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The modern body of medical knowledge about how the human body reacts to freezing to the point of death is based almost exclusively on these Nazi experiments. This, together with the recent use of data from Nazi research into the effects of phosgene gas, has proved controversial and presents an ethical dilemma for modern physicians who do not agree with the methods used to obtain this data. Similarly, controversy has arisen from the use of results of biological warfare testing done by the Imperial Japanese Army's Unit 731. However, the results from Unit 731 were kept classified by the United States and the majority of doctors involved were given pardons.
I think they were responsible for inventing liquid rocket power and the first operational jet engine.
Robert Hutchings Goddard, Ph.D. (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945), U.S. professor and scientist, was a pioneer of controlled, liquid-fueled rocketry. He launched the world's first liquid-fueled rocket on March 16, 1926. From 1930 to 1935 he launched rockets that attained speeds of up to 885 km/h (550 mph). Though his work in the field was revolutionary, he was sometimes ridiculed for his theories. He received little recognition during his lifetime, but would eventually come to be called one of the fathers of modern rocketry for his life's work.
In 1928, RAF College Cranwell cadet Frank Whittle formally submitted his ideas for a turbo-jet to his superiors. In October 1929 he developed his ideas further. On 16 January 1930 in England, Whittle submitted his first patent (granted in 1932). The patent showed a two-stage axial compressor feeding a single-sided centrifugal compressor. Whittle would later concentrate on the simpler centrifugal compressor only, for a variety of practical reasons. Whittle had his first engine running in April 1937. It was liquid-fuelled, and included a self-contained fuel pump. Whittle's team experienced near-panic when the engine would not stop, even after the fuel was switched off. It turned out that fuel had leaked into the engine and accumulated in pools. So the engine would not stop until all the leaked fuel had burned off. Whittle was unable to interest the government in his invention, and development continued at a slow pace.In 1935 Hans von Ohain started work on a similar design in Germany, apparently unaware of Whittle's work. His first engine was strictly experimental and could only run under external power, but he was able to demonstrate the basic concept. Ohain was then introduced to Ernst Heinkel, one of the larger aircraft industrialists of the day, who immediately saw the promise of the design. Heinkel had recently purchased the Hirth engine company, and Ohain and his master machinist Max Hahn were set up there as a new division of the Hirth company. They had their first HeS 1 engine running by September 1937. Unlike Whittle's design, Ohain used hydrogen as fuel, supplied under external pressure. Their subsequent designs culminated in the gasoline-fuelled HeS 3 of 1,100 lbf (5 kN), which was fitted to Heinkel's simple and compact He 178 airframe and flown by Erich Warsitz in the early morning of August 27, 1939, from Marienehe aerodrome, an impressively short time for development. The He 178 was the world's first jet plane.Meanwhile, Whittle's engine was starting to look useful, and his Power Jets Ltd. started receiving Air Ministry money. In 1941 a flyable version of the engine called the W.1, capable of 1000 lbf (4 kN) of thrust, was fitted to the Gloster E28/39 airframe specially built for it, and first flew on May 15, 1941 at RAF Cranwell.
and was stolen by the Russians to start their jet industry.
According to “UK History channel” the first jet powered airplane was produced in Russia (Soviet Union) long before Germans developed their own first jet powered airplane.
Quote from: GBSB on 23/04/2008 20:57:36According to “UK History channel” the first jet powered airplane was produced in Russia (Soviet Union) long before Germans developed their own first jet powered airplane.Not sure exactly what you are referring to, but there were a number of rocket planes, and motor jet designs that preceded the first functioning turbojet engine. When we were using the term 'jet', I took it to refer to turbojets (i.e. where the compressor is driven by the exhaust gasses), and I don't believe there were any turbojets before the Heinkel, Messerschmitt, and Gloster models.
At the moment I can’t provide link but the last time I saw on TV was in 2007 on UK History Channel that shows that first jet powered plane was produced in Soviet Union. I am not sure did they are the first to turbojet engine but according to UK history Channel the Soviets produced fist jet engine powered aeroplane. (Not to mix wit plane where rockets where used to boost speed and range) I can’t remember exactly in which year but it was a few years before Germans. Main problem was that after each flight the turbo jet engine was damaged because at that time the alloy metal wasn’t used to build jet engine. That is what I can remember.UK history channel is reliable source and surely is possible to prove is it information or misinformation what I wrote.
The Bereznyak-Isayev BI-1 was a revolutionary Russian Rocket plane made by Bereznyak-Isayev that was developed several years before the more widely known Messerschmitt Me 163. It was to be armed with 2 20 mm cannons and some improvements were considered like ramjets on each wing but this model didn't even pass the wind tunnel test. Unlike the German rocket fighter, the BI-1 was not lost to any fuel accidents. It was lost following an accident in which the plane suddenly made an uncontrollable dive to the ground. Development was stopped before it could enter service with the Soviet Air Force but was still used as a test glider.
Arkhip Mikhailovich Lyulka (1908-1984), a Ukrainian designer of jet engines, was born on March 23, 1908 in Savarka village in Kiev Oblast of Ukraine. He was educated in Savarka village school and the Kiev Polytechnic Institute (KPI) (1931). Mykhailo Krawtchouk was his teacher and mentor in both schools. In 1939-1941, Lyulka proposed a design of a turbofan engine but the engine was never built. He moved from Kharkiv to Moscow after the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union and worked on designing military aircraft engines.Lyulka designed the first indigenous Soviet jet engine TR-1(1945-1947) which was installed on Su-11 (Sukhoi) jets. He designed AL-5, Lyulka AL-7, Lyulka AL-21 turbojet engines and Saturn AL-31 turbofans which were installed on S-17, Su-20, Su-24, MiG-23, Su-27 and other Soviet military aircraft. Lyulka also designed upper stage engines for the Soviet moon rocket N1. NPO Saturn is named after Arkhip Lyulka. Lyulka died in Moscow on June 2, 1984.
If you know of anything else, by all means let me know.
Any science from Nazis time isn’t product of Nazis ideology but is product of German culture and German sense for invention.
It is true that many scientists of Jewish origin/ Jewish religion have fled Germany. But most of them were already established as scientist before they fled.
If Edison was living in Germany under the Nazi I doubt that he will be able to invent too much and same applying in case of Marie Curie and many other.
Didn't they gave us 'Herbie 'the 'Peoples Car ' ? LOL [ Invalid Attachment ]
Quote from: neilep on 23/04/2008 14:30:56 Didn't they gave us 'Herbie 'the 'Peoples Car ' ? LOL [ Invalid Attachment ]
I think they were responsible for inventing liquid rocket power and the first operational jet engine.
Not sure if the Germans had the first operational jet engine , i think that honour may go to the British.
As a matter of detail, Marie Curie discovered many things, but invented nothing - the converse is true of Edison.
I am not sure why you believe that Edison would not have thrived in the NAZI era, although you may be more correct about Marie Curie (who was of Polish origin, and even the fact that she was a woman may not have been in her favour in the NAZI era). In any case, the NAZIs were more supportive of engineering (hence again to Edison's potential benefit) than of basic science.
It is plenty confusion today about using term like invention, science, experimental science etc.
Any way I didn’t mean just on material science but as well on humanistic science. One example is Sigmund Freud - founder of psychoanalysis. I doubt that he will able to think about psychoanalysis if was living under nazi regime.
For the Nazis, the purpose of discoveries and inventions is to strength the belief in mental supremacy of Arian race. Discovery and invention that comes from non Arian was undesirable.
Another fact is, that living under constantan fear for own life and for lives of loved ones will make from greatest genius just simply man without ability to invent anything.
The terms 'discovery' and 'invention' have pretty clear meanings and distinctions in teh English language.
You discover what is there (polonium is there whether Marie Curie had discovered it or not),
and you invent what is not there (the gramophone record would never have existed unless someone had invented it).
Quote from: GBSB on 29/04/2008 01:40:32For the Nazis, the purpose of discoveries and inventions is to strength the belief in mental supremacy of Arian race. Discovery and invention that comes from non Arian was undesirable.To some extent the same could be said of any political system - they use sport, and science, to prove the superiority of their own view of human society. The Soviets and Chinese both did this, and so do the Americans.
Quote from: GBSB on 29/04/2008 01:40:32Another fact is, that living under constantan fear for own life and for lives of loved ones will make from greatest genius just simply man without ability to invent anything.This is not at all the case, and has been shown not to be the case in many oppressive societies. What you may have more validity in saying is that oppressive regimes are often poorly organised, and cannot make proper use of the inventions, but not that it stops the inventions from happening. On the contrary, often in oppressive regimes, the genius will focus even more on his work as a way of forgetting the problems of living in the real world.
I would just like to add actually that how anyone could look up to Hitler beggars belief; you can often see a mans true colours in defeat, there he is(Hitler) the allies are getting closer and what does he say: "Burn everything! they can conker ashes!" Here's a man that really cares about his people.And I say to any budding Nazi today; Our grandfathers and their generation, fought suffered and died to stop that Nazi, fascist, racist, crap. So I say it load and clear, If you are a fascist, you dishonor everything they fought and died for- FOR SHAME!