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...sorry, you cannot view external links. To see them, please REGISTER or LOGINIn the link provided, i show a set of equations which are derived intentionally based on the theory of a ''photon only'' universe, as Vern would call it. Its basically down to logic... how does one measure how much energy is required to create matter? Naturally, one would assume that E=Mc^2 would suffice, since the energy on the right is equal to the mass on the left, but the equation only could describe a single particle, and if a photon, then has the form E=\gamma Mc^2 then as we have observed, by the collision of two of these photons can create and electron and a positron γγ → e°e‾. So naturally one can assume that the ''lowest energy expectancy value'' for a collision to occur and successfully create matter is rather energy squared, so the equation becomes: E^2=\gamma M^2c^4. This is the lowest value i present, which means that there are possibly many levels (and infinite amount if quantum theory is correct) of possible energy requirements for matter-production. The final equation in the work in the link, derived itself from the scientific notes above, the expectency value which will ultimately create whatever type of particle, (we know something like 410 particles in the standard model), only through the relation of wavelength, given by the lambda symbol. The derivations gave a final equation:\hbar^2 c^2 \frac{E}{2\pi}What is really interesting is that since \hbar itself (known as the reduced plancks constant), was found in a relation as: GM^2/c=\hbarShowing not a large value for G, but actually a quantization itself of the gravitational charge on the system, . This means we can now rearrange the formula \hbar^2 c^2 \frac{E}{2π} to mean a specific relation to the gravitational charge, thus now given as:(GM^2/c)^2(E/2π)=\hbar^2(Mc^2/2π)Which as an expression, i could only interprete that the gravitational charge the event of a collision with the expectant value of E^2=\gamma M^2c^4 to create matter, would make sense that the gravitational charge would be a quick short burst, ''the spark of gravitational charge and matter'', and then inexorably, share that gravitational charge and matter as the conservation law would state: Out of a positron and electron collision, two photons are ''created'' or ''released'' as a better term?

Your reasoning seems valid, I didn't dwell upon the maths. My guess is that the minimum energy possible to produce a stable particle pair would be two gamma ray photons each with energy of about .510 MeV.Edit: Your derivation in the other forum looks Okay; you probably shouldn't mention a photon-only universe in your reply to the other poster's question. That forum has a very pronounced distaste for the photon-only concept. []Here's one way to overcome the lack of TeX on this forum.

are you in fact saying that photons are inside ''shells'' which make up matter,

Quote from: Mr. Scientistare you in fact saying that photons are inside ''shells'' which make up matter,The shells are the photons. The photon comprising a shell traverses a path around the circumference of the shell in one wave length. This places one polarity of the photons electric field on the outside of the curve all the way around. The other polarity is on the inside of the shell.

For your theory to be correct, are you not simplifying the shells to be comprised of entangled photons?

Quote from: Mr. ScientistFor your theory to be correct, are you not simplifying the shells to be comprised of entangled photons?I didn't see a need for the shells to be comprised of entangled photons. However, composite shells such as the proton and neutron would be locked in a certain phase relationship between shells. This might be considered to be entanglement.