1. There are an independent space and independent time: We notice it on our planet - Earth. It is a 3D space. The space (Newtonian) around us is 3D, and our eyes allow us to see this 3D. If we take Descartes coordinates plus time, when it is possible to say: 4D = 3D space + 1D time. We live in this 4D and are aware of it. 2. Is it hard to see the fourth dimension. . . No. There is simultaneous union of space and time (negative four-dimensional / Minkowski / space). Herman Minkowski : " Henceforth, space by itself, and time by itself, are doomed to fade away into mere shadows, and only a kind of union of the two will preserve an independent reality."
Question. What is the "a kind of union of the two "? The answer. It is Vacuum. T=0K. It is the “empty” space between milliards of billions Galaxies. =====================.
Why we say : " that it is impossible to see the fourth dimension.. ." Maybe because: we are in a "special kind of intelligence is variably called schizophrenia. " What is the reason of this illness?The reason is hidden in abstract thinking about :abstract ideal gas, abstract black body,abstract inertial systems, abstract " virtual" particles,abstract zoo of antiparticles, abstract Schrödinger’s cat in a dark matter , abstract 4D, 5D, 11D, 27D and etc......And this abstract viewpoint the physicists tryto solve by Bohr principle of complementarity. But "The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory starts from a paradox." /Heisenberg, Physics and Philosophy, pg. 44./==========
Is there a medicine for this illness?Of course. On the one recipe is written " Vacuum: T=0K",On the other recipe is written " Light quanta".If we don’t take this medicine our human societywill remain in the state of "schizophrenia". Save us God.=======================.
Max Planck. "Scientific Autobiography". ===============.I have reread the Planck’s article "Scientific Autobiography".It is a small article of 10 pages, but how honesty and modest, wise and beautiful it is.I cannot give a whole deep explanation of this article,therefore I will concentrate attention on a small part of it.1.In the beginning Planck wrote, that " From young years....the search of the laws, concerning to something absolute, seemed to me the most wonderful task in scientist’s life."And after some pages Planck wrote again, that " the search for something absolute seemed to me themost wonderful task for a researcher."And after some pages Planck wrote again, that“ the most wonderful scientific task for me was searching of something absolute."2.And as for the relation between “relativity and absolute”Planck wrote, that the fact of "relativity assumes theexistence of something absolute" ; "the relativity has sense when something absolute resists it.”Planck wrote that the phrase " all is relative " misleads us, because it is nonsense, because there is something absolute in SRT.And the most attractive thing in SRT was for Planck “to find something absolute that was hidden in its foundation.”3.And than Planck explained what there is absolute in the physics:a) The Law of conservation and transformation energy.b) The negative 4D continuum.c) The speed of light quanta.d) The maximum entropy which is possible at temperature of absolute zero: T=0K.4.My conclusion.Dear Planck, if you live now many scientistswill consider you are a crazy man.Many of them will not give you a hand.Many of them will laugh at you. Why?Because you were convinced in existing of something Absolute.Because you searched for Absolute all your life long.And now it is forbidden to think about Absolute . Now the search for absolute laws and objects in Nature disappeared from the scientist’s brain.Now the scientists say : " There isn't an absolute frame, There isn't an absolute speed. There is nothing Absolute.Everything is relativity. All is comparatively." You wrote:"A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it."How pity it is. I want to hope that this sentence isn’t absolutely correct. =====================.
About gravitation particles & star formation. ============.We supposed that graviton particles:a)Theoretically predicted but never observed ( a hypothetical particle ) with no electric charge and no mass is supposed to be responsible for the gravitational interaction between matter and energy. b)A hypothetical elementary particle is responsible for the effects of gravity (the quantum of gravitation ). It means, that the initial gravitational mass of stars and planets is created from gravitation particles .
Nobody knows : What geometrical and physical parameterscan gravitation particle have ?The Einsteins GRT doesnt explain which particles create a gravitation field.I will try to explain it.======.1.Where has the first material gravitation particle appeared from ? Now it is considered, that reference frame which is connected with relict isotropic radiation T = 2,7K is absolute.But T = 2,7K is not a constant factor.This relict isotropic radiation continues to increase andits temperature will decrease. And, hence, approximately over a period of 20 billions years it will reach T=0K. Therefore the gravitation particle can appears from Nothing, from Vacuum, from Absolute Zero: T=0K?Let us take some area of Vacuum (T=0K)and mark it with letter R. The number of particles in this area of Vacuum we will mark with letter N.Then every particle of this area has gravity/ mass of rest: R/N= k.2.Can they have volume?"No.Because according to J. Charles law ( 1787),when the temperature falls down on 1 degreethe volume decreases on 1/273. And when the temperature reaches -273 degree the volume disappears. The physicists say, if the particle has completely lost its volume the physical parameters of particles become infinite.But such statement contradicts the "Law of conservation and transformation energy". And then we must understand that the sense of the "Law of conservation and transformation energy" is.We should understand and accept thatwhen volume of the particles disappears they become "indefinitely flat figures ". What do "indefinitely flat figures " mean? They mean, that we cannot reach Absolute Vacuum T=0K and we also cannot reach density of the particle in the T=0K.The Charles law was confirmed by other physicists: Gay-Lussac ( 1802), W. Nernst ( 1910), A. Einstein ( 1925) .These " flat figures " have the geometrical form of a circle, as from all flat figures the circle has the most optimal form: C/D= pi = 3,14. These R/N= k particles are initial gravitational particles.============.
Which is common condition of gravitation?1.Let us suppose that in some local sphere of Vacuum the quantity of the passive particles ( k) that is equal to the number Avogadro N was found. Then according to the principle of Boltzmann, the gathering of the particles in some local sphere of Vacuum has a probable basis: S= klnW. It is common condition of gravitation.================.How did from these gravitation particles (k )the first material particles appear ?1.The first material particles was called helium, because helium exist very very near absolute zero: T=0K.Nobody knows what helium is.( !)Why?Because the behavior of helium is absolutely different from all another elements of Nature. ( !)!!!!I will try to explain, how the helium was created from R/N=k.2.The helium exist very near absolute zero: T=0K.Therefore we must take in attention the processes of superfluids and superconductors , which require extremely low temperatures , approximately 0K.3.Then , the first particles which were created from R/N =k could be helium II ( He II ), which created temperature 2,7K.4.Then , the second particles which were created from helium II ( He II ), could be helium I ( He I ), which created temperature 4,2K./ Kapitza / Landau theory./5.And then all the system comes to rotary movement.But helium rotates differently from all other liquids.If one rotates helium very strongly, it starts to behave not as liquid but as elastic body (experience of E.L. Àndronikashvili. /Georgia./ ). Separate layers of helium become elastic ropes that change the picture of quiet uniform rotation completely. In such rotation sharp friction between different layers of the liquid originates. From rotary elastic ropes the slices of substance of various size come off. Further they break to particles that received the names of Helium-three 3He and Helium-four 4He. The common thermal temperature in liquid increases . Rotation and collision of the particles 3He and 4He at some stage leads to their further crush to small particles, that received the name of the nucleus of hydrogen atom- proton (p). Protons are initial, the smallest, material particles. The most widespread elements in stars are helium and hydrogen. Our Sun consists of helium to 30% and of hydrogen to 69%. Ii was found that in external layers of our Sun on 1kg of hydrogen it was necessary 270g of helium. In deeper layers on 1kg of hydrogen it is necessary 590g of helium. Thus it is deeper into Sun it is more helium. And in the central area of Sun helium-II, helium-I are found.The reaction between (k ) , helium and hydrogen go basically on the Sun. All the elements of the material substance are created from the initial particles (k) and helium.==============.How does all the system come to rotary movement ?1.If gravitation-particles fly to different sides, they can not create the initial gravitational mass of planets, stars. It means, that any unknown power collects the gravitationparticles together and gives to them the movement in one direction. As a result of this common movement of all gravitation particles (k ) in one direction the initial gravitational mass of planets and stars is created.What power can gather all particles together?2.Classic physics asserts, that in a Vacuum T=0K the motion of particles stops, and the energy of Vacuum is equal to zero. The quantum physics asserts, that in a Vacuum T=0K there is motion of particles, and the energy of Vacuum is not zero. Therefore, let us take some energy area of Vacuum and mark it with letter E. The mass of this energy area of Vacuum we will mark with letter M. Then every particle of this area has energy/mass of rest: E/M= c^2, ( E=Mc^2, M=Ec^2.) 3.As this particle is in the state of rest condition it impulse is equal to zero ( h=0).4.But this particle can change its state of rest condition.If the particle has impulse of Goudsmit -Uhlenbeck h= h/2pi, its energy will be: E=hw The thermal balance of Vacuum will be disturbed. The actively rotating particle with energy E=hw gibes the movement of surrounding passive particles R/N=k anda gravitational field begins to create.And the source of a gravitational field is an active electron E=hw. The remaining particles R/N=k are passive participants (victims) of the creating gravitation field.============.The stars are formed by the scheme:e- --k --He II-- He I --rotating He--thermonuclear reaction р
The Second law of thermodynamics doesnt forbid this process. ======================.http://www.socratus.com
SacratesThis is true: "All truth passes through three stages. First.It is ridiculed. SecondIt is violently opposed. Third.It is accepted as being self-evident."/ Schopenhauer./May I invite you to visit my post about "Alien or Mutants from other dimensions" because I seem to have some pertinant answers to questions here posed.I am busy reading the whole of your post and its replies to get to the bottom of what is being discussed and views about that. Seems to be full of very interesting gems.Only have a problem with the wasted spaces of folk trying to write a longer post.I notice you are still a young person and salute your interest in Life the Universe and Everything as stated on your post. [8D] I hope I meet many intelligent young people like you on this Discussion Forum.Pleased to meet you.Wisewomen Ashtari [^]
Action, when the God opens his palm, have named the Big Bang.And action, when the God compresses his palm, have named " a single point.
SacratesThis is true: "All truth passes through three stages. First.It is ridiculed. SecondIt is violently opposed. Third.It is accepted as being self-evident."/ Schopenhauer./ Wisewomen Ashtari [^]