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considered by whom? Not by any anesthetist I know.
Less able, certainly, but not less conscious. I am as fully aware of my environment and able to make decisions as anyone else, but I think my footballing days may be over and I can't bowl a cricket ball as fast as I used to. Does that make me less conscious than a teenager?
Level of consciousness (LOC) is a medical term for identifying how awake, alert, and aware of their surroundings someone is.1 It also describes the degree to which a person can respond to standard attempts to get his or her attention. Consistent medical terms describing a person's level of consciousness help in communication between care providers, particularly when the level of consciousness fluctuates over time.
Classifications of ComaThe states of coma and stupor may also be subdivided into levels or classifications that further clarify a person's degree of unresponsiveness. Several systems have been developed in order to standardize these classifications, which improves communication among healthcare providers and also aids in research. The most commonly used classification systems are the Grady Coma Scale and the Glasgow Coma Scale.The Grady Coma Scale rates a coma in grades from I to V.5 The grades are determined based on a person's state of awareness and response to stimuli, such as response to the person's name being called, light pain, and deep pain. Grade I indicates confusion, while V indicates no response to stimuli (coma).The Glasgow Coma Scale uses a score to identify the level of consciousness, from 1 to 15, with 15 being a normal state of consciousness. This scale takes into account verbal, motor, and eye responses to stimuli in determining the overall score.
There are also psychological terms used to describe consciousness (fully aware of one's intentions), in contrast to the subconscious (often describes deeper intentions), and preconscious (related to memory). There are also several other theories and definitions of consciousness describing stages of sleep, levels of self-awareness, and the relationship between humans and matter. While all of these definitions are certainly valid, they are not used to define medical states of consciousness.
Quote from: alancalverd on 24/10/2020 16:14:58Go has formal rules and can thus be played by a machine with no intelligence.Of course, but machine without intelligence would lose all of the time.
Go has formal rules and can thus be played by a machine with no intelligence.
Here is Levels of Consciousness in Medicine : Patient Awareness, Alertness, and Wakefulnesshttps://www.verywellhealth.com/level-of-consciousness-1132154
Whatever your definition of consciouness, a conscious person is one whose brain responds in some way to a stimulus. So loss of memory wouldn't count:"what is your name" "I don't know" indicates full consciousness with lack of memory, and is surprisingly common.
Why would you reach for a definition like that one for a thread on morals? My front yard motion detector is more conscious than I am by that definition since it never sleeps or lowers its awareness. Does it thus carry more moral responsibility than I do?
Quote from: hamdani yusuf on 02/10/2020 09:03:29The role of moral rules with reward and punishment are then to modify internal/subjective preferences of conscious systems to make them aligned with the goal of larger systems they are being part of (e.g. their family, tribe, company, nation). Primitive forms of those manipulation are done by inflicting pain and pleasure which can be directly felt. The next forms are done by causing fear and giving hope, which can only work for conscious systems with capability of understanding cause and effect, so they can predict/anticipate future condition when some information about the present is given.Moral rules can be considered as a subset or a special case of reward function to modify a conscious agent's response to various stimuli/inputs. Reward and punishments are indirect methods to execute back propagation process in neural network training, which adjust the weights of each neural connection. They are only needed if there is no known practical method to modify the behaviour of conscious agent, such as rewiring brain circuitry. Some drugs may have limited usage with temporary effect, but there could be unknown side effects in long term. Similar case for surgery of some organs to modify hormone activations. They work indirectly. Direct brain connection may offer some help, but it needs extreme cautions for unwanted consequences if the users are not aware of the universal terminal goal. Traditional reward and punishment rely on the facts that most consious agents in existence was products of biological natural selection who posses desire to preserve their lives. The pain and pleasure signalings are methods to achieve that. So do fear and hope.Most currently existing intelligent machines are not designed to put their existence as one of highest priority in their job. They are considered expendable. That's why we don't apply reward and punishment to modify their misaligned behaviors. Direct readjustment of their memory or weight of artificial neural connections are much more effective and efficient.
The role of moral rules with reward and punishment are then to modify internal/subjective preferences of conscious systems to make them aligned with the goal of larger systems they are being part of (e.g. their family, tribe, company, nation). Primitive forms of those manipulation are done by inflicting pain and pleasure which can be directly felt. The next forms are done by causing fear and giving hope, which can only work for conscious systems with capability of understanding cause and effect, so they can predict/anticipate future condition when some information about the present is given.
Would you consider a brain in the vat as a conscious being?
The dog's behavior is not entirely surprising either. Especially if you have some future version of neuralink implanted on its head, or you are a veterinarian.Here is the definition of intelligence accorsing to dictionary.Quote the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills. Usually, it represents problem solving or information processing capability, but doesn't take into account the ability to manipulate its environment nor self awareness. AlphaGo is considered intelligent since it can solve problem of playing go better then human champion. Alpha zero is even more intelligent since it can beat Alpha Go 100:0.Even though they don't have the ability to move any piece of go.On the other hand, consciousness covers more factors into account. For example, if you got paralyzed so you can't move your arms and legs, you are considered less conscious than your normal state, even though you can still think clearly.
the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills.
Artificial intelligence (AI), is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals. Leading AI textbooks define the field as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is often used to describe machines (or computers) that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with the human mind, such as "learning" and "problem solving".As machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered to require "intelligence" are often removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI effect. A quip in Tesler's Theorem says "AI is whatever hasn't been done yet." For instance, optical character recognition is frequently excluded from things considered to be AI, having become a routine technology. Modern machine capabilities generally classified as AI include successfully understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in strategic game systems (such as chess and Go), autonomously operating cars, intelligent routing in content delivery networks, and military simulations.
Computer science defines AI research as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. A more elaborate definition characterizes AI as "a system's ability to correctly interpret external data, to learn from such data, and to use those learnings to achieve specific goals and tasks through flexible adaptation."A typical AI analyzes its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success. An AI's intended utility function (or goal) can be simple ("1 if the AI wins a game of Go, 0 otherwise") or complex ("Perform actions mathematically similar to ones that succeeded in the past"). Goals can be explicitly defined or induced. If the AI is programmed for "reinforcement learning", goals can be implicitly induced by rewarding some types of behavior or punishing others.[a] Alternatively, an evolutionary system can induce goals by using a "fitness function" to mutate and preferentially replicate high-scoring AI systems, similar to how animals evolved to innately desire certain goals such as finding food. Some AI systems, such as nearest-neighbor, instead of reason by analogy, these systems are not generally given goals, except to the degree that goals are implicit in their training data. Such systems can still be benchmarked if the non-goal system is framed as a system whose "goal" is to successfully accomplish its narrow classification task.
The AI effect occurs when onlookers discount the behavior of an artificial intelligence program by arguing that it is not real intelligence.Author Pamela McCorduck writes: "It's part of the history of the field of artificial intelligence that every time somebody figured out how to make a computer do something—play good checkers, solve simple but relatively informal problems—there was a chorus of critics to say, 'that's not thinking'." AIS researcher Rodney Brooks complains: "Every time we figure out a piece of it, it stops being magical; we say, 'Oh, that's just a computation.'"
"The AI effect" tries to redefine AI to mean: AI is anything that has not been done yetA view taken by some people trying to promulgate the AI effect is: As soon as AI successfully solves a problem, the problem is no longer a part of AI.Pamela McCorduck calls it an "odd paradox" that "practical AI successes, computational programs that actually achieved intelligent behavior, were soon assimilated into whatever application domain they were found to be useful in, and became silent partners alongside other problem-solving approaches, which left AI researchers to deal only with the "failures", the tough nuts that couldn't yet be cracked."When IBM's chess playing computer Deep Blue succeeded in defeating Garry Kasparov in 1997, people complained that it had only used "brute force methods" and it wasn't real intelligence. Fred Reed writes:"A problem that proponents of AI regularly face is this: When we know how a machine does something 'intelligent,' it ceases to be regarded as intelligent. If I beat the world's chess champion, I'd be regarded as highly bright."Douglas Hofstadter expresses the AI effect concisely by quoting Larry Tesler's Theorem:"AI is whatever hasn't been done yet."When problems have not yet been formalised, they can still be characterised by a model of computation that includes human computation. The computational burden of a problem is split between a computer and a human: one part is solved by computer and the other part solved by a human. This formalisation is referred to as human-assisted Turing machine.AI applications become mainstreamSoftware and algorithms developed by AI researchers are now integrated into many applications throughout the world, without really being called AI.Michael Swaine reports "AI advances are not trumpeted as artificial intelligence so much these days, but are often seen as advances in some other field". "AI has become more important as it has become less conspicuous", Patrick Winston says. "These days, it is hard to find a big system that does not work, in part, because of ideas developed or matured in the AI world."According to Stottler Henke, "The great practical benefits of AI applications and even the existence of AI in many software products go largely unnoticed by many despite the already widespread use of AI techniques in software. This is the AI effect. Many marketing people don't use the term 'artificial intelligence' even when their company's products rely on some AI techniques. Why not?"Marvin Minsky writes "This paradox resulted from the fact that whenever an AI research project made a useful new discovery, that product usually quickly spun off to form a new scientific or commercial specialty with its own distinctive name. These changes in name led outsiders to ask, Why do we see so little progress in the central field of artificial intelligence?"Nick Bostrom observes that "A lot of cutting edge AI has filtered into general applications, often without being called AI because once something becomes useful enough and common enough it's not labelled AI anymore."
Saving a place for humanity at the top of the chain of beingMichael Kearns suggests that "people subconsciously are trying to preserve for themselves some special role in the universe". By discounting artificial intelligence people can continue to feel unique and special. Kearns argues that the change in perception known as the AI effect can be traced to the mystery being removed from the system. In being able to trace the cause of events implies that it's a form of automation rather than intelligence.A related effect has been noted in the history of animal cognition and in consciousness studies, where every time a capacity formerly thought as uniquely human is discovered in animals, (e.g. the ability to make tools, or passing the mirror test), the overall importance of that capacity is deprecated.Herbert A. Simon, when asked about the lack of AI's press coverage at the time, said, "What made AI different was that the very idea of it arouses a real fear and hostility in some human breasts. So you are getting very strong emotional reactions. But that's okay. We'll live with that."
n intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from a set of standardized tests or subtests designed to assess human intelligence.
Health is important in understanding differences in IQ test scores and other measures of cognitive ability. Several factors can lead to significant cognitive impairment, particularly if they occur during pregnancy and childhood when the brain is growing and the blood–brain barrier is less effective. Such impairment may sometimes be permanent, sometimes be partially or wholly compensated for by later growth.
especially when it's better than expectation.
It's possible to have people with high IQ who are ignorant about basic theories in math, physics, chemistry, or biology. You may find someone with high IQ who became members of ISIS or other cults.
but, are they more or less conscious or morally driven than others?
Every man of faith knows with absolute certainty that the universe was created in 7 days by a man with a beard, and looked exactly as it does now. Scientists have no idea how it happened or what makes it work. Religion clearly has the most accurate and comprehensive model, even though it is unintelligent and useless.