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Connective-tissue disease: Systemic lupus erythematosus: Differentiating clues ...Malar rash, photosensitivity, mucosal lesions, nephritis, cerebritis, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, low complement, dsDNA Vasculitis: Systemic vasculitis: Differentiating clues ...Painful subcutaneous nodules, palpable purpura, nephritis, sinusitis, pulmonary infiltrates or hemorrhage, positive ANCA
Initial evaluation in patients in whom vasculitis is suspected should include a detailed history of drug exposures and risk factors for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV infection. In addition, identification of an underlying rheumatic disease (eg, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus) may have important therapeutic implications. Some clinical features, such as fever and renal disease, are common to both systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic vasculitis. However, systemic lupus erythematosus usually can be distinguished by a history of pleuritis or pericarditis or the presence of a positive antinuclear antibody response, malar rash, photosensitivity, or polyarthritis.