A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!

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Q is for Qattara Depression

Main Entry:Qattara Depression
Pronunciation:k*-*t*r-*
Usage:geographical name

 region  NW Egypt, a low area 40 miles (64 kilometers) from coast; lowest point 440 feet (134 meters) below sea level

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R is for Radium

Main Entry:radium
Pronunciation:*r*-d*-*m
Function:noun
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:New Latin, from Latin radius ray
Date:1899

 : an intensely radioactive brilliant white metallic element that resembles barium chemically, occurs in combination in minute quantities in minerals (as pitchblende or carnotite), emits alpha particles and gamma rays to form radon, and is used chiefly in luminous materials and in the treatment of cancer   see ELEMENT table

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S is for Saar

Main Entry:Saar
Pronunciation:*s*r, *z*r
Usage:geographical name

1 or French    Sarre \*s*r\  river about 150 miles (241 kilometers) Europe flowing from Vosges Mountains in France  N to the Moselle in  W Germany
2 or    Saarland \*s*r-*land, *z*r-\  region  W Europe in basin of Saar River between France & Germany; once part of Lorraine, became part of Germany in 19th century; administered by League of Nations 1919*35; became a state of Germany 1935; came under control of France after World War II; to W. Germany by a plebiscite Jan. 1, 1957, as a state (  Saarland) capital Saarbr*cken area 991 square miles (2567 square kilometers), population 1,073,000

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T is for Triiodothyronine

Main Entry:triiodothyronine
Pronunciation:*tr*-**-*-d*-*th*-r*-*n*n
Function:noun
Etymology:tri- + iod- + thyronine (an amino acid of which thyroxine is a derivative)
Date:1952

 : an iodine-containing hormone C15H12I3NO4 that is an amino acid derived from thyroxine

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U is for Uranium

Main Entry:uranium
Pronunciation:y*-*r*-n*-*m
Function:noun
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:New Latin, from Uranus
Date:circa 1797

 : a silvery heavy radioactive polyvalent metallic element that is found especially in pitchblende and uraninite and exists naturally as a mixture of three isotopes of mass number 234, 235, and 238 in the proportions of 0.006 percent, 0.71 percent, and 99.28 percent respectively   see ELEMENT table

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V is Volcano

Main Entry:volcano
Pronunciation:v*l-*k*-(*)n*, v*l-
Function:noun
Inflected Form:plural -noes or -nos
Etymology:Italian or Spanish; Italian vulcano, from Spanish volc*n, ultimately from Latin Volcanus Vulcan
Date:1613

1 : a vent in the crust of the earth or another planet from which usually molten or hot rock and steam issue;  also   : a hill or mountain composed wholly or in part of the ejected material
2 : something of explosively violent potential

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W is for Watermelon

Main Entry:watermelon
Pronunciation:-*me-l*n
Function:noun
Date:1615

1 : a large oblong or roundish fruit with a hard green or white rind often striped or variegated, a sweet watery pink, yellowish, or red pulp, and usually many seeds
2 : a widely grown African vine (Citrullus lanatus syn. C. vulgaris) of the gourd family that bears watermelons

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X is for Xanthan Gum

Main Entry:xanthan gum
Pronunciation:*zan-th*n-
Function:noun
Etymology:xanth- (from New Latin Xanthomonas, genus name) + 3-an
Date:1964

 : a polysaccharide that is produced by fermentation of carbohydrates by a gram-negative bacterium (Xanthomonas campestris of the family Pseudomonadaceae) and is a thickening and suspending agent used especially in pharmaceuticals and prepared foods   called also xanthan

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Y is for Yablonovy Mountains

Main Entry:Yablonovy Mountains
Variant:or Yablonovyy Mountains  \*y*-bl*-n*-*v*\
Usage:geographical name

 mountain range  S Russia in Asia

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Z is for Z particle

Main Entry:Z particle
Function:noun
Date:1979

 : a neutral elementary particle about 90 times heavier than a proton that along with the W particle is a transmitter of the weak force   called also Z0 or Z0 particle

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Amber
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
Amber is the name for fossil resin or tree sap that is appreciated for its colour. It is used for the manufacture of ornamental objects and jewellery. Although not mineralized, it is sometimes considered a gemstone. Most of the world's amber is in the range of 30–90 million years old. Semi-fossilized resin or sub-fossil amber is called copal.

The presence of insects in amber was noticed by the Romans and led them to the (correct) theory that at some point, amber had to be in a liquid state to cover the bodies of insects. Hence they gave it the expressive name of suceinum or gum-stone, a name that is still in use today to describe succinic acid as well as succinite, a term given to a particular type of amber by James Dwight Dana (see below under Baltic Amber). The Greek name for amber was ηλεκτρον (Electron) and was connected to the Sun God, one of whose titles was Elector or the Awakener.[1]

The modern term electron was coined in 1891 by the Irish physicist George Stoney, using the Greek word for amber (and which was then translated as electrum) because of its electrostatic properties and whilst analyzing elementary charge for the first time. The ending -on, common for all subatomic particles, was used in analogy to the word ion.[2][3]

Heating amber will soften it and eventually it will burn, which is why in Germanic languages the word for amber is a literal translation of burn-Stone (In German it is Bernstein, in Dutch it is barnsteen etc.). Heated below 200°C, amber suffers decomposition, yielding an "oil of amber", and leaving a black residue which is known as "amber colophony", or "amber pitch"; when dissolved in oil of turpentine or in linseed oil this forms "amber varnish" or "amber lac". As mentioned above, amber was well known for its electrostatic properties since antiquity (though not identified as such until the concept of electronic charge became clear).

Chemistry of amber
Amber is heterogeneous in composition, but consists of several resinous bodies more or less soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform, associated with an insoluble bituminous substance. Amber is a macromolecule by free radical polymerization of several precursors in the labdane family, communic acid, cummunol and biformene.[4] These labdanes are diterpenes (C20H32) and trienes which means that the organic skeleton has three alkene groups available for polymerization. As amber matures over the years, more polymerization will take place as well as isomerization reactions, crosslinking and cyclization. The average composition of amber leads to the general formula C10H16O.

Amber should be distinguished from copal. Molecular polymerisation caused by pressure and heat transforms the resin firstly into copal and then over time through the evaporation of turpenes it is transformed into amber.

Baltic amber is distinguished from the various other ambers from around the world, by the presence within it of succinic acid hence why Baltic amber is otherwise known as succinite.
Amber in geology
 
A bee and a Leaf inside the amber.Baltic amber or succinite (historically documented as Prussian amber) is found as irregular nodules in a marine glauconitic sand, known as blue earth, occurring in the Lower Oligocene strata of Sambia in Kaliningrad Oblast, where it is now systematically mined.[5] It appears, however, to have been partly derived from yet earlier Tertiary deposits (Eocene); and it occurs also as a derivative mineral in later formations, such as the drift. Relics of an abundant flora occur as inclusions trapped within the amber while the resin was yet fresh, suggesting relations with the flora of Eastern Asia and the southern part of North America. Heinrich Göppert named the common amber-yielding pine of the Baltic forests Pinites succiniter, but as the wood, according to some authorities, does not seem to differ from that of the existing genus it has been also called Pinus succinifera. It is improbable, however, that the production of amber was limited to a single species; and indeed a large number of conifers belonging to different genera are represented in the amber-flora.

Amber from the Middle Cretaceous is known from Ellsworth County, Kansas. This approximately 100 million year old amber has inclusions of bacteria and amoebae. They are morphologically very close to Leptothrix, and the modern genera Pontigulasia and Nebela. Morphological stasis is considered to be confirmed.[6]

Amber inclusions
 
An ant trapped in amber.
Insect trapped in amber. The amber piece is 10 mm (0.4 inches) long. In the enlarged picture, the insect's antennae are easily seen.The resin contains, in addition to the beautifully preserved plant-structures, numerous remains of insects, spiders, annelids, frogs,[7] crustaceans and other small organisms which became enveloped while the exudation was fluid. In most cases the organic structure has disappeared, leaving only a cavity, with perhaps a trace of chitin. Even hair and feathers have occasionally been represented among the enclosures. Fragments of wood frequently occur, with the tissues well-preserved by impregnation with the resin; while leaves, flowers and fruits are occasionally found in marvelous perfection. Sometimes the amber retains the form of drops and stalactites, just as it exuded from the ducts and receptacles of the injured trees. It is thought that, in addition to exuding onto the surface of the tree, amber resin also originally flowed into hollow cavities or cracks within trees, thereby leading to the development of large lumps of amber of irregular form.[8] The abnormal development of resin has been called succinosis. Impurities are quite often present, especially when the resin dropped on to the ground, so that the material may be useless except for varnish-making, whence the impure amber is called firniss. Enclosures of pyrites may give a bluish colour to amber. The so-called black amber is only a kind of jet. Bony amber owes its cloudy opacity to minute bubbles in the interior of the resin. A type of amber known as blue amber exists in the Dominican Republic.

Amber locations

Baltic amber
Amber has a very wide distribution, extending over a large part of northern Europe and occurring as far east as the Urals.

True amber yields on dry distillation succinic acid, the proportion varying from about 3% to 8%, and being greatest in the pale opaque or bony varieties. The aromatic and irritating fumes emitted by burning amber are mainly due to this acid. True Baltic amber is distinguished by its yield of succinic acid, for many of the other fossil resins which are often termed amber contain either none of it, or only a very small proportion; hence the name succinite proposed by Professor James Dwight Dana, and now commonly used in scientific writings as a specific term for the real Prussian amber. Succinite has a hardness between 2 and 3, which is rather greater than that of many other fossil resins. Its specific gravity varies from 1.05 to 1.10. An effective tool for amber analysis is IR spectroscopy. It enables the distinction between Baltic and non-Baltic amber varieties because of a specific carbonyl absorption and it can also detect the relative age of an amber sample.

 
Wood resin, the ancient source of amberAlthough amber is found along the shores of a large part of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, the great amber-producing country is the promontory of Sambia, now part of Russia. About 90% of the world's extractable amber is located in the Kaliningrad region of Russia on the Baltic Sea.[9] Pieces of amber torn from the seafloor are cast up by the waves, and collected at ebb-tide. Sometimes the searchers wade into the sea, furnished with nets at the end of long poles, which they drag in the sea-weed containing entangled masses of amber; or they dredge from boats in shallow water and rake up amber from between the boulders. Divers have been employed to collect amber from the deeper waters. Systematic dredging on a large scale was at one time carried on in the Curonian Lagoon by Messrs Stantien and Becker, the great amber merchants of Königsberg. At the present time extensive mining operations are conducted in quest of amber. The pit amber was formerly dug in open works, but is now also worked by underground galleries. The nodules from the blue earth have to be freed from matrix and divested of their opaque crust, which can be done in revolving barrels containing sand and water. The sea-worn amber has lost its crust, but has often acquired a dull rough surface by rolling in sand.

Since the establishment of the Amber Road, amber (which is also commonly referred to as the "Lithuanian gold") has substantially contributed to Lithuanian economy and culture. Nowadays a great variety of amber jewelry and amberware is offered to foreign tourists in most souvenir shops as distinctive to Lithuania and its cultural heritage. The Amber Museum containing unique specimen of amber has been established in Palanga, near the sea coast. Amber can also be found in Latvia, and it has an important role in Latvian culture, too.


Other locations
A lesser known source of amber is in the Ukraine, within a marshy forested area on the Volyhn-Polesie border. Due to the shallow depth that this amber is found at it can be extracted with the simplest of tools, and has hence led to an economy of 'amber poaching' under cover of the forest. This Ukrainian amber is much appreciated for its wide range of colours, and was used in the restoration of 'amber room' in the Empress Catherines palace in St Petersberg (see below).

Rolled pieces of amber, usually small but occasionally of very large size, may be picked up on the east coast of England, having probably been washed up from deposits under the North Sea. Cromer is the best-known locality, but it occurs also on other parts of the Norfolk coast, such as Great Yarmouth, as well as Southwold, Aldeburgh and Felixstowe in Suffolk, and as far south as Walton-on-the-Naze in Essex, whilst northwards it is not unknown in Yorkshire. On the other side of the North Sea, amber is found at various localities on the coast of the Netherlands and Denmark. On the shores of the Baltic it occurs not only on the German and Polish coast but in the south of Sweden, in Bornholm and other islands, and in southern Finland. Some of the amber districts of the Baltic and North Sea were known in prehistoric times, and led to early trade with the south of Europe through the Amber Road. Amber was carried to Olbia on the Black Sea, Massilia (today Marseille) on the Mediterranean, and Adria at the head of the Adriatic; and from these centres it was distributed over the Ancient Greek world.

Amber and certain similar substances are found to a limited extent at several localities in the United States, as in the green-sand of New Jersey, but they have little or no economic value. Middle Cretaceous amber has also been found in Ellsworth county, Kansas. It has little value for jewelry makers, but is very valuable to biologists. Unfortunately the source of this amber is currently under a man made lake. A fluorescent amber occurs in the southern state of Chiapas in Mexico, and is used extensively to create eye-catching jewelery. Blue amber is recorded in the Dominican Republic. These Central American ambers are formed from the resins of legume trees (Hymenea) and not conifers.

Indonesia is also a rich source of amber with large fragments being unearthed in both Java and Bali.

Amber treatments
 
Amber (ca. 12 cm Ø)The famous Vienna amber factories which use pale amber to manufacture pipes and other smoking tools, apply a specific procedure when working amber: it is turned on the lathe and polished with whitening and water or with rotten stone and oil, the final lustre being given by friction with flannel. During the working a significant electrostatic charge is developed.

When gradually heated in an oil-bath, amber becomes soft and flexible. Two pieces of amber may be united by smearing the surfaces with linseed oil, heating them, and then pressing them together while hot. Cloudy amber may be clarified in an oil-bath, as the oil fills the numerous pores to which the turbidity is due. Small fragments, formerly thrown away or used only for varnish, are now utilized on a large scale in the formation of "ambroid" or "pressed amber". The pieces are carefully heated with exclusion of air and then compressed into a uniform mass by intense hydraulic pressure; the softened amber being forced through holes in a metal plate. The product is extensively used for the production of cheap jewelery and articles for smoking. This pressed amber yields brilliant interference colours in polarized light. Amber has often been imitated by other resins like copal and kauri, as well as by celluloid and even glass. True amber is sometimes coloured artificially.

Often amber (particularly with insect inclusions) is counterfeited using a plastic resin similar in appearance. A simple test (performed on the back of the object) consists of touching the object with a heated pin and determining if the resultant odor is of wood resin. If not, the object is counterfeit, although a positive test may not be conclusive owing to a thin coat of real resin. Often counterfeits will have a too perfect pose and position of the trapped insect.


Amber art and ornament
Amber was much valued as an ornamental material in very early times. It has been found in Mycenaean tombs; it is known from lake-dwellings in Switzerland, and it occurs with Neolithic remains in Denmark, whilst in England it is found with interments of the bronze age. A remarkably fine cup turned in amber from a bronze-age barrow at Hove is now in the Brighton Museum. Beads of amber occur with Anglo-Saxon relics in the south of England; and up to a comparatively recent period the material was valued as an amulet. It is still believed to possess a certain medicinal virtue.

 
Unpolished amber stones, in varying huesAmber is extensively used for beads and other ornaments, and for cigar-holders and the mouth-pieces of pipes. It is regarded by the Turks as specially valuable, inasmuch as it is said to be incapable of transmitting infection as the pipe passes from mouth to mouth. The variety most valued in the East is the pale straw-coloured, slightly cloudy amber. Some of the best qualities are sent to Vienna for the manufacture of smoking appliances.

The Amber Room was a collection of chamber wall panels commissioned in 1701 for the king of Prussia, then given to Tsar Peter the Great. The room was hidden in place from invading Nazi forces in 1941, who upon finding it in the Catherine Palace, disassembled it and moved it to Königsberg. What happened to the room beyond this point is unclear, but it may have been destroyed when the Russians burned the German fortification where it was stored. It is presumed lost. It was re-created in 2003.[10]

 
The Amber Room was reconstructed from the Kaliningrad amber.Amber has also been used to create the "frog" part of a Violin bow. It was commissioned by Gennady Filimonov and made by the late American Master Bowmaker Keith Peck [11]


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Buchner Eduard  (May 20, 1860 – August 13, 1917) was a German chemist and zymologist, the winner of the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on fermentation.

He was born in Munich, the son of a physician and Doctor Extraordinary of Forensic Medicine. In 1884, he began studies in chemistry with Adolf von Baeyer and in botany with Professor C. von Naegeli, at the Botanic Institute in Munich. After a period working with Otto Fischer in Erlangen, he was awarded a doctorate from the University of Munich in 1888.

Buchner married Lotte Stahl in 1900.

Buchner was awarded the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his biochemical investigations and his discovery of non-cellular fermentation.

During World War I, Buchner served as a Major in a front-line field hospital at Focşani, Romania. He was wounded on August 3 1917 and died of these wounds nine days later in Munich, aged 57.

It is commonly thought that the Büchner flask and Büchner funnel are named for him, but they are actually named for the industrial chemist Ernst Büchner.


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C is Cladogram

Main Entry:cladogram
Pronunciation:*kla-d*-*gram
Function:noun
Date:1966

 : a branching diagrammatic tree used in cladistic classification to illustrate phylogenetic relationships

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Däniken ,Erich von
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Erich Anton Paul von Däniken (b. Zofingen, Aargau, Switzerland, April 14, 1935) is a controversial Swiss author best known for his books which examine possible evidence for extraterrestrial influences on early human culture. Von Däniken is one of the key figures responsible for popularizing the paleocontact and ancient astronaut hypotheses.

Von Däniken is a co-founder of the Archaeology, Astronautics and SETI Research Association (AAS RA). He developed a theme park called Mystery Park in Interlaken, Switzerland, which opened on May 23, 2003 and closed on November 19, 2006.

His 26 books have been translated into more than 20 languages, selling more than 60 million copies worldwide, and his documentary TV shows have been viewed in Germany and the United States. His influence can also be seen in science fiction, the New Age culture and some modern religions [1].

Source: Wikipedia
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E is Efate

Main Entry:Efate
Pronunciation:*-*f*-*t*
Variant:or French Vat*  \v*-*t*\
Usage:geographical name

 island  SW Pacific in central Vanuatu; chief town Port-Vila (capital of Vanuatu) area 353 square miles (914 square kilometers), population 30,422

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F is Fungi

Main Entry:fungus
Pronunciation:*f**-g*s
Function:noun
Inflected Form:plural fungi  \*f*n-*j*, *f**-*g*\ ; also funguses  \*f**-g*-s*z\
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:Latin
Date:1527

 : any of a major group (Fungi) of saprophytic and parasitic spore-producing organisms usually classified as plants that lack chlorophyll and include molds, rusts, mildews, smuts, mushrooms, and yeasts


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G is Geanticline

Main Entry:geanticline
Pronunciation:j*-*an-ti-*kl*n
Function:noun
Date:1889

 : a great upward flexure of the earth's crust   compare GEOSYNCLINE

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H is Helicopter

Main Entry:1helicopter
Pronunciation:*he-l*-*k*p-t*r, *h*-
Function:noun
Etymology:French h*licopt*re, from Greek heliko- + pteron wing more at  FEATHER
Date:1887

 : an aircraft whose lift is derived from the aerodynamic forces acting on one or more powered rotors turning about substantially vertical axes

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I is for Ice Ax

Main Entry:ice ax
Function:noun
Date:1820

 : a combination pick and adze with a spiked handle that is used in mountain climbing

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J is for Jaguar

Main Entry:jaguar
Pronunciation:*ja-*gw*r, -gy*-*w*r, -gw*r, esp British *ja-gy*-w*r
Function:noun
Etymology:Spanish yaguar & Portuguese jaguar, from Guarani yaguara & Tupi jaguara
Date:1604

 : a large cat (Panthera onca syn. Felis onca) chiefly of Central and So. America that is larger and stockier than the leopard and is brownish yellow or buff with black spots

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K is for Kangaroo

Main Entry:kangaroo
Pronunciation:*ka*-g*-*r*
Function:noun
Inflected Form:plural -roos
Etymology:Guugu Yimidhirr (Australian aboriginal language of northern Queensland) ga*urru
Date:1770

 : any of various herbivorous leaping marsupial mammals (family Macropodidae) of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands with a small head, large ears, long powerful hind legs, a long thick tail used as a support and in balancing, and rather small forelegs not used in progression

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L is for (Sea) Lion

Main Entry:sea lion
Function:noun
Date:1697

 : any of several Pacific eared seals (as genera Eumetopius and Zalophus) that are usually larger than the related fur seals and lack a thick underfur

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M is for Monkey

Main Entry:1monkey
Pronunciation:*m**-k*
Function:noun
Inflected Form:plural monkeys
Etymology:probably of Low German origin; akin to Moneke, name of an ape, probably of Romance origin; akin to Old Spanish mona monkey
Date:circa 1530

1 : a nonhuman primate mammal with the exception usually of the lemurs and tarsiers;  especially   : any of the smaller longer-tailed primates as contrasted with the apes
2 a : a person resembling a monkey  b : a ludicrous figure : DUPE

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N is for NOAA

Main Entry:NOAA
Function:abbreviation

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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O is for Organelle

Main Entry:organelle
Pronunciation:**r-g*-*nel
Function:noun
Etymology:New Latin organella, from Latin organum
Date:1920

 : a specialized cellular part (as a mitochondrion, lysosome, or ribosome) that is analogous to an organ

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P is for Poop (Excrement)

Main Entry:excrement
Pronunciation:*ek-skr*-m*nt
Function:noun
Etymology:Latin excrementum, from excernere
Date:1533

 : waste matter discharged from the body;  especially   : waste (as feces) discharged from the alimentary canal
  –excremental \*ek-skr*-*men-t*l\  adjective 
  –excrementitious \-*men-*ti-sh*s, -m*n-\  adjective 

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Quicksilver (Mercury)

Mercury, also called quicksilver, is a chemical element with the symbol Hg (Latinized Greek: hydrargyrum, meaning watery or liquid silver) and atomic number 80. A heavy, silvery d-block metal, mercury is one of six elements that are liquid at or near room temperature and pressure.[1] The others are the metals caesium, francium, gallium, and rubidium, and the non-metal bromine. Of these, only mercury and bromine are liquids at standard conditions for temperature and pressure.

Mercury is used in thermometers, barometers, manometers, sphygmomanometers, float valves, and other scientific apparatus, though concerns about the element's toxicity have led to mercury thermometers and sphygmomanometers being largely phased out in clinical environments in favour of alcohol-filled, digital, or thermistor-based instruments. It remains in use in a number of other ways in scientific and scientific research applications, and in dental amalgam. Mercury is mostly obtained by reduction from the mineral cinnabar.

Mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world and it is harmless in an insoluble form, such as mercuric sulfide, but it is poisonous in soluble forms such as mercuric chloride or methylmercury.


[attachment=2578]


[attachment=2580]






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They say that when you die, your life flashes in front of you. Make it worth watching!


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R is for Rabbits

Main Entry:1rabbit
Pronunciation:*ra-b*t
Function:noun
Inflected Form:plural rabbit or rabbits
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:Middle English rabet, probably from Middle French dialect (Walloon) robett, from Middle Dutch robe
Date:14th century

1 : any of a family (Leporidae) of long-eared short-tailed lagomorph mammals with long hind legs:  a : any of various lagomorphs that are born naked, blind, and helpless, that are sometimes gregarious, and that include especially the cottontails of the New World and a small Old World mammal (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that is the source of various domestic breeds  b : HARE

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S is for Snow


Main Entry:1snow
Pronunciation:*sn*
Function:noun
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:Middle English, from Old English sn*w; akin to Old High German sn*o snow, Latin niv-, nix, Greek nipha (accusative)
Date:before 12th century

1 a : precipitation in the form of small white ice crystals formed directly from the water vapor of the air at a temperature of less than 32*F (0*C)  b (1) : a descent or shower of snow crystals (2) : a mass of fallen snow crystals

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Thyroid
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The thyroid is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body. This gland is found in the neck inferior to (below) the thyroid cartilage (a.k.a. the Adam's apple in men) and at approximately the same level as the cricoid cartilage. The thyroid controls how quickly the body burns energy, makes proteins, and how sensitive the body should be to other hormones.

The thyroid participates in these processes by producing thyroid hormones, principally thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. Iodine is an essential component of both T3 and T4. The thyroid also produces the hormone calcitonin, which plays a role in calcium homeostasis.

The thyroid is controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary. The gland gets its name from the Greek word for "shield", after its shape, a double-lobed structure. Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) and hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) are the most common problems of the thyroid gland.

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U

Main Entry:uranography
Pronunciation:*y*r-*-*n*-gr*-f*
Function:noun
Etymology:Greek ouranographia description of the heavens, from ouranos sky + -graphia -graphy
Date:1675

 : the construction of celestial representations (as maps)

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Virology


Virology, often considered a part of microbiology or of pathology, is the study of biological viruses and virus-like agents: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit cells for virus reproduction, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their potential uses in research and therapy.


Source:Wikipedia






V
irologist: Someone who studies virology



[attachment=2780]

A Smiling Virologist

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William Heberden (1710 – May 17, 1801), English physician, was born in London.

At the end of 1724 he was sent to St John's College, Cambridge, where he obtained a fellowship, around 1730, became master of arts in 1732, and took the degree of MD in 1739. He remained at Cambridge nearly ten years longer practising medicine, and gave an annual course of lectures on materia medica. In 1746 he became a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in London; and two years later he settled in London, where he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1749, and enjoyed an extensive medical practice for more than thirty years.

At the age of seventy-two he partially retired, spending his summers at a house he had taken at Windsor, but he continued to practice in London during the winter for some years longer. In 1778 he was made an honorary member of the Paris Royal Society of Medicine.

Heberden, who was a good classical scholar, published several papers in the Phil. Trans. of the Royal Society, and among his noteworthy contributions to the Medical Transactions (issued, largely at his suggestion, by the College of Physicians) were papers on chickenpox (1767) and angina pectoris (1768). His Commentarii de morborum historia et curatione, the result of careful notes made in his pocket-book at the bedside of his patients, were published in 1802; in the following year an English translation appeared, believed to be from the pen of his son, William Heberden (1767-1845), also a distinguished scholar and physician, who attended King George III in his last illness.

He married twice. First to Elizabeth Martin in 1752, with whom he had one son Thomas, later Canon of Exeter, but she died in 1754. He remarried to Mary Wollaston, daughter of Francis Wollaston (1694-1774), and had a further eight children, of whom only two survived their father, one being the William Heberden the Younger (1767-1845), who followed his father into medicine, and the other Mary (1763-1832) who married the Rev George Leonard Jenyns.
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray

X-Rays to show up the injury of someone concerned. Like broken or sprains muscles/bones.

Also Rosalind Franklin's Crystallograpy work was done by using X-RAys to find her famous 2 Slides A and B, photo 51.

Other notable uses of X-rays include

X-ray crystallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of X-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analyzed to reveal the nature of that lattice (most notably used by Rosalind Franklin to discover the double helix structure of DNA).
(From wiki).
« Last Edit: 01/05/2008 12:59:37 by neilep »
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Naples Yellow
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Naples yellow, also called antimony yellow, can range from a somewhat muted, or earthy, reddish yellow pigment to a bright light yellow, and is the chemical compound lead(II) antimonate. Its chemical composition is Pb(SbO3)2/Pb3(Sb3O4)2. It is also known as jaune d'antimoine. It is one of the oldest synthetic pigments, dating from around 1620. The related mineral pigment, bindheimite, dates from the 16th century BC, however this natural version was rarely, if ever, used as a pigment. Naples yellow was used extensively by the Old Masters and well into the 20th century. The genuine pigment is toxic, and its use today is becoming increasingly rare. Most paints labeled "Naples yellow" are instead made with a mix of modern, less toxic pigments. The colors of these paints vary considerably from one manufacturer to another


[attachment=2893]


How Naples Yellow Is Made
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Zenith

In broad terms, the zenith is the direction pointing directly above a particular location (perpendicular, orthogonal). Since the concept of being above is itself somewhat vague, scientists define the zenith in more rigorous terms. Specifically, in astronomy, geophysics and related sciences (e.g., meteorology), the zenith at a given point is the local vertical direction pointing away from direction of the force of gravity at that location.

For reference, the vertical direction at the given location and pointing in the same sense as the gravitational force is called the nadir.

Zenith is also used for the highest point reached by a celestial body during its apparent orbit around a given point of observation.  Often used in this sense about the Sun, it only corresponds to the first concept of zenith for one latitude at a time, and never at all for latitudes outside the tropics.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zenith
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Ångström
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

An ångström or angstrom (symbol Å) (pronounced /ˈɔːŋstrəm/; Swedish: IPA: [ˈɔ̀ŋstrœm]) is a non-SI unit of length that is internationally recognized, equal to 0.1 nanometre or 1×10−10 metres. It is sometimes used in expressing the sizes of atoms, lengths of chemical bonds and visible-light spectra, and dimensions of parts of integrated circuits. It is commonly applied in structural biology. It is named after Anders Jonas Ångström.

Unicode includes the "angstrom sign" at U+212B (Å). However, the "angstrom sign" is normalized into U+00C5 (Å), and is thereby seen as a (pre-existing) encoding mistake, and it is better to use U+00C5 (Å) directly.[1]
 History

The ångström is named after the Swedish physicist Anders Jonas Ångström (1814–1874), one of the founders of spectroscopy who is known also for studies of astrophysics, heat transfer, terrestrial magnetism, and the aurora borealis.

In 1868, Ångström created a spectrum chart of solar radiation that expresses the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum in multiples of one ten-millionth of a millimetre, or 1×10−10 metres. This unit of length became known as the 'Ångström unit', and later simply as the ångström, Å.

The visual sensitivity of a human being is from about 4,000 ångströms (violet) to 7,000 ångströms (dark red) so the use of the ångström as a unit provided a fair amount of discrimination without resort to fractional units. Because of its closeness to the scale of atomic and molecular structures it also became popular in chemistry and crystallography.

Although intended to correspond to 1×10−10 metres, for precise spectral analysis the ångström needed to be defined more accurately than the metre which until 1960 was still defined based on the length of a bar of metal held in Paris. In 1907 the International Astronomical Union defined the international ångström by making the wavelength of the red line of cadmium in air equal to 6438.4696 international ångströms, and this definition was endorsed by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in 1927. From 1927 to 1960, the ångström remained a secondary unit of length for use in spectroscopy, defined separately from the metre, but in 1960, the metre itself was redefined in spectroscopic terms, thus aligning the ångström as a submultiple of the metre.

Since the ångström is now defined as exactly 1×10−10 metres, there are therefore 10,000 ångströms in a micrometre (commonly called a 'micron', abbreviated μm, of which there are 1 million to a metre), and 10 in a nanometre (1 nm = 1×10−9 metres).

Today, the use of the ångström as a unit is less popular than it used to be and the nanometre (nm) is often used instead (with the ångström being officially discouraged by both the International Committee for Weights and Measures and the American National Standard for Metric Practice).
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Bicapsular = Having two capsules or a capsule with two cells.

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Compass
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


A compass, (or mariner compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the Earth. It consists of a magnetized pointer free to align itself accurately with Earth's magnetic field, which is of great assistance in navigation. The face of the compass generally highlights the cardinal points of north, south, east and west. A compass can be used (to calculate heading) in conjunction with a marine chronometer (to calculate longitude) and a sextant (to calculate latitude) to provide a somewhat accurate navigation capability. This device greatly improved maritime trade by making travel safer and more efficient.


[attachment=2951]
A Compass relaxing earlier today !

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Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. In older usage, it is the scientific study of crystals.

Before the development of X-ray diffraction crystallography (see below), the study of crystals was based on the geometry of the crystals. This involves measuring the angles of crystal faces relative to theoretical reference axes (crystallographic axes), and establishing the symmetry of the crystal in question. The former is carried out using a goniometer. The position in 3D space of each crystal face is plotted on a stereographic net, e.g. Wulff net or Lambert net. In fact, the pole to each face is plotted on the net. Each point is labelled with its Miller index. The final plot allows the symmetry of the crystal to be established.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystallography



This special lady, Rosalind Frankin used Crystallography in the
discovery of the Single DNA Helix structure and it's form of X-Ray's too. I couldn't resist doing this. I hope you don't mind too much.
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Diode
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal device (except that thermionic diodes may also have one or two ancillary terminals for a heater). Diodes have two active electrodes between which the signal of interest may flow, and most are used for their unidirectional current property. The varicap diode is used as an electrically adjustable capacitor.

The directionality of current flow most diodes exhibit is sometimes generically called the rectifying property. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the forward biased condition) and to block it in the opposite direction (the reverse biased condition). Thus, the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. Real diodes do not display such a perfect on-off directionality but have a more complex non-linear electrical characteristic, which depends on the particular type of diode technology. Diodes also have many other functions in which they are not designed to operate in this on-off manner.

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EXOSPHERE = THE OUTER PORTION OF THE EARTHS ATMOSPHERE

CHECK OUT THIS LINK....SCROLL TO BOTTOM AND WATCH THE ANIMATION....

http://www.astro.umd.edu/~rkillen/

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F2 Layer

Main Entry:F2 layer
Pronunciation:*ef-*t*-
Function:noun
Date:1933

 : the upper of the two layers into which the F region of the ionosphere splits in the daytime at varying heights from about 120 miles (200 kilometers) to more than 300 miles (500 kilometers) above the earth

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G2 Phase

Main Entry:G2 phase
Pronunciation:*j*-*t*-
Function:noun
Etymology:growth
Date:1968

 : the period in the cell cycle from the completion of DNA replication to the beginning of cell division   compare G1 PHASE, M PHASE, S PHASE

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The Hubble Space Telescope (HST; also known colloquially as "the Hubble" or just "Hubble") is a space telescope that was carried into Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle in April 1990. It is named for American astronomer Edwin Hubble. Although Hubble was not the first space telescope, it is one of the largest and most versatile, and well known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy. The HST is a collaboration between NASA and the European Space Agency, and is part of NASA's Great Observatories series, with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope.[3]

Space telescopes were proposed as early as the 1940s. The Hubble was funded in the 1970s, with a proposed launch in 1983, but the project was beset by technical delays, budget problems, and the Challenger disaster. When finally launched in 1990, scientists found that the main mirror had been ground incorrectly, severely compromising the telescope's capabilities. However, after a servicing mission in 1993, the telescope was restored to its intended quality. Hubble's position outside the Earth's atmosphere allows it to take extremely sharp images with almost no background light. Hubble's Ultra Deep Field image, for instance, is the most detailed visible-light image of the universe's most distant objects ever made. Many Hubble observations have led to breakthroughs in astrophysics, such as accurately determining the rate of expansion of the universe.

The Hubble is the only telescope ever designed to be serviced in space by astronauts. To date, there have been four servicing missions. Servicing Mission 1 took place in December 1993 when Hubble's imaging flaw was corrected. Servicing missions 2, 3, and 4 repaired various sub-systems and replaced many of the observing instruments with more modern and capable versions. However, following the 2003 Columbia Space Shuttle disaster, the fifth servicing mission was canceled on safety grounds. After spirited public discussion, NASA reconsidered this decision, and administrator Mike Griffin gave the green light for one final Hubble servicing mission. This is now planned for August 2008.

The planned repairs to the Hubble will allow the telescope to function until at least 2013, when its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), is due to be launched. The JWST will be far superior to Hubble for many astronomical research programs, but will only observe in infrared, so it would complement (not replace) Hubble's ability to observe in the visible and ultraviolet parts of the spectrum.

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Iodine is a chemical element that has the symbol I and atomic number 53. Naturally-occurring iodine is a single isotope with 74 neutrons.

Chemically, iodine is the least reactive of the halogens, and the most electropositive halogen after astatine. However, the element does not occur in the free state in nature. As with all other halogens (members of Group VII in the Periodic Table), when freed from its compounds iodine forms diatomic molecules (I2).

Iodine and its compounds are primarily used in medicine, photography and in dyes. Although it is rare in the solar system and Earth's crust, the iodides are very soluble in water, and the element is concentrated in seawater. This mechanism helps to explain how the element came to be required in trace amounts by all animals and some plants, being by far the heaviest element known to be necessary to living organisms.


[attachment=3131]

Some Iodine having a day out yesterday !



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Jaundice

Jaundice, also known as icterus (attributive adjective: "icteric"), is yellowish discoloration of the skin, sclera (whites of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in the blood). This hyperbilirubinemia subsequently causes increased levels of bilirubin in the extracellular fluids. Typically, the concentration of bilirubin in the plasma must exceed 1.5 mg/dL[1], three times the usual value of approximately 0.5mg/dL[1], for the coloration to be easily visible. Jaundice comes from the French word jaune, meaning yellow.

Contents
1 Normal Physiology
1.1 Pre-Hepatic events
1.2 Hepatic events
1.3 Post Hepatic events
2 Causes
2.1 Pre-hepatic
2.2 Hepatic
2.3 Post-hepatic
3 Laboratory Results
3.1 Laboratory Tests
4 Neonatal jaundice
5 Jaundiced eye
6 External links
7 See also
8 Footnotes
 

Normal Physiology
In order to understand how jaundice results, it is important to understand where the pathological processes that cause jaundice take their effect. It is also important to further recognize that jaundice itself is not a disease, but rather a symptom of an underlying pathological process that occurs at some point along the normal physiological pathway of the metabolism of bilirubin.

Pre-Hepatic events
When red blood cells have completed their life span of approximately 120 days, their membranes become fragile and prone to rupture. As the cell traverses through the reticuloendothelial system, their cell membranes rupture and the contents of the red blood cell is released into the blood. The component of the red blood cell that is involved in jaundice is hemoglobin. The hemoglobin released into the blood is phagocytosed by macrophages, and split into its heme and globin portions. The globin portion, being protein, is degraded into amino acids and plays no further role in jaundice. Two reactions then take place to the heme molecule. The first reaction is the oxidation of heme to form biliverdin.This reaction is catalyzed by microsomal enzyme heme oxygenase and it results in biliverdin (green color pigment), iron and carbon monoxide. Next step is reduction of biliverdin to yellow color tetrapyrol pigment bilirubin by cytosolic enzyme biliverdin reductase. This bilirubin is known as "unconjugated", "free" or "indirect" bilirubin. Approximately 4 mg per kg of bilirubin is produced each day.[2] The majority of this bilirubin comes from the breakdown of heme from expired red blood cells in the process just described. However approximately 20 per cent comes from other heme sources, including ineffective erythropoiesis, breakdown of other heme protrins such as muscle myoglobin and cytochrome enzymes.

Hepatic events
The unconjugated bilirubin then travels to the liver through the bloodstream. Because this bilirubin is not soluble, however, it is transported through the blood bound to serum albumin. Once it arrives at the liver, it is conjugated with glucuronic acid (to form bilirubin diglucuronide, or just "conjugated bilirubin") to become more water soluble. The reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme UDP-glucuronide transferase.

Post Hepatic events
This conjugated bilirubin is excreted from the liver into the biliary and cystic ducts as part of bile. Intestinal bacteria convert the bilirubin into urobilinogen. From here the urobilinogen can take two pathways. It can either be further converted into stercobilinogen, which is then oxidized to stercobilin and passed out in the faeces, or it can be reabsorbed by the intestinal cells, transported in the blood to the kidneys, and passed out in the urine as the oxidised product urobilin. Stercobilin and urobilin are the products responsible for the coloration of faeces and urine, respectively.

Causes
When a pathological process interferes with the normal functioning of the metabolism and excretion of bilirubin just described, jaundice may be the result. Jaundice is classified into three categories, depending on which part of the physiological mechanism the pathology affects. The three categories are:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaundice
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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K-theory


In mathematics, K-theory is a tool used in several disciplines. In algebraic topology, it is an extraordinary cohomology theory known as topological K-theory. In algebra and algebraic geometry, it is referred to as algebraic K-theory. It also has some applications in operator algebras. It leads to the construction of families of K-functors, which contain useful but often hard-to-compute information.

In physics, K-theory and in particular twisted K-theory have appeared in Type II string theory where it has been conjectured that they classify D-branes, Ramond-Ramond field strengths and also certain spinors on generalized complex manifolds. For details, see also K-theory (physics).


Guess what....I don't understand a single thing in the above paragraphs !! [;D]
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