Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?

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Offline iko

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Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« on: 12/08/2006 13:17:15 »

Hello everybody!
I'm Iko, cofactor and vitamin enthusiastic supporter
and well known cod liver oil maniac around here.
I opened this CLO topic to complement my previous
"Childhood leukemia" topic in Physiol.&Med.

http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=4987.msg41687#msg41687

You are kindly invited to read and discuss both topics.
Enjoy

iko

Quote
It's about whether to strongly and officially recommend a nontoxic nutrient when data to prove its efficacy are still unconfirmed.
In the case of diseases of unknown cause and poor treatment results
...unsatisfactory results, or 'suboptimal' if you prefer.

It's Philosophy of Science and practical medicine altogether

ikod  [^]

 
   thanks to the >100000 viewers   (just unbelievable!)





I'll try to share with you some recent good & bad things about:

cod liver oil (CLO),
an obsolete remedy of the past for some,
number-one superfood for others.


Even if CLO contains large amounts of Vitamin A and D3, Omega-3 fatty acids, it MUST stay here in Complementary Medicine.

You do not need a doctor or a prescription to give a glass of orange juice or a teaspoon/caps of CLO to your kids every day.

Specific topics about Vit.A or D should go to Physiology and Medicine...but I'm sure that you won't mind if I attach some vitamin post here too.




If you asked this fool on the hill which is the most amazing report about Cod Liver Oil (CLO) in the recent past, he would not have any doubt:

Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy
and lactation augments children's IQ at 4 years of age.


Helland IB, Smith L, Saarem K, Saugstad OD, Drevon CA.
Pediatrics. 2003 Jan;111(1):e39-44.

To read the abstract click down here:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=12509593&query_hl=6&itool=pubmed_docsum

Pediatrics 2003, Norwegian research, scientifically sound:

Children more clever at 4yrs
with one spoon of CLO per day
during pregnancy and lactation!



Fig. 1. Scores on the K-ABC for children whose mothers had taken cod liver oil (n = 48) or corn oil (n = 36) during pregnancy and lactation. Values for the different subtests are shown. MPCOMP, Mental Processing Composite; SEQPROC, Sequential Processing; SIMPROC, Simultaneous Processing; NONVERB, Nonverbal Abilities.




Neat eh?
 
...when I've got this information my two sons had already grown up!
Some people could still make it with their children.
A good point to start a mini-review and/or discussion.


iko




"Il sole dona la vita, il sole se la riprende" M.U. Dianzani, 1975.
« Last Edit: 26/07/2010 16:07:50 by iko »

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another_someone

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #1 on: 12/08/2006 17:53:41 »
Well, I was fed cod liver oil as a child – read into that what you will.



George

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Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #2 on: 12/08/2006 19:03:57 »
You see, unfortunately I was not...and my brain is just a mess.

I knew from a miracle-cure story in my family (grandfather) that it had to be a great thing.

Quote
Click above if you want to read my grandfather's story...

Stupid of me, I never gave it to my children (before 1999)
because "I thought" it might be contaminated and all that blablabla...
You can easily check it out these days:
there is no major problem of contamination
(not more than fruit and salad)
but just good golden stuff.

quote:

We may be paying a very high price for our rejection of parental wisdom to take our cod liver oil.

Krispin Sullivan 2002



      

Fish oil over time

1890s   Cod-liver oil is used as a home remedy to treat rickets, rheumatism, tuberculosis and other ailments.

1930s   Fish oil is used as a key ingredient in shortening.

1950s   Dale Alexander publishes a book touting cod-liver oil as an elixir for arthritis, earning him the nickname the "codfather."

1970s   Researchers find that Greenland's Inuit have low levels of heart disease, likely because of diets rich in fish.
               It is one of the first associations between omega-3 fatty acids and good health.

1990s   As studies increase on the benefits of omega-3s, more consumers start taking fish oil pills made from a variety of fish.

2000   Aquaculture demands more and more fish oil.
              Today Fish oil begins to be injected into bread and tamales, among other foods.
 



ikod
« Last Edit: 23/09/2007 10:18:00 by iko »

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Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #3 on: 19/08/2006 22:58:54 »
Nothing new under the sun...

...In northern latitudes (Iowa), sunshine is too diminished in the winter for infants to generate vitamin D on their own. At the begining of the last century, it was standard practice to give breastfed infants a teaspoon of cod liver oil which averages 440 IU of vitamin D3 per day.
When the use of formula became popular, enough vitamin D was added to the formula to prevent deficiency.
Then since the 1970s women returned to breast feeding, but they never resumed the practice of giving their babies any dietary supplement...

Brestfed infants living in temperate climates often deficient in vitamin D
Pediatrics 2006;118:603-610.
http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/542395?src=mp
« Last Edit: 19/08/2006 23:11:03 by iko »

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Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #4 on: 20/08/2006 23:33:45 »
You have to look for properly controlled, high quality CLO...

...Values of PCBs and DDTs, although below the range of 1 to 4 pg of TEQ per kg of body weight per day set by the World Health Organization, emphasize the need for strict and continuous monitoring of fish oil contamination to reduce, as much as possible, the risks to human health.
Proper Quality Controls are routinely performed by the majority of tha COD producers.

Polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, and pesticide organochlorine residues in cod-liver oil dietary supplements.


Storelli MM, Storelli A, Marcotrigiano GO.
Pharmacological-Biological Department, Chemistry and Biochemistry Section, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, University of Bari, Strada Prov le per Casamassima Km 3, 70010 Valenzano (Ba), Italy.

Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (alpha, beta, gamma), and chlorinated pesticides (DDTs) in cod-liver oil used as a dietary supplement were determined. Total PCB and DDT concentrations varied from 25 to 201 ng g(-1) lipid weight basis and from 25 to 133 ng g(-1) lipid weight basis, respectively. Hexachlorobenzene contributed very little to the overall contaminant burden of dietary supplement oils, whereas hexachlorocyclohexane isomers were below the instrumental detection limits in all samples. The daily intake of PCBs and DDTs derived by the consumption of cod-liver oil at manufacturer-recommended doses varied from 0.004 to 2.01 microg/day and from 0.004 to 1.24 microg/day, respectively. Relative to some dioxin-like PCB congeners (mono-ortho PCB 105, 118, and 156; non-ortho PCB 77, 126, and 169), the intakes calculated varied from less than 0.001 to 0.74 pg of toxic equivalency values (TEQ) per kg of body weight per day. These values, although below the range of 1 to 4 pg of TEQ per kg of body weight per day set by the World Health Organization, emphasize the need for strict and continuous monitoring of fish oil contamination to reduce, as much as possible, the risks to human health.

J Food Prot. 2004 Aug;67(8):1787-91.


« Last Edit: 07/10/2007 15:08:04 by iko »

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Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #5 on: 26/08/2006 13:31:23 »
Quote
Facts do not cease to exist because they are ignored

Aldous Huxley





Quote

...Vitamin D was used to treat a variety of skin diseases including psoriasis in the 1930s. However, it was not until the mid-1980s that the terapeutic potential of vitamin D in skin diseases reemerged.
A dramatic improvement was seen in the psoriatic lesions in a patient receiving oral 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 to treat severe osteoporosis (171).



...from a nice and thick, recent review by Adriana S. Dusso and coll.:

Vitamin D
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=15951480&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsum

Comment:
Psoriasis is the most common disease of the skin.
Incidence of psoriasis is about 2% of the population in USA...
http://www.postgradmed.com/issues/1999/09_99/mohla.htm

Now calculate how many patients approximately could have had some benefit from cod liver oil administration in those fifty years (1935-85)...

iko



« Last Edit: 05/07/2008 18:28:36 by iko »

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Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #6 on: 27/08/2006 10:56:22 »
Dr. Michael Holick


 



Vitamin D deficiency Epidemics in the new Millennium.

...Adams: It seems like vitamin D is misnamed. It's not really a vitamin in the classic sense, is it?

Dr. Michael Holick: It's a good point, and the reason for it is as follows. It was recognized in the mid-1800s that if you gave cod liver oil to children who had rickets, it could cure rickets. And if you gave cod liver oil to children without rickets, it prevented them from getting rickets. So people thought that there was a vitamin present that was necessary for bone health. And that vitamin was finally identified by taking cod liver oil and boiling it, because once you boil cod liver oil, the vitamin A in it gets destroyed. Originally they thought it was vitamin A that was responsible for bone health, but when they boiled it and destroyed the vitamin A, the anti-ricketic activity, that is the bone health activity, was still present in the cod liver oil. And so it was named vitamin D, because there had already been identified a vitamin A, a B and a C, so the next in line was vitamin D.


...more in:
Vitamin D deficiency is widespread among U.S. population, expectant mothers are deficient and giving birth to deficient infants.

January 1st 2005
http://www.newstarget.com/z003205.html

ikod
« Last Edit: 26/07/2010 16:25:39 by iko »

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Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #7 on: 29/08/2006 13:24:48 »
Should Vitamin D be Given to Cancer Patients?
 
The answer is easy when you ask the question another way. Should cancer patients be treated for their vitamin D deficiency? Most people, including those serving on malpractice juries, might think so.
But which vitamin D is the best? Is it the kind of vitamin D one can get from exposure to the sun or fish oil? Or do the scientists who are trying to create more profitable and expensive vitamin D treatment for cancer have the right idea?
The upcoming National Cancer Institute and National Institutes of Health conference on cancer and vitamin D Nov. 17-19 2004 in Bethesda, Md., (free to the public) promises to be an interesting match with two very different groups of scientists slugging it out.
Why? Vitamin D will greatly increase tissue levels of calcitriol which has remarkable anticancer properties. Moreover, a lot of epidemiological evidence suggests that plain old vitamin D helps prevent normal cells from turning cancerous. Because cancer is a dynamic process, it makes sense to do everything one can do to prevent healthy cells from turning into malignant ones, especially in cancer patients.

from: Medical News Today October 11, 2004
http://www.alternativecancerdiet.com/articles/2004/10/index.html

not so much "alternative" so far, I must say...

iko
« Last Edit: 17/10/2006 22:36:23 by iko »

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Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #8 on: 04/09/2006 22:24:20 »
...for a change, here is one of the few negative news about 'cod'.

Fish tale  From cod liver to fatty acids, fish oil has long been considered healthy, but some say the current versions may do more harm than good.

http://www.boston.com/news/globe/health_science/articles/2004/04/20/fish_tale/

Note:
fish liver oils contain vit.A+Vit.D3+omega-3 fatty acids.
fish oils contain omega-3 fatty acids mainly.

Vit.A&Vit.D3 are fat-soluble and do accumulate in the body: doses higher than reccomended may lead to toxicity.
 
iko


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Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #9 on: 09/09/2006 15:30:04 »
Effect of daily cod liver oil and a multivitamin-mineral supplement with selenium on upper respiratory tract pediatric visits by young, inner-city, Latino children: randomized pediatric sites.

...the effect of daily supplementation with lemon-flavored cod liver oil and a children's multivitamin-mineral supplement containing selenium on the number of pediatric visits by young, inner-city, Latino children from late autumn of 2002 through early spring of 2003. Two private pediatric offices with similar demographics, located 1.1 miles apart in upper Manhattan, New York City, were randomized to a supplementation site and a medical records control site. Ninety-four children (47 at each site), 6 months to 5 years of age, were enrolled.
...
The supplements were well tolerated; per parental report, 70% of children completed the 5- to 6-month course of cod liver oil. Use of these nutritional supplements was acceptable to the inner-city Latino families and their young children, and was associated with a decrease in upper respiratory tract pediatric visits over time; this approach therefore deserves further research and attention.

Linday LA, Shindledecker RD, Tapia-Mendoza J, Dolitsky JN.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2004 Nov;113(11):891-901.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=15562899&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum

This after just 5-6 months...can you imagine after one or more years?

Do something 'cod' for your kid!
iko
« Last Edit: 10/09/2006 09:29:59 by iko »

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Offline neilep

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #10 on: 10/09/2006 16:34:13 »
So, Dr Iko,

Is it your considered opinion that CLO is a good thing to take for the young and old ?.........Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages ?

Thank you Dr Iko [:)]

Men are the same as women, just inside out !
Men are the same as women, just inside out !

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Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #11 on: 10/09/2006 22:24:16 »
Wow! deep breath...one question for me.
I'll quit asking myself questions for a while.

Please call me iko or Enrico if you prefer. I'm here as a parent more than a doc. I was really scared in 1999, I kept this cod-story for myself and used it as a placebo (not to go mad).
Now I feel much better and it's time to send my message in a bottle for other parents like me.
Thanks to this forum: in August I was temporarily alone at home and I found the enthusiasm and the energy (and peace!) to put all these little bits together.
 

Quote
"Is it your considered opinion that CLO is a good thing to take for the young and old ?.........Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages ?

neilep


Of course it is a good point, and I can offer my opinion: I'm not sure about that!
Firstly, there wouldn't be enough for everybody, that's for sure (poor cods!) and so we have to decide a priority list.

I would give it to leukemic children right away, as I tried to explain in the childhood leukemia topic/novel, that should be renamed: engineers&doctors facing statistical analysis...did you read it?

It is a case of neglected evidence that could have been used since 1988 for our patients' sake.

If anybody had wanted confirmed evidence of something like that in a controlled study...
It would have been like dividing airplanes into two groups (red-fluid versus blue-fluid), then
counting the accidents in the two sets until further significant evidence had come out.

Can anybody imagine a placebo group versus cod liver oil in this setting (1/3 die in 5-10yrs)?

Neither that has been done...just nothing.

So I buy it at the supermarket for my younger son (every evening: R. did you take your 'cod'?) and we (wife, older son and myself) take it from time to time as a nutritional supplement. I prefer it as a source of vitamin D because is more historically-proven then any other stuff and combined with other good things like vitamin A and omega-3.
Sometimes it takes years to prove that the natural recipe is better. Do you remember the little story about vitamin A and cancer incidence?   I accept all the variables included...fishes and their livers may be different and also vitamin content varies in seasons.  Good enough for me.

In the old days CLO had been a remedy for rickets (vitamin D) and a nutritional support (anti-infectious vitamin A) for growing children and it probably was a miracle-cure for undernourished infants.
Today's kids are frequently overnourished, but they might be malnourished paradoxically, eating junk food and keeping away from the sun.

In Northern Europe -where sunshine is a rarity- they used to take cod liver oil in the months with the 'r': from September to April.

Scientific evidence for CLO is lacking: no randomized controlled study, few clinical trials. What I am collecting here in this topic is probably most of the recent "evidence".  Old studies are practically rejected by the scientific community because they didn't follow the current standards of clinical investigation.

CLO is out of western medicine now. About 500 citations in PubMed database: almost nothing, in practical terms.
The separate components of cod liver oil will still be used in the near future, but they do not cost enough to support proper clinical studies: vitamin D analogues will probably make it, but it will take years and randomized clinical trials.  Trial & error, again.

In my opinion, it should be used just like in the old days.
Many white-haired pediatricians still use it around here.
CLO has certainly been a wonderful placebo for me.


...in 2006 I joined the Wisdom In Medicine Panel (WIMP!) as a junior member. I have been in the Association of Parents Against  Leukemia since '99. We are still looking for the Common Sense Committee. It seems a bit difficult to find one though. Then we'll arrange a meeting to revise all these data and take a decision...
Unfortunately, it sounds like a dream right now.    

iko




« Last Edit: 28/06/2008 18:50:26 by iko »

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Offline neilep

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #12 on: 10/09/2006 23:47:29 »
This is wonderful stuff IKO.

THANK YOU

We take it too....based on what you have said we'll continue with it also.

Men are the same as women, just inside out !
Men are the same as women, just inside out !

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Offline Carolyn

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #13 on: 11/09/2006 15:59:10 »
Hi Iko.  Is CLO the same as fish oil.  I have a bottle of DHA plus Lipase.  It has 500 mg of fish oil concentrate and 250 mg of Ogega3 DHA.  My mother in law gave this to me for my son. He was diagnosed with ADHD some time ago and she thought this would help. What's your opinion?  

Carolyn
Carolyn

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Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #14 on: 11/09/2006 17:54:55 »
Hi Carolyn! Thanks for calling...
Cod liver oil is not exactly like fish oil
 
quote:
Note:
fish liver oils contain vit.A+Vit.D3+omega-3 fatty acids.
fish oils contain omega-3 fatty acids mainly.

Vit.A&Vit.D3 are fat-soluble and do accumulate in the body: doses higher than reccomended may lead to toxicity.

iko


So when you give fish oil you are giving omega-3 fatty acids mainly.
Omega-3 may have amazing effects on the human brain and they are currently being tested in patients with bipolar disorder (a type of psychotic depression): there are positive and negative reports, as usual. They just started few years ago...it is a promising field.
There is an interesting book about this by a pharmacology professor, Andrew L. Stoll:
http://www.amazon.com/Omega-3-Connection-Groundbreaking-Anti-depression-Program/dp/0684871386
In proper doses you may be sure to give good nutrients (they come from the sea plankton!) and no toxicity. Even if they don't work, your kid will be safe and well nourished.
I don't know ADHD enough to reccomend anything, but speaking of nutritional supplement and reminding the paper cited at the beginning of this topic, I would suggest to alternate fish oil with CLO.
Vitamin D has also positive effects on the brain.
Check carefully expiring date and storage reccomended conditions: these oils may go rancid quick.
 
quote:
Control of the nervous system
Vitamin D3 actions in the nervous system include induction of Vitamin D Receptor content (VDR is expressed in the brain and on several regions of the central and peripheral nervous system), the conductance velocity of motor neurons, and the synthesis of neurotrophic factors, such as nerve growth factors and neurotrophyns, that prevent the loss of injured neurons. Vit.D3 also enhances the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, a potential candidate for treatment of Parkinson's disease.
In addition to increased nerve growth factor, combined treatment with Vit.D3 and 17beta-estradiol in rats elicits neuroprotective effects after focal cortical ischemia induced through the photothrombosis model.
Vit.D3 influences critical components of orderly brain development. In the embrionic rat brain, the VDR increases steadly from day 15 to day 23, and Vit.D3 induces the expression of nerve growth factor and stimulates neurite outgrowth in embryonic hippocampal explants and primary cultures.  Low prenatal Vitamin D in utero leads to increased brain size, brain shape, enlarged ventricles, and reduced expression of nerve growth factor in the neonatal rat.
The association of vit.D deficiency and abnormal brain development makes Vitamin D an attractive candidate for tretment of schizophrenia, a disorder resulting from gene-environment interactions that disrupt brain development.
Also, transient prenatal vitamin D deficiency in rats induces hyperlocomotion in adulthood with sever motor abnormalities.


simplified by me from a nice and thick recent review by Adriana S. Dusso and coll.:
Vitamin D
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=15951480&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsum

Shortly, there is increasing experimental evidence that vitamin D is just good for the brain.
No negative effects are reported.
Take care
iko

Post Scriptum:
I just found a positive report about ADHD and fish oil. You probably started from this one...let me know.  There are so many references to get lost between papers and scientific reports.
It's in another Forum! What a fantastic gigantic basket this Google is...

http://www.feelgoodforum.com/about1564.html
« Last Edit: 14/10/2006 22:31:09 by iko »

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Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #15 on: 12/09/2006 16:46:15 »
A jump backwards into the recent past, for a change:

Cod liver oil and industrial absenteeism

quote:

...In the United States, a major concern among industry in the 1930s was the loss of productivity due to illness in the labor force of 36 million. It was estimated that 250 million working days were lost per year of illness.
Arthur Holmes, medical advisor to the E.L.Patch Compant in Boston, calculated that cold and respiratory diseases cost American industries a waste of wages of exactly $494,836,363.68 per year (Holmes et al. 1936).  About half of the industrial absenteeism was due to respiratory illness.  Holmes and colleagues conducted a trial of cod-liver oil among industrial workers in a factory in the American midwest.  Over 300 workers received daily cod-liver oil or no treatment, and the trial included both clerical workers and light- and heavy-machine operators. The outcome of the study was hours of industrial absenteeism due to respiratory illness.  Members in the treatment group had 40% lower absenteeism than the control group (Holmes et al. 1932).
A larger trial involving 1800 workers and another with over 3000 workers were reported (Holmes et al. 1936), and these studies suggested that cod-liver oil therapy reduced industrial absenteeism by two-thirds.
Thus cod-liver oil, which was inexpensive, was considered to have tremendous value in saving millions of dollars in lost working days and lost productivity to American industry.
...


From:   History of nutrition
Richard D. Semba
Vitamin A as "Anti-Infective" Therapy, 1920-1940.
J.Nutr. 129:783-791, 1999.


Enjoy your free full-text reading here:
http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/129/4/783

iko


http://www.herbsandheirlooms.com/vintagemedicine/patchol2.JPG
« Last Edit: 26/07/2010 16:23:44 by iko »

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Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #16 on: 13/09/2006 16:20:41 »
Bone and muscle pain in vitamin D deficiency





Short summary from:
G de Torrenté de la Jara, A Pécoud, and B Favrat

Female asylum seekers  with musculoskeletal pain:
 the importance of diagnosis and treatment of hypovitaminosis D.



Hypovitaminosis D is well known in different populations, but may be underdiagnosed in certain populations. We aim to determine the first diagnosis considered, the duration and resolution of symptoms, and the predictors of response to treatment in female asylum seekers suffering from hypovitaminosis D.
In a network comprising an academic primary care centre and nurse practitioners, in 33 female asylum seekers with complaints compatible with osteomalacia, hypovitaminosis D (serum 25-(OH) vitamin D <21 nmol/l) was diagnosed.
The patients received either two doses of 300,000 IU intramuscular cholecalciferol as well as 800 IU of cholecalciferol with 1000 mg of calcium orally, or the oral treatment only.
We recorded the first diagnosis made by the physicians before the correct diagnosis of hypovitaminosis D, the duration of symptoms before diagnosis, the responders and non-responders to treatment, the duration of symptoms after treatment, and the number of medical visits and analgesic drugs prescribed 6 months before and 6 months after diagnosis.
Prior to the discovery of hypovitaminosis D, diagnoses related to somatisation were evoked in 30 patients (90.9%). The mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 2.53 years. Twenty-two patients (66.7%) responded completely to treatment; the remaining patients were considered to be non-responders.
After treatment was initiated, the responders' symptoms disappeared completely after 2.84 months. The mean number of emergency medical visits fell from 0.88 six months before diagnosis to 0.39 after. The mean number of analgesic drugs that were prescribed also decreased from 1.67 to 0.85.
Conclusion
Hypovitaminosis D in female asylum seekers may remain undiagnosed, with a prolonged duration of chronic symptoms.
The potential pitfall is a diagnosis of somatisation.
Treatment leads to a rapid resolution of symptoms, a reduction in the use of medical services, and the prescription of analgesic drugs in this vulnerable population.

BMC Fam Pract. 2006 Jan 23;7:4.


Comment:

Cod liver oil instead of vitamin D3 would have sorted the same effect.

It is impressive how much time it takes (1.4-2.8 months) to reach complete resolution of the symptoms: not even all patient responded, but all of them where vitamin D deficient. One patient required seven months of treatment to be free from symptoms.

Intriguing questions:

- How many times is a vitamin D deficiency suspected in an adult complaining bone and muscle pain?

- How many doctors would refer their patients' improvement to a drug injected or prescribed several months before?

- How many patients would take a drug for such a long time in spite of lack of results?

ikod
« Last Edit: 26/07/2010 16:36:04 by iko »

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Offline Carolyn

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #17 on: 13/09/2006 18:31:48 »
Iko - Thanks for the email and the info.  Right now I have a bottle of the fish oil on hand, but getting him to take it is proving to be a difficult task. I'm not sure whether to continue with the fish oil and start the CLO, or to combine the two.  I'll have to do more research I guess.

Carolyn
Carolyn

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Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #18 on: 13/09/2006 21:04:29 »
Carolyn,
I don't know how old your kid is, but it is always a bit difficult to start with these things...later on it becomes a routine, and everything goes fine.  I am afraid you'll have to tell stories about plankton and beautiful smelly fishes like Nemo swimming in the sea under the sun, collecting and making wonderful vitamins for him.
And you have to take some caps yourself...and tell him that you like them (!!!). You could even show him the picture in this topic saying that the little boy who had to take 'cod' every day became the smartest guy in the world!

newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/39503000/jpg/_39503968_finding_nemo_203.jpg

I remember this nice little girl at the hospital who had to take a lot of pills everyday...her younger healthy brother was quite jealous. His sister was going in and out of the hospital, receiving so much attention and care from parents, nurses and doctors. He probably felt neglected. I suggested to give him cod caps. A few weeks later his mother told me that he was the happiest boy, with "his" own medicine at last!

CLO really is the most wonderful placebo in the world!
Even now that he's almost 20yrs old, my younger son forgets about his 'cod'.

That's life.

ikod 
« Last Edit: 09/12/2006 22:37:01 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #19 on: 16/09/2006 11:39:10 »
Vitamin D may reduce cancer risk...
quote:
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk for cancer, particularly gastrointestinal tract cancer, according to the results of a study of men reported in the April 5 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.


What the study found was that with the first incremental increase in blood plasma levels of Vitamin D, compared to a lower baseline, there was an associated 17% reduction in total cancer incidence, a 29% reduction in total cancer mortality and a 45 % reduction in digestive-system cancer mortality. There was also some reduced incidence of leukemia.

The authors were quoted as saying, “The vitamin D supplementation necessary to achieve this (incremental increase) may be at least 1500IU/day.” Current recommendations are adequate only to prevent the disease entity associated with a deficiency of vitamin D, or rickets.

Sun exposure was one of the selected study determinants for calculating the expected serum vitamin D levels and was probably the most important source. The authors state, ” If the promise of vitamin D holds, a brief walk in the sun may turn out to be a step toward cancer prevention.” Further, they state “Although melanomas (skin cancer) account for approximately 7000 deaths annually in males in the United States, 295,000 men die annually of all cancers. We estimate a 29% lower cancer mortality rate (i.e., 85,550 fewer deaths annually) if the predicted (serum vitamin D) levels are increased.”

“What does this all mean, Doc?” It means that while getting a regular dose of UVB via the sun is good, don’t get burned. Repeat; don’t get even a little red. You don’t get to have immunity from stupidity by over doing it. It means that while there are some deleterious effects to sun exposure and some people should minimize their exposure, sunlight (vitamin D) may substantially reduce your risk of certain cancers. And not just a little bit. 45%-decreased death rate is not a little bit. Yes, the rate for skin cancer may rise, but if the overall mortality rate drops even half the estimated amount of 85,550 per year and the mortality rate for melanoma doubles you are talking about a net decrease in the mortality stats of 28,775 men’s lives saved or a net drop from 295,000 per year by almost 10% for all cancer. While this study was directed toward men, a reasonable assumption is there would be some benefit for women as well.

This is big, big news! This journal doesn’t print nutritional studies similar to this often.
And the percentages of decrease in mortality rates are momentous. For me this is the earliest stage of substantiation of sunlight as a powerful preventive measure. Sunlight may not be the best or only way to get your D. And our placement on earth (short days in the winter in our latitude) may not allow us the sun exposure we all need. Some may have to supplement with a tablet or capsule. Those in the high risk for deficiency include vegetarians, couch potatoes, women with closely spaced pregnancies, persons with fat malabsorption syndromes and surgical gall bladder removal, certain medications, diabetes, osteoporosis and the elderly. For those that are in the high risk of deficiency group or don’t get the sunlight you need in the winter, 800 I.U.’s per day from the vitamin form D-3 is best. If you use a cod liver oil, keep track of the D in it and your multiple vitamins. If you have questions about Vitamin D, ask me.
May 3, 2006



from: News For Today's Familes - Eastside Chiropractic Newsletter
http://www.eastsidechiro.org/newsletter/index.php?listid=1&id=24&type=text

Vitamin D big "tsunami" is coming closer and closer...

iko



"Il sole dona la vita, il sole se la riprende" M.U. Dianzani, 1975.
« Last Edit: 30/09/2006 13:52:56 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #20 on: 14/10/2006 13:56:17 »

from: Norwegian Fishing Village Museum
http://www.datadesign.ws/nfmuseum/smithy.htm

COD-LIVER OIL LAMPS

Cod-liver oil lamps are manufactured in the old museum forge, along the lines of the old Nordic cod-liver oil lamps and those found in Nordland from the mid 1800's. The Nordic lamps hang from a wire (or a long hook) attached to the hook on the lamp itself. The Nordland lamps have three wick grooves and require more cod-liver oil than the other type. They can be either be hung up on the wall, or placed on the table.
The cod-liver oil is poured into the upper tray. The slope of the tray can be adjusted by moving the hook along the rail or by placing a suitable object between the table and the lamp. The wick is placed in the tray with the one end in the groove at the front, and can now be lit.

At which point we have "ignited a flame for our ancestors". They did their daily chores in the faint light of these lamps, during the long autumn and winter evenings, for thousands of years.

The flame can be adjusted by pushing or pulling the end of the wick with a stick. If the end of the wick is kept short, the lamp will not smoke or smell. Any cod-liver oil that drips down into the lower tray can be poured back by unhooking the tray.


"...ancient flames to enlight the mistery of leukemia in the new Century..."
iko
« Last Edit: 15/10/2006 07:07:42 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #21 on: 16/10/2006 22:26:14 »
The Cod Liver Oil Factory

...Down by the old harbour, near the beach where they used to haul up the boats, you will find the oldest production plant in Å, the cod-liver oil factory. Here, the fish were braced and hung up on the fish racks to dry, or they were split and salted to make klipfish. The roes were salted in enormous German wine vats of oak, and the cod liver was boiled or steamed into cod liver oil.

In the old days, the liver was just left in the vats and the cod liver oil was skimmed off as the liver fermented in the heat of summer. Later, they began to boil the cod liver in iron cauldrons in order to extract a greater yield of valuable cod liver oil. This was done all year round. The stench was rife all over the fishing village. "You can smell money," people said of both this and the smell of dried fish.

The old Norse name for cod liver oil was "lysi" – light, and the oil was actually used to fuel lamps all over Europe. Moreover, it was used for tanning skins, in the manufacture of paint and soap, and lots more. Cod liver oil and stockfish were for centuries Norway’s most valuable commodity.

Every summer, thousands of barrels of cod liver oil were transported on cargo vessels, the so-called "jekt"s, from Lofoten to Bergen and further on to Europe.
Fish, liver and roes, cooked together and referred to as "mølje", have always been an important and healthy part of the coastal people’s diet. Vitamins A and D and the Omega 3 unsaturated fatty acids in the cod liver oil, helped keep people healthy. It was often said that the cod liver oil makers and other people that took a lot of cod liver oil were seemingly never ill.
Medicinal Cod Liver Oil
Pharmacist Peter Møller wanted to introduce more people to the healthy effects of cod liver oil. In 1854, he built a lined cauldron, filled the space between the cauldron and its lining with water, and steamboiled the fresh cod livers. In this way he greatly improved the quality of the oil. The invention of medicinal cod liver oil was honoured with awards at many trade fairs in Norway and abroad.  Later, the cod liver was steamed in conical oak barrels. In order to extract the last remaining drops of precious cod liver oil, the residue of the liver was then squeezed in a liver press before going to the manufacture of cattle feed or fertiliser.

Today, much of the old production equipment can still be seen in the cod liver oil factory at the Norwegian Fishing Village Museum in Å. Cod liver oil is still produced there in the old fashioned manner, and small bottles of it together with cod liver oil lamps are on sale as mementoes from Lofoten.
   

from:  Norwegian Fishing Village Museum
http://www.lofoten-info.no/history.htm#5

ikod
« Last Edit: 19/11/2006 23:24:56 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #22 on: 24/10/2006 19:18:26 »
Old News from The New Millennium

 
quote:

Scientists crack cod liver oil secret


Cod liver oil can help arthritis sufferers
Scientists have identified exactly why cod liver oil is effective in easing the pain and inflammation associated with arthritis.
Researchers at Cardiff University have pinpointed unusual fatty acids, called Omega or n-3 fatty acids, as the crucial factor.
These fatty acids are present in fish oils but not other oils common in the diet.
These findings provide some very interesting explanations as to why granny's cod liver oil therapies have some benefits to arthritis sufferers.
Once incorporated into the cells, the fatty acids reduce the activity of enzymes that are responsible for damaging the cells and causing arthritis.
The fatty acids also cause the "switching off" of another recently-discovered enzyme that causes much of the pain and inflammation in arthritis.
Lead researcher Professor Bruce Caterson said: "This is a particularly interesting finding because there is intense activity in the pharmaceutical industry to find specific drug inhibitors of Cyclooxygenase-2."

Pain and inflammation
The fatty acids also switch off the long-term production of other chemicals known as inflammatory cytokines that prolong the pain and inflammation associated with arthritis.
Professor Caterson said: "These findings provide some very interesting explanations as to why granny's cod liver oil therapies have some benefits to arthritis sufferers.
"The good thing about modern day dietary supplements is that fish oil is available in capsules, thus preventing the most obvious deterrent to this treatment - the smell that precedes the terrible taste!"

Dr Madeline Devey, scientific secretary of the Arthritis Research Campaign, said the research was "terrifically exciting".

She said: "Taking fish oil is something that lots of people do because it makes them feel better, but we had had no idea why.

"Any good science that can be thrown at a common self-medication is a really good idea, and it might enable us to manipulate diet in a slightly more rational way than we do at the moment."

Sunday, 16 January, 2000, 01:03 GMT
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/604014.stm



ikod

« Last Edit: 24/10/2006 19:25:52 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #23 on: 25/10/2006 23:29:21 »
Allow me some Cut & Paste from Physiology & Medicine.

Topic: "Many adults with psychiatric disorders may also have undiagnosed ADHD"
           by Gaia



Let me give my usual codtribution to this topic.
Rough quick search through PubMed database:
ADHD: 11181 citations
ADHD and omega-3: 15 cit.
I chose 2 recent ones for you
To open the discussion.
(I'm afraid I'm not your expert)

ikod



Omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD and related neurodevelopmental disorders.

Richardson AJ.
Dept.Physiology, Human Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, UK.

Omega-3 fatty acids are dietary essentials, and are critical to brain development and function. Increasing evidence suggests that a relative lack of omega-3 may contribute to many psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. This review focuses on the possible role of omega-3 in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related childhood developmental disorders, evaluating the existing evidence from both research and clinical perspectives. Theory and experimental evidence support a role for omega-3 in ADHD, dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and autism. Results from controlled treatment trials are mixed, but the few studies in this area have involved different populations and treatment formulations. Dietary supplementation with fish oils (providing EPA and DHA) appears to alleviate ADHD-related symptoms in at least some children, and one study of DCD children also found benefits for academic achievement. Larger trials are now needed to confirm these findings, and to establish the specificity and durability of any treatment effects as well as optimal formulations and dosages. Omega-3 is not supported by current evidence as a primary treatment for ADHD or related conditions, but further research in this area is clearly warranted. Given their relative safety and general health benefits, omega-3 fatty acids offer a promising complementary approach to standard treatments.

Int Rev Psychiatry. 2006 Apr;18(2):155-72. Review.






Omega-3 fatty acid status in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Antalis CJ, Stevens LJ, Campbell M, Pazdro R, Ericson K, Burgess JR.
Department of Foods and Nutrition, West Lafayette IN 47909-2059, USA.

Lower levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, in blood have repeatedly been associated with a variety of behavioral disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The exact nature of this relationship is not yet clear. We have studied children with ADHD who exhibited skin and thirst symptoms classically associated with essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency, altered plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles, and dietary intake patterns that do not differ significantly from controls. This led us to focus on a potential metabolic insufficiency as the cause for the altered fatty acid phenotype. Here we review previous work and present new data expanding our observations into the young adult population. The frequency of thirst and skin symptoms was greater in newly diagnosed individuals with ADHD (n = 35) versus control individuals without behavioral problems (n = 112) drawn from the Purdue student population. A follow up case-control study with participants willing to provide a blood sample, a urine sample, a questionnaire about their general health, and dietary intake records was conducted with balancing based on gender, age, body mass index, smoking and ethnicity. A number of biochemical measures were analyzed including status markers for several nutrients and antioxidants, markers of oxidative stress, inflammation markers, and fatty acid profiles in the blood. The proportion of omega-3 fatty acids was found to be significantly lower in plasma phospholipids and erythrocytes in the ADHD group versus controls whereas saturated fatty acid proportions were higher. Intake of saturated fat was 30% higher in the ADHD group, but intake of all other nutrients was not different. Surprisingly, no evidence of elevated oxidative stress was found based on analysis of blood and urine samples. Indeed, serum ferritin, magnesium, and ascorbate concentrations were higher in the ADHD group, but iron, zinc, and vitamin B6 were not different. Our brief survey of biochemical and nutritional parameters did not give us any insight into the etiology of lower omega-3 fatty acids, but considering the consistency of the observation in multiple ADHD populations continued research in this field is encouraged.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006 Oct-Nov;75(4-5):299-308. Epub 2006 Sep 8





...Hey, I just found this in the "Garlic"
   topic, GuestBook of this Forum!


...
A double-sided personality? Schizophrenia? Bipolar disorder?
Who knows...

...do you like seefood?  [;D] [:o)]





Not long ago I read that those peculiar omega-3 so good for our brain (EPA & DHA) that
we get from sea creatures, mainly blue-fish, seem to be made by the ocean plankton itself.
Humans and even those fishlets are not able to synthesize them.
It is a wonderful hypothesis: those special unsaturated fatty acids represent a sort of vitamin
for all of us and come directly from where life originated million years ago on this Planet...
Our survival seems to be inevitably bound to the sea and the sunshine.




Bikod





End of the first CODpage


iko     
« Last Edit: 04/08/2010 18:31:16 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #24 on: 27/10/2006 22:13:55 »

Interesting info. Iko, thank you.


Love you lots

Helena xx


 

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #25 on: 27/10/2006 23:50:14 »
Hi Hellena (Grecian),
Thank you for appreciating mycod efforts in this topic!
I apologize for my recent compulsive stick-images-here&there mania...
It will go away, I hope.  I know it is a bit childish: I did that with scissors and glue almost half a century ago (what a shame!).
This brand new Forum is too cooool!!!
Ciao
...Talking about absolute perfection!

ikod

Post Scriptum: did you by any chance read the childhood leukemia topic? Any comment about it? thanks.

« Last Edit: 26/07/2010 16:38:17 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #26 on: 07/11/2006 18:42:24 »
Cod Liver Oil (song)



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cod Liver Oil was a traditional medicinal drink for a lot of Newfoundlanders that was also made into a song. Cod liver oil in the traditional way of manufacture was sun cured and served in bottles in its raw form. The song was written by Johnny Burke (1851-1930), a balladeer from St. John's, Newfoundland. It has been recorded by the Irish band The Dubliners and by Newfoundland Folk/Rock Band Great Big Sea on their album The Hard and the Easy.

Lyrics
I'm a young married man that is tired of life
Ten years I've been wed to a miserable wife
She does nothing all day but sit down and cry
And prays up to Heaven that soon she will die

Chorus:
Doctor, o doctor, o dear Doctor John
Your cod liver oil is so pure and so strong
I'm afraid of me life, I'll go down in the soil
If me wife keeps on drinking your cod liver oil
Well a friend of my own came to see me one day
He told my darlin' was pining away
He afterwards told me that she would get strong
If only I'd get a bottle from dear Doctor John

Chorus
It was then that I purchased a bottle to try
The way that she drank it you'd think she would die
I bought her another it vanished the same
O me wife she's got cod liver oil on the brain

Chorus
That me wife loves cod liver there isn't a doubt
And a few thousand gallons has made her quite stout
And now that she's stout it's made her quite strong
And now I'm jealous of dear Doctor John

Chorus
My house it resembles a medicine shop
It's covered with bottles from bottom to top
But then in the mornin' the kettle do boil
O you're sure it's singin' of cod liver oil

Chorus  
« Last Edit: 15/12/2006 21:51:05 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #27 on: 07/11/2006 19:15:17 »
I take this every day !!...and it's a bloody long walk to Norway too !!


[attachment=33]
Men are the same as women, just inside out !

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #28 on: 20/11/2006 15:47:25 »
Good news for cod liver oil fanatics!

Vitamin D intake and the risk for pancreatic cancer in two cohort studies.

Skimmer HG, Michaud DS, Giovannucci E.

Vitamin D and its analogues exhibit potent antitumor effects in many tissues, including the pancreas. Normal and malignant pancreatic tissues were recently shown to express high levels of vitamin D 1-alpha-hydroxylase, which converts circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D to active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. We examined associations between dietary intake of vitamin D, calcium, and retinol and subsequent risk for pancreatic cancer. We conducted prospective studies in cohorts of 46,771 men ages 40 to 75 years as of 1986 (the Health Professionals Follow-up Study), and 75,427 women ages 38 to 65 years as of 1984 (the Nurses' Health Study), documenting incident pancreatic cancer through the year 2000. Diet was ascertained by semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. We identified 365 incident cases of pancreatic cancer over 16 years of follow-up. Compared with participants in the lowest category of total vitamin D intake (<150 IU/d), pooled multivariate relative risks for pancreatic cancer were 0.78 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.59-1.01] for 150 to 299 IU/d, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40-0.83) for 300 to 449 IU/d, 0.56 (95% CI, 0.36-0.87) for 450 to 599 IU/d, and 0.59 (95% CI, 0.40-0.88) for >/=600 IU/d (P(trend) = 0.01). These associations may be stronger in men than women. After adjusting for vitamin D intake, calcium and retinol intakes were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In two U.S. cohorts, higher intakes of vitamin D were associated with lower risks for pancreatic cancer. Our results point to a potential role for vitamin D in the pathogenesis and prevention of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Sep;15(9):1688-95.


« Last Edit: 11/05/2007 16:57:39 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #29 on: 23/11/2006 23:35:40 »
Quackery...revisited in 2006!

This comes out crossing "cod liver oil" and Quackery on Google Images!



...Near the beginning of TB treatment in sanatoria, it became known that the sun helped to kill TB bacteria (see heliotherapy). When the Sun's UV rays hit human skin, vitamin D is produced. Naturally, when cod fish were found to be rich in vitamin D, it followed that their oil was sold as "liquid sunshine" (this was a real advertisement in the Valley Echo, March 1944). Cod Liver Oil is still used in "traditional" medicine today, and as an important dietary supplement, but no real evidence exists that it helps to cure tuberculosis.

http://www.lung.ca/tb/tbhistory/treatment/



...NO real evidence? Let's cross quickly "Tuberculosis and vitamin d" on PubMed database...




Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response.


Liu PT, Stenger S, Li H et al.
In innate immune responses, activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers direct antimicrobial activity against intracellular bacteria, which in murine, but not human, monocytes and macrophages is mediated principally by nitric oxide. We report here that TLR activation of human macrophages up-regulated expression of the vitamin D receptor and the vitamin D-1-hydroxylase genes, leading to induction of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We also observed that sera from African-American individuals, known to have increased susceptibility to tuberculosis, had low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and were inefficient in supporting cathelicidin messenger RNA induction. These data support a link between TLRs and vitamin D-mediated innate immunity and suggest that differences in ability of human populations to produce vitamin D may contribute to susceptibility to microbial infection.
Science. 2006 Mar 24;311(5768):1770-3. Epub 2006 Feb 23.





The effect of vitamin D as supplementary treatment
 in patients with moderately advanced pulmonary tuberculous lesion.

Nursyam EW, Amin Z, Rumended CM.
Dept.Int.Med.University of Indonesia-dr.Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta.

AIM: to compare the vitamin D group of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with a placebo group in terms of clinical improvement, nutritional status, sputum conversion, and radiological improvement. METHODS: sixty seven tuberculosis patient visiting the Pulmonary Clinic, of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, from January 1st to August 31st, 2001 were included in this study. The subjects were randomised to receive vitamin D (0.25 mg/day) or placebo in a double blind method, during the 6th initial week of Tb treatment. The rate of sputum conversion, complete blood counts, blood chemistry as well as radiologic examination were evaluated. RESULTS: there were more male patients than females (39:28), 78.7% were in the productive age group, 71.6% had low nutritional status, 62.4% with low education level, and 67.2% with low income. One hundred percent of the vitamin D group and only 76.7% of the placebo group had sputum conversion. This difference is statistically significant (p=0.002). CONCLUSION: the sputum conversion had no correlation with the hemoglobin level, blood clotting time, calcium level, lymphocyte count, age, sex, and nutritional status. There were more subjects with radiological improvement in the vitamin D group.

Acta Med Indones. 2006 Jan-Mar;38(1):3-5.




Prevalence and associations of vitamin D deficiency in foreign-born persons with tuberculosis in London.

Ustianowski A, Shaffer R, Collin S, Wilkinson RJ, Davidson RN.
Dept.Infect.Trop.Med.- Northwick Park Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex HA1 3UJ, UK. ustianowski@doctors.org.uk

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is high amongst foreign-born persons resident in developed countries. Vitamin D is important in the host defence against TB in vitro and deficiency may be an acquired risk factor for this disease. We aimed to determine the incidence and associations of vitamin D deficiency in TB patients diagnosed at an infectious diseases unit in London, UK. METHODS: Case-note analysis of 210 unselected patients diagnosed with TB who had plasma vitamin D (25(OH)D3) levels routinely measured. Prevalence of 25(OH)D3 deficiency and its relationship to ethnic origin, religion, site of TB, sex, age, duration in the UK, month of 25(OH)D3 estimation and TB diagnosis were determined. RESULTS: Of 210 patients 76% were 25(OH)D3 deficient and 56% had undetectable levels. 70/82 Indian, 24/28 East African Asian, 29/34 Somali, 14/19 Pakistani and Afghani, 16/22 Sri Lankan and 2/6 other African patients were deficient (with 58, 17, 23, 9, 6 and 1 having undetectable levels, respectively). Only 0/6 white Europeans and 1/8 Chinese/South East Asians had low plasma 25(OH)D3 levels. Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs all had equivalent rates of deficiency though Hindus were more likely to have undetectable levels (odds ratio 1.87, 95% CI 1.27-2.76). There was no significant association between 25(OH)D3 level and site of TB or duration of residence in the UK. There was no apparent seasonal variation in either TB diagnosis or 25(OH)D3 level. CONCLUSIONS: 25(OH)D3 deficiency commonly associates with TB among all ethnic groups apart from white Europeans, and Chinese/South East Asians. Our data support a lack of sunlight exposure and potentially a vegetarian diet as contributors to this deficiency.

J Infect. 2005 Jun;50(5):432-7.





Those nurses and doctors should be proud and rest in peace.
They gave cod liver oil to their TB patients for years
without any controlled study or scientific evidence,
wisely adopting the old "ex-adjuvantibus" criteria.
They did just the right thing to do in those days
when treatments available were unsatisfactory
and only some patients recovered completely.
Evidence is slowly coming out
more than fifty years later.


ikod



Before the availability of drugs that successfully cured the body of tubercular infections, a widely accepted treatment for non-pulmonary tuberculosis was sunbathing. The sun had sometimes been blamed for increased activity in tubercular infection of the lungs and was therefore not used to treat this form of tuberculosis. However, the Sun offered several curative properties to those suffering from other types of tuberculosis. Sun treatment was used in the treatment of tuberculosis of the glands, bones, joints, peritoneum, skin, eyes, genito-urinary tract, and others.

There were several reasons for the prescription of sun treatment to tuberculosis patients. First of all, the sun acts as a bactericide, killing the Tubercular bacillus organisms that cause the disease. Exposure to moderately hot temperatures for extended periods of time is sufficient to kill off these bacteria and clear up infections. Furthermore, ergosterol, present in the skin in converted by the sun’s UV rays into vitamin D, which was thought to do further damage to the TB bacilli.
 
Sunlamps like the ones pictured here were often used to replace natural sunlight in sun-therapy, or "heliotherapy" for tuberculosis (ca. 1925).


      

http://home.tiscalinet.ch/biografien/images/koch.jpg
http://www.lung.ca/tb/images/061_sun_lamps.jpg
http://www.mmaonline.net/Publications/MNMed2005/November/Images/sun.gif






"Il sole dona la vita, il sole se la riprende" M.U. Dianzani 1975.
« Last Edit: 26/07/2010 16:41:54 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #30 on: 01/12/2006 08:07:00 »
Do you think we will ever have a cod liver oil shortage?
"Just Me, Lo" Loretta

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #31 on: 01/12/2006 15:47:41 »

Hi Firemoon!
No idea, no clue about it...but I don't see much of a problem.
I think cod fishlets are still around and the cod industry is actually making some profit out of it.  Quality controls seem to be a 'must' for this type of product, so several companies produce it, test it and distibute all sorts of caps and bottles of flavoured oils. They all seem to do fine to me.
My problem is that - sitting here in front of my PC - I am not able to give 'cod' every day to all the leukemic children in the world. I can only manage to remind my 'little' boy (actually he grew up much taller than his older brother) to take his cod in the evening.
More than seven years have past for our family, and eighteen years from the Shanghai report:
it's just about time to move and tell people around.
Thanks to search engines and this www (what-women-want?). [:D]
Anyway, I'm not too pessimistic about it.
I think I can make it, and I will succeed in the end.
I promise.
It takes time. [::)]
Take care

ikod
« Last Edit: 23/12/2006 19:14:45 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #32 on: 03/12/2006 16:29:01 »
you seem to know a lot about cods a. thanks for the info iko
The mind shall vanquish the sword

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #33 on: 03/12/2006 19:18:22 »
no sorry i haven't had the chance to read it but i will some time [:)]

Ryan
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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #34 on: 05/12/2006 19:32:10 »
...a highly recodmendable nutrient!

The effect of dietary fish oil on survival
after infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae or Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Thors VS, Thorisdottir A, Erlendsdottir H, Einarsson I, Gudmundsson S, Gunnarsson E, Haraldsson A.
Department of Medicine, University of Iceland, Iceland.

Dietary fish oil is believed to have a beneficial effect in various infections and in autoimmune disorders. This effect may correspond to an altered immune response.
In order to discover whether the effect of dietary fish oil is different in various infections, we studied the survival of mice fed fish oil or corn oil supplemented diets and infected in the lungs with either Klebsiella pneumoniae or Streptococcus pneumoniae. 120 NMRI mice were divided into 4 groups, of which 2 groups were fed a fish oil supplemented diet and 2 a corn oil supplemented diet. After 6 weeks the mice were infected in the lungs with Klebsiella pneumoniae (fish oil groups and corn oil groups) or with Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 (both groups). The survival rate was monitored. The experiment was performed twice. The survival of the mice fed fish oil enriched diet and infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae was significantly better compared with the mice fed corn oil enriched diet (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0013). No difference was found between the mice fed corn oil enriched diet or fish oil enriched diet and infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 (p = 0.74 and p = 0.15). Our results indicate that dietary fish oil has a beneficial effect on survival of mice after experimental pneumoniae when infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae, but not after infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3.

Scand J Infect Dis. 2004;36(2):102-5.





Quite a good match with the 'historical' piece
you can read free full-text clicking down here:

http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/reprint/129/4/783

Vitamin A as "anti-infective" therapy, 1920-1940.

Semba RD.
Dept.Ophthalmol. Johns Hopkins Univ.School of Med., Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

In the last fifteen years, a large series of controlled clinical trials showed that vitamin A supplementation reduces morbidity and mortality of children in developing countries. It is less well known that vitamin A underwent two decades of intense clinical investigation prior to World War II. In the 1920s, a theory emerged that vitamin A could be used in "anti-infective" therapy. This idea, largely championed by Edward Mellanby, led to a series of at least 30 trials to determine whether vitamin A--usually supplied in the form of cod-liver oil--could reduce the morbidity and mortality of respiratory disease, measles, puerperal sepsis, and other infections. The early studies generally lacked such innovations known to the modern controlled clinical trial such as randomization, masking, sample size and power calculations, and placebo controls. Results of the early trials were mixed, but the pharmaceutical industry emphasized the positive results in their advertising to the public. With the advent of the sulfa antibiotics for treatment of infections, scientific interest in vitamin A as "anti-infective" therapy waned. Recent controlled clinical trials of vitamin A from the last 15 y follow a tradition of investigation that began largely in the 1920s.

1: J Nutr. 1999 Apr;129(4):783-91.


Note:

Fish oil is mainly omega-3 fatty acids.

Fish liver oil is a natural mix of vitamin A, vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids.
All these 3 compounds had been studied for their capability of modulating, at
different levels, the basic mechanisms of infection-inflammation and immune response.

ikod  [^] 

« Last Edit: 06/05/2007 10:45:55 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #35 on: 09/12/2006 15:15:55 »
...A massive vitamin D 'tsunami' is coming closer,
spinning out of the scientific literature circuit:
will flu vaccination campaigns be the first casualties?

Epidemic influenza and vitamin D.

Cannell JJ, Vieth R, Umhau JC, Holick MF, Grant WB, Madronich S, Garland CF, Giovannucci E.
Atascadero State Hospital, 10333 El Camino Real, Atascadero, CA 93422, USA.

In 1981, R. Edgar Hope-Simpson proposed that a 'seasonal stimulus' intimately associated with solar radiation explained the remarkable seasonality of epidemic influenza. Solar radiation triggers robust seasonal vitamin D production in the skin; vitamin D deficiency is common in the winter, and activated vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, a steroid hormone, has profound effects on human immunity. 1,25(OH)2D acts as an immune system modulator, preventing excessive expression of inflammatory cytokines and increasing the 'oxidative burst' potential of macrophages. Perhaps most importantly, it dramatically stimulates the expression of potent anti-microbial peptides, which exist in neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells, and in epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract where they play a major role in protecting the lung from infection. Volunteers inoculated with live attenuated influenza virus are more likely to develop fever and serological evidence of an immune response in the winter. Vitamin D deficiency predisposes children to respiratory infections. Ultraviolet radiation (either from artificial sources or from sunlight) reduces the incidence of viral respiratory infections, as does cod liver oil (which contains vitamin D). An interventional study showed that vitamin D reduces the incidence of respiratory infections in children. We conclude that vitamin D, or lack of it, may be Hope-Simpson's 'seasonal stimulus'.

Epidemiol Infect. 2006 Dec;134(6):1129-40. Epub 2006 Sep 7.






Note: ... Vitamin D deficiency predisposes children to respiratory infections .

from: Rickets Today - Children Still Need Milk and Sunshine

Nicholas Bishop,M.D.  University of Sheffield
...
Rickets may have severe consequences. It is strongly associated with pneumonia in young children in developing countries. In a case–control study at the Ethio-Swedish Children's Hospital in Addis Ababa,3 Muhe and colleagues demonstrated an incidence of rickets among children with pneumonia that was 13 times as high as that among control children, after adjustment for family size, birth order, crowding, and months of exclusive breast-feeding. The relative risk of death for the children with rickets as compared with the children without rickets was 1.7. Furthermore, bony deformity of the pelvis in women leads to obstructed labor and increased perinatal morbidity and mortality.
...
Children in developed countries need calcium, too. There is clear evidence from prospective studies of dietary supplementation that increased calcium intake during childhood results in increased calcium retention and increased bone mass.8 Young adults with a history of greater milk consumption have a higher total-body bone mass than those with lower intake after the influence of body size is taken into account.9 Calcium, vitamin D, and phosphate are essential nutrients for the growing skeleton. Wherever children live, they should follow Grandma's advice: "Drink up your milk, and go play outside."

N.Engl.J.Med. 1999 341(8): 602-604.






...odd fever oil!   [;D]

« Last Edit: 24/05/2007 18:37:23 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #36 on: 09/12/2006 16:55:36 »


Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With Low Mood
 and Worse Cognitive Performance in Older Adults.

Wilkins CH, Sheline YI, Roe CM, Birge SJ, Morris JC.

Dept.Med.Div.Geriatrics and Nutritional Science, Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, the Dept.Psychiatry, Dept.Neurol., and the Div.Biostatistics, Washington Univ.School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is common in older adults and has been implicated in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. This study examined the relationship among vitamin D status, cognitive performance, mood, and physical performance in older adults.

Methods: A cross-sectional group of 80 participants, 40 with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) and 40 nondemented persons, were selected from a longitudinal study of memory and aging. Cognitive function was assessed using the Short Blessed Test (SBT), Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR; a higher Sum of Boxes score indicates greater dementia severity), and a factor score from a neuropsychometric battery; mood was assessed using clinician's diagnosis and the depression symptoms inventory. The Physical Performance Test (PPT) was used to measure functional status. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured for all participants.

Results: The mean vitamin D level in the total sample was 18.58 ng/mL (standard deviation: 7.59); 58% of the participants had abnormally low vitamin D levels defined as less than 20 ng/mL. After adjusting for age, race, gender, and season of vitamin D determination, vitamin D deficiency was associated with presence of an active mood disorder (odds ratio: 11.69, 95% confidence interval: 2.04-66.86; Wald chi(2) = 7.66, df = 2, p = 0.022). Using the same covariates in a linear regression model, vitamin D deficiency was associated with worse performance on the SBT (F = 5.22, df = [2, 77], p = 0.044) and higher CDR Sum of Box scores (F = 3.20, df = [2, 77], p = 0.047) in the vitamin D-deficient group. There was no difference in performance on the MMSE, PPT, or factor scores between the vitamin D groups.

Conclusions: In a cross-section of older adults, vitamin D deficiency was associated with low mood and with impairment on two of four measures of cognitive performance.

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006 Dec;14(12):1032-1040.






Good news for Africa?        

A potential role for vitamin D on HIV infection?


Villamor E.
Dept.Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Despite advances in the knowledge of vitamin D's potent immunomodulatory activity, its role on HIV disease progression is unknown. Decreased concentrations of 1alpha,25-hydroxyvitamin D3, or 1,25(OH)2D, the active form of vitamin D, have been reported among HIV-infected people and attributed to defects in renal hydroxylation and increased utilization. A few studies also described low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 25(OH)D, the vitamin obtained from solar synthesis and diet. An inverse association between 1,25(OH)2D concentrations and mortality has been reported from a small cohort of HIV-infected adults, and some cross-sectional studies have indicated positive correlations between 1,25(OH)2D and CD4+ cell counts. Additional observational studies are needed to confirm the associations between vitamin D status and HIV disease progression. These investigations would provide useful insights on the potential role of vitamin D supplementation to HIV-infected persons and the planning of intervention trials.

Nutr Rev. 2006 May;64(5 Pt 1):226-33.




« Last Edit: 12/12/2006 10:58:46 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #37 on: 10/12/2006 10:01:07 »
Revisiting Vitamin D in humans.
just a few clever minds got this point
first, several years ago...


A hypothesis concerning deficiency of sunlight,
cold temperature, and influenza epidemics associated with
the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in northern Finland.


Timonen TT.

University of Oulu, Department of Internal Medicine, Kajaanintie 50, FIN-90220 Oulu, Finland.

Research to detect new factors contributing to the etiology of acute leukemia (AL) is urgently needed. Located between latitudes 65 degrees and 70 degrees north, the population in northern Finland is exposed to extreme seasonal alterations of ultraviolet-B light and temperature. There is also a seasonal variation of both the 25(OH)- and 1,25(OH)2-D3 vitamin serum concentrations. In the present work, the frequencies of different types and age-groups at diagnosis of AL were compared during the dark and light months of the year, to uncover seasonality. Between January 1972 and December 1986, 300 consecutive patients aged >/=16 years and diagnosed as having AL were enrolled. The observed mean monthly global solar radiation, temperature measurements, and influenza epidemics were compared with the monthly occurrence of AL. Both acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (p=0.006) and total AL (p=0.015) were diagnosed excessively in the dark and cold compared with light and warm period of the year. There was a tendency for de novo leukemia to increase also in the dark and cold, but for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients the excess was not significant. Age >/=65 was strongly associated with the dark and cold season (p=0.003). Significantly more ALL (p=0.005) and de novo leukemias (p=0.029) were observed during influenza epidemics than during nonepidemic periods. However, a seasonality, i. e., the fluctuation of numbers of AL cases, was not determined, either monthly or during different photo- and temperature periods or influenza epidemics; this might be due to the small numbers of patients studied. Nevertheless, it is hypothesized that sunlight deprivation in the arctic winter can lead to a deficiency of the 1, 25(OH)2D3 vitamin, which might stimulate leukemic cell proliferation and block cell differentiation through dysregulation of growth factors in the bone marrow stromal cells, causing one mutation and an overt ALL in progenitor cells damaged during the current or the previous winter by influenza virus, the other mutation.

Ann Hematol. 1999 Sep;78(9):408-14
.

« Last Edit: 29/04/2007 21:00:47 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #38 on: 10/12/2006 12:29:41 »


Messing with synthetic compounds
instead of the natural recipe
may lead to make wrong deductions
and to realize it many years later:



The case against ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) as a vitamin supplement.


Houghton LA, Vieth R.
School of Nutrition and Dietetics, Acadia University, Wolfville, Canada.

Supplemental vitamin D is available in 2 distinct forms: ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). Pharmacopoeias have officially regarded these 2 forms as equivalent and interchangeable, yet this presumption of equivalence is based on studies of rickets prevention in infants conducted 70 y ago. The emergence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D as a measure of vitamin D status provides an objective, quantitative measure of the biological response to vitamin D administration. As a result, vitamin D3 has proven to be the more potent form of vitamin D in all primate species, including humans. Despite an emerging body of evidence suggesting several plausible explanations for the greater bioefficacy of vitamin D3, the form of vitamin D used in major preparations of prescriptions in North America is vitamin D2. The case that vitamin D2 should no longer be considered equivalent to vitamin D3 is based on differences in their efficacy at raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, diminished binding of vitamin D2 metabolites to vitamin D binding protein in plasma, and a nonphysiologic metabolism and shorter shelf life of vitamin D2. Vitamin D2, or ergocalciferol, should not be regarded as a nutrient suitable for supplementation or fortification.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;84(4):694-7.





Comment: (from a reknown website)
http://www.mercola.com/2006/oct/26/beware-of-most-prescription-vitamin-d-supplements.htm

...Supplemental vitamin D comes in two forms: ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3).
They have generally been regarded as equivalent and interchangeable, but that notion is based on studies of rickets prevention in infants conducted seven decades ago.
Recent studies have shown that  vitamin D3 is a more potent form of vitamin D. Vitamin D2 has a shorter shelf life, and its metabolites bind with protein poorly, making it less effective. One unit of cod liver oil (containing vitamin D3) has been shown to be as effective as four units of Viosterol (a medicinal preparation of vitamin D2).
However, the form of vitamin D used in prescriptions in North America is almost invariably vitamin D2.
...


from Dr. Mercola's notes:

Basically there are two types of oral vitamin D supplements. The natural ones are D3, and they contain the same vitamin D your body makes when exposed to sunshine. The synthetic ones are vitamin D2, which are sometimes called ergocalciferol.
Once either form of the vitamin is in your body, it needs to be converted to a more active form. Vitamin D3 is converted 500 percent faster than vitamin D2. Interestingly, it was previously thought that the kidney exclusively performed this function, as least that is what I was taught in med school.
However, in 1998 Dr. Michael Hollick, the person who discovered activated vitamin D, showed that many other cells in your body can make this conversion, but they use it themselves, and it is only the kidney that makes enough to distribute to the rest of your body.
While there have been no clinical trials to date demonstrating conclusively that D2 prevents fractures, every clinical trial of D3 has shown it does.
However, nearly all the prescription-based supplements contain synthetic vitamin D2, which was first produced in the 1920s through ultraviolet exposure of foods. The process was patented and licensed to drug companies for use in prescription vitamins. In case you didn't know, the vitamin D that is added to milk is NOT D3 but the highly inferior vitamin D2.
The study linked above concluded that "vitamin D2 should no longer be regarded as a nutrient appropriate for supplementation or fortification of foods."

That being said, optimizing your sun exposure and levels of vitamin D3 may, indeed, be one of the most important physical steps you can take in support of your long-term health. Conventional medicine is finally beginning to get on board the vitamin-D3 bandwagon, using the natural power of sunshine to treat type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis during a woman's pregnancy and even tuberculosis.
It is important to understand that the ideal and STRONGLY preferred method of increasing your vitamin D3 level is through appropriate sun exposure. I really do not advise oral supplements, not even cod liver oil now, UNLESS you can have your blood levels regularly monitored. 
It just is too risky. I have seen too many potentially dangerous elevations of vitamin D levels, including my own, from those that are taking oral supplements.
But when you get your vitamin D from appropriate sun exposure your body can indeed self-regulate and greatly reduce vitamin D production if you don't need it, which makes it very difficult to overdose on vitamin D from sun exposure.




Even taking for granted that omega-3 and retinol were not needed together with vitamin D, the alternative to cod liver oil for leukemic children would be driving them for a hike in the sunshine three times a week...for at least 5-7 years after diagnosis.
I'd need a big school-bus and sunny days most of the year. I wouldn't be able to retire right now, and they couldn't miss their classes.
Mission Impossible from my point of view (ask Tom Cruise).

These little patients are tough: they could certainly take a risk of a slight vitamin D intoxication...most of the current treatment protocols are far more toxic.
Moderate use of cod liver oil is harmless, actually good for all of us.
It has always been like that.


ikod

Addendum:

Vitamin D As Treatment

How much vitamin D should one take if they have cancer? We don't know as the research is far from complete. Although vitamin D may help, it should only be taken in addition to standard cancer treatment. It should not be considered a first, or only, treatment but used in addition to regular chemotherapy or surgery. Oncologists and surgeons work miracles every day. Remember, vitamin D may be toxic in overdose, although one expert recently said, "worrying about vitamin D toxicity is like worrying about drowning when you are dying of thirst". That said, many people think "if a little is good then a lot is better". This is definitely not true about vitamin D.

http://www.vitamindcouncil.com/cancerMain.shtml


...in the meantime, waiting for scientific confirmation, a little bit of 'cod' every day should work just fine. [;)]

Take care

ikod
« Last Edit: 26/01/2007 23:50:07 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #39 on: 25/12/2006 11:16:18 »
...little bits from:

http://www.vitamindcouncil.com/

just a 'basic' website for this topic!
Bits Of Wisdom: Those 'old wives' might be on to something


For many years, the "old wives" have been ridiculed as superstitious know-nothings.
Now science seems about to vindicate them.
The old wives maintained that a dose of cod-liver oil would do a body good.
Many children dreaded it because it tasted so awful. But come the dark days of winter, mothers and grandmothers insisted that all family members should hold their noses and swallow a spoonful of cod-liver oil.
During the past 20 years, this practice has gone the way of the manual typewriter.

Few children get cod-liver oil these days.

Doctors don't recommend it because it seems like such an unscientific relic of the past.

The vitamin D that is abundant in cod-liver oil has numerous health benefits though, especially in the winter. That's because levels of vitamin D frequently drop when people are not exposing their skin to the sun.
Cold, dreary weather and diminished sunlight can create borderline vitamin D deficiency in a surprising number of people. In Boston, 42 percent of people studied had too little vitamin D in winter. In Calgary, Canada, almost no one maintains adequate vitamin D in the winter.

In 2005, a psychiatrist who treated his patients for vitamin D deficiency noticed something odd. Influenza hit hard at the Atascadero State Hospital, a maximum-security psychiatric hospital. His ward was spared, with not a single person catching the flu, even though they had been exposed to the virus just like everyone else. The psychiatrist wondered whether the vitamin D he had prescribed had anything to do with their immunity.
This question led to an interesting review of research and a credible hypothesis.
Studies in the past 70 years hint at a connection between vitamin D and overall immunity.

The active form of vitamin D greatly increases the body's production of a natural infection-fighting chemical called cathelicidin. Cathelicidin seems to help fight off illnesses caused by bacteria, fungi and viruses, including influenza.
This might help explain why people are more susceptible to colds and flu in the winter. If their vitamin D levels drop, so does their production of cathelicidin and their overall resistance to infection.

Vitamin D also appears to have anti-cancer activity. People who get regular sun exposure are less susceptible to common cancers that affect the colon, breast, prostate, ovaries and lungs. Even conditions like multiple sclerosis, arthritis and Type 2 diabetes are less common in people with ample vitamin D levels.

Vitamin D has long been associated with stronger bones, but there is also research showing that it contributes to stronger muscles and fewer falls in the elderly.

The old wives did not have sophisticated scientific tools or methods, but they were skilled observers.

It's fascinating when the scientists supply the explanation behind their wisdom.

...

from:  Winston-Salem Journal, Tuesday, November 28, 2006.

http://www.journalnow.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=WSJ%2FMGArticle%2FWSJ_BasicArticle&c=MGArticle&cid=1149191909636&path=!living&s=1037645509005



Photograph of Old Wives Lake in scenic Saskatchewan Canada




« Last Edit: 22/02/2010 21:24:52 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #40 on: 12/01/2007 18:20:35 »

Circannual vitamin d serum levels and disease activity
 in rheumatoid arthritis: Northern versus Southern Europe.


Cutolo M, Otsa K, Laas K, Yprus M, Lehtme R, Secchi ME, Sulli A, Paolino S, Seriolo B.
Division of Rheumatology - Dept Internal Medicine, University of Genova, Genova, Italy.

BACKGROUND:
Greater intake of vitamin D has been associated with a lower risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and low serum vitamin D together with higher prevalence of RA seem common among North European people when compared to Southern Europe.
OBJECTIVES:
To evaluate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in female RA patients from North (Estonia) and South (Italy) Europe and to correlate them with the disease activity score (DAS28) during winter and summer.
METHODS:
Fifty-four RA Italian patients (IP) and 64 RA Estonian patients (EP) were evaluated for serum 25(OH)D levels in winter and summer time, as well as for DAS28 score. Normal female controls (C) were 35 (IC) and 30 (EC) age-matched subjects, respectively. 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by a competitive radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed by "r" Pearson correlation, "t" Student with Bonferroni correction and by repeated ANOVA measures (summer and winter) with two factors (country and clinical status).
RESULTS:
25(OH)D levels were found significantly higher in IP versus EP (p = 0.0116) both in winter and in summer time. Differences were observed also in controls. The variations (increase) of 25(OH)D levels between winter and summer were found significant (p = 0.0005) in both IP and EP. Differences were observed also in controls. No significant differences were found concerning 25(OH)D levels between RA patients and their controls in either country. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation between 25(OH)D and DAS28, was found in summer only in IP (r =-0.57, p < 0.0001) and in winter in EP (r =-0.40, p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION:
Significantly lower 25(OH)D serum levels were observed in RA patients from North versus South Europe with a circannual rhythm in winter and summer time.
In addition, 25(OH)D values showed a significant correlation (negative) with RA clinical status (DAS28) in both North and South European RA patients, suggesting possible effects of vitamin D among other factors on disease activity.

Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2006 Nov-Dec;24(6):702-4.




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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #41 on: 26/01/2007 23:05:08 »
A little help for your nerves...
Associations between cod liver oil use
and symptoms of depression: The Hordaland Health Study.

Raeder MB, Steen VM, Vollset SE, Bjelland I.
Dr. Einar Martens' Research Group for Biological Psychiatry, Center for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Helse Bergen HF, N-5021 Bergen, Norway; Department of Clinical Medicine and Bergen Mental Health Research Center, University of Bergen, Norway.

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials suggest that omega-3 fatty acids improve the outcome of depression. This study aimed to evaluate the association between intake of cod liver oil, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, and high levels of symptoms of depression and anxiety in the general population. METHODS: We used data from the "The Hordaland Health Study '97-'99" (HUSK), a population based cross-sectional health survey from Norway including 21,835 subjects aged 40-49 and 70-74 years. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured by The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We used logistic regression to study associations.
RESULTS: Among the participants, 8.9% used cod liver oil daily. A total of 3.6% had high levels of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of such depressive symptoms among the subjects who used cod liver oil daily was 2.5%, as compared to 3.8% in the rest of the population. The users of cod liver oil were significantly less likely to have depressive symptoms than non-users after adjusting for multiple possible confounding factors (odds ratio=0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.52 to 0.97). These factors included age, gender, smoking habits, coffee consumption, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and education. In addition, we found that the prevalence of high levels of depressive symptoms decreased with increasing duration (0-12 months) of cod liver oil use (multivariate adjusted test for trend, P=0.04). We were only able to study this latter association in a subset of the population aged 40-46 years.
LIMITATIONS: Data are cross sectional.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that regular use of cod liver oil is negatively associated with high levels of depressive symptoms in the general population.

J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec 18; [Epub ahead of print]


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17184843&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsum
« Last Edit: 26/01/2007 23:10:19 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #42 on: 13/02/2007 11:00:14 »
Reading an 'ancient' paper
from Zoey (thanks!)... I found
one of the best cod-citations:

Quote

"Cod liver oil is in the forefront of children's remedies.

For long it has been struggling against the scepticism of exact science"


Rosenstern:  Berl. klin. Wchuschr. 47;822, 1910.
 

from:  "The history of cod liver oil as a remedy"
          Ruth A. Guy  M.D.
          Dept. of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine
          Am. J. of diseases of children    26; 112-116, 1923.
« Last Edit: 19/02/2007 21:40:38 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #43 on: 13/02/2007 11:09:36 »
Historical notes from the same
'ancient' paper (Zoey's copy):



...The introduction of cod liver oil into France, which came a few years later than in Germany, is described by Trousseau (10):

Quote
   
   The manner in which M. Bretonneau, of Tours, was induced to give the oil in this disease deserves notice.
He had treated the rachitic child of a rich Dutch merchant with preparations of iodine and other means, for some time, without success.
He was then told by the father that the elder children had previously suffered under the same malady, and had been cured by the cod liver oil, which, in Holland, was a popular remedy.
 Bretonneau gave the same substance to his young patient, and was much struck with the very rapid and successful result which followed.
He commenced making researches with it on other patients, and it was only then that he learnt for the first time what had been written by the German authors on this subject.
He has since given it extensively in rachitis, with the happiest results.
This fact was communicated to the Societe de Medicine de Paris, in 1837, by M. Roche.

  10.   Trousseau:   Clinical Medicine,  Philadelphia  2: 734, 1882.


from:  "The history of cod liver oil as a remedy"
          Ruth A. Guy  M.D.
          Dept. of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine
          Am. J. of diseases of children    26; 112-116, 1923.
« Last Edit: 02/05/2007 15:27:01 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #44 on: 07/03/2007 18:28:19 »
Cut and Paste from "Childhood Leukemia" topic (Physiol.& Medicine)


How did the cod deficiency affect the evolution of the culture?
Zoey


Good question, I'd like to know history better than I actually do.
To simplify your difficult question I would start like this:
Cod liver oil is certainly very good stuff for the undernurished, but its components can be found in other nutrients.
Vitamin A for sure, omega-3 in some seed-plant (different type, similar effects).
And vitamin D...here we are: vitamin D can be assembled by the skin itself through sunlight exposure.
That is tricky, so northern countries have a problem and somebody in certain areas found the solution for rickets and osteomalacia using cod.
As with other cofactors, some people eventually need more to counteract their congenital (invisible) metabolic defects, others do just fine with a minimal dose here and there.
We have probably been selected over generations to be 'cod' independent.
Difficult to find, it works after weeks, so the cause/effect link is easily missed.
It is definitely dedicated to our sick children.
To help their growth, brains and strenghten their immune system.
A bit of help from the ocean where we all came from.
Am I corny enough?

ikod



« Last Edit: 30/03/2007 13:04:46 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #45 on: 22/03/2007 22:49:00 »
For skeptical people searching for 'gold standard' treatments
here is reported a precious annotation by Dr. Cannell from the

http://www.vitamindcouncil.com


Vitamin D Newsletter


This is a periodic newsletter from the Vitamin D Council, a non-profit trying to end the epidemic of vitamin D deficiency.  If you don't want to get the newsletter, please hit reply and let us know.  We don't copyright this newsletter.
Please reproduce it and post it on Internet sites.
Remember, we are a non-profit and rely on donations to publish our newsletter and maintain our website.  Our pathetic finances are open to public inspections.  Send your tax-deductible contributions to:
The Vitamin D Council
9100 San Gregorio Road
Atascadero, CA 93422

Supplement
 
Some of you didn't get the last newsletter.  Here's a link.
Why is athletic performance medically important?  If you think for a minute, you'd realize that athletic performance is the same as physical performance.  What happens when physical performance is impaired?  People fall and break their hips, resulting in death, disability, or nursing home admission.  Many people don't realize how fatal falls can be in the elderly.  In 2003, the CDC reported 13,700 persons over 65 in the USA died from their falls, and 1.8 million ended up in emergency rooms for treatment of nonfatal injuries from falls.  Falls cause the majority of hip fractures, which - if they don't result in death - often result in admission to a nursing home.  That's 13,700 deaths, hundreds of thousands of surgeries, countless nursing home admissions, and tens of billions in health care costs every year from impaired athletic performance.  That's why it matters.
 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Fatalities and injuries from falls among older adults--United States, 1993-2003 and 2001-2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006 Nov 17;55(45):1221-4. Link:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17108890&query_hl=9&itool=pubmed_DocSum
 
The scientific evidence that vitamin D reduces falls in the elderly is quite strong.  Some physicians say they must wait for randomized, placebo controlled, interventional trials, saying they need such "gold standard" evidence before they will act to prevent falls.  Here are four such "gold standard" studies:
 
Bischoff HA, et al. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2003 Feb;18(2):343-51.
Dhesi JK, et al.  Vitamin D supplementation improves neuromuscular function in older people who fall. Age Ageing. 2004 Nov;33(6):589-95.
Flicker L, et al.   Should older people in residential care receive vitamin D to prevent falls? Results of a randomized trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Nov;53(11):1881-8.
Harwood RH, et al.  A randomised, controlled comparison of different calcium and vitamin D supplementation regimens in elderly women after hip fracture: The Nottingham Neck of Femur (NONOF) Study. Age Ageing. 2004 Jan;33(1):45-51.

Some say they require a meta-analysis of such "gold standard" studies, from a top-flight university, published in a respected journal, proving vitamin D reduces falls.  Here's a meta-analysis from Harvard, published is the Journal of the American Medical Association, showing vitamin D reduces falls:

Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Willett WC, Staehelin HB, Bazemore MG, Zee RY, Wong JB. Effect of Vitamin D on falls: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2004 Apr 28;291(16):1999-2006.
 
Will these "gold standard" studies prompt physicians to act?  Will older patients finally get a vitamin D blood level and appropriate treatment of their vitamin D deficiency?  No, most will not.  I wish physicians acted on scientific studies but they do not, no matter how many people are dying.  Vitamin D scientists conducting such trials are in for a rude surprise.
No matter how good their studies, no matter how well designed or meticulously conducted, no matter how good the journal, practicing physicians will continue to ignore such studies.  Practicing physicians do what they learned in medical school, do what their colleagues do, and do what the drug company salespersons say.  Very few keep abreast of medical research, unless a drug company representative puts that research under their nose.

That's why I wrote about athletic performance.  If you think about it for a minute, you'll realize that falling is a failure of athletic performance.  Anything that improves athletic performance will reduce deaths from falls.

As far as athletic performance in younger people goes, I certainly got some interesting letters.  One guy from Tennessee agreed to list his phone number in case the press wanted to call or come by and watch him do chin-ups.

Dear Dr. Cannell:
 
I've been reading your newsletter for about a year and started taking 5,000 units a day this last fall.  I live in Minnesota and play a lot of basketball.  I play outside during the summer and inside in the winter.  I usually notice a winter slump, my friends have talked about it too.  You feel tired, like not being able to jump, like your muscles are dead.  This winter was different, I felt great all winter.  I didn't realize it might be the vitamin D.  I know what he means when he said the ball was "sweeter."  it feels that way now. 
 
Greg
Plymouth, Minnesota
 
Dr. Cannell:
 
I play tennis inside during the winter.  About January, I have always felt different; I couldn't get a jump on the ball or see it as well.  Since I've been on 2,000 mg of vitamin D, I've been getting to the ball much faster.  Now I feel like I do in the summer.  I didn't realize it could be the vitamin D, until your latest newsletter.  Thanks.  I don't know if I should tell my friends because then they'll are start taking vitamin D and I won't be able to beat them?
 
Maria
Portland, Oregon
 
Dear Maria:
 
I hope that 2,000 units not 2,000 mg.  2,000 mg would be 80 million units or 80,000 of the 1,000 IU tablets.  2,000 IU (.05 mg) per day is enough if you are a small woman and get some sunlight in the sunnier months.  Tell your friends, it might save their lives and that's a better feeling than beating them in tennis.
 
Dear Dr. Cannell:
 
I'm a weight lifter and most lifters know that you can lift more in the summer than the winter.  I never knew why until I saw all those old German and Russian studies.  No wonder the Germans and Russians used to do so well in the Olympics.  I started on vitamin D yesterday.  I found it in Costco for almost nothing.
 
Tom
Redding, California

Dear Dr. Cannell:
 
My name is Ed Jones and I have been nuts about doing chin ups for many years.  Three years ago when I really got interested in the Vitamin D story in regard to health, I found that I was very low in D, (12ng/ml)  I started supplementing and started to raise my level however it came slowly.  In April of 2005 I decided to try to break a record on chin ups and in front of several media people, I did 285 chin ups.  I quit doing chin ups after this because it was so difficult however I continued to work at achieving 50ng/ml on my blood work.  This January I finally got my D over 40ng/ml and started doing chin ups again.  I quickly found that chin ups now were easier than ever!  Last week, March 8, 2007, I completed 300 chin ups and it was almost easy!  I could not believe it.  I am training now to do 500 chin ups in the next three months and the only change in my supplements, diet, etc is increasing my D level.  I completely agree with the relationship of Vitamin D to strength and stamina.
 
Ed Jones
Chattanooga, Tennessee
423-892-4085




The Green Iguana Society

Lighting: Iguanas must have a source of UVA and UVB light! UVA stimulates natural behaviors by providing a component of natural sunlight. UVB is important to iguanas for another reason. Without it, their bodies cannot manufacture vitamin D3 or properly metabolize calcium. Iguanas that are deprived of proper UV lighting suffer from a disease called Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD) which is unfortunately very common in captive iguanas. MBD causes weak bones, jaw and bone deformities and early death.

The absolute best source of UV light is the sun. Allowing your iguana to bask in the sun on a regular basis will provide it with large amounts of natural UV light. The general rule of thumb is - the more real sun your iguana has access to, the better. One thing to be aware of is that glass and plastic filter out the UV components of sunlight. It is for this reason that you cannot just set your iguana in front of a closed window in the sun. The window glass filters out most of the UV light, so your iguana will not benefit from such sunbathing in terms of vitamin D3 production (although he might enjoy this (in)activity immensely).

An additional source of UV light is special fluorescent UV bulbs available in pet stores that sell reptile supplies. Some people feel that if daily doses of real, unfiltered sunlight can be obtained on most days, then the use of artificial UV light bulbs in the iguana's enclosure is not necessary. However, The Green Iguana Society strongly recommends the use of artificial UV in addition to as much basking time in the sun as possible, to ensure that your iguana gets adequate amounts of UV. The effectiveness of real sunlight to stimulate iguanas to produce vitamin D3 varies with the time of year and latitude of your location. Therefore, the additional use of artificial UV lights acts as a safety net - especially in cool, cloudy and/or northern climates. See the Heating, Lighting and Humidity section for specific information on the proper use of UV bulbs in your iguana's enclosure.

from:  http://www.greenigsociety.org/habitatbasics.htm     

 
...What about captive humans?   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
« Last Edit: 30/03/2007 18:18:41 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #46 on: 31/03/2007 18:33:25 »
From Iceland, where most of the
wise cod liver oil people live....



Laufey Steingrímsdóttir, Ph.D.

Cod Liver OIl - How much is too much?

11. nóvember 2004

Ever since Dyerberg and Bang published their pioneering research on Greenlanders, fish oils and the possible health effects of omega-3 fatty acids have been a subject of great interest to researchers as well as the general public. We in Iceland have followed these developments with particular interest. Icelanders have a tradition of considerable fish consumption, but more unique is the widespread use of cod liver oil among all age groups in Iceland. The lack of sunshine during the long winter months has made cod liver oil an important, even indispensable source of vitamin D for the population for centuries. However, even with the advent of vitamin preparations, cod liver oil has continued to be popular in Iceland, and still today over half the population takes cod liver oil regularly. The most common dosage is 10 to 15 ml per day, but some, especially older people, take quite a bit more.

Cod liver oil is a particularly rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, but many researchers have been hesitant to recommend its use, because of its high vitamin A and D content. Both of these fat soluble vitamins are known to be toxic if taken in large doses, but the margin for safety is considered even lower for vitamin D than for vitamin A. One tablespoon of cod liver oil contains approximately 37 mg (microgram) of vitamin D, which is well above the recommended intake of 5 to 10 mg a day.

In spite of high vitamin D intake, overt vitamin-D toxicity has never been reported in Iceland. Still, long term consumption of relatively large quantities of cod liver oil might have some adverse effects on the population. For this reason we decided to perform a small study on a group of 19 adult Icelanders who had taken more than one tablespoon of cod liver oil daily for the last 5 years or longer. Seventeen adults of same age and sex distribution who had not taken any vitamin D preparations during the previous year were chosen for control purposes. Serum vitamin D metabolites, 25(OH)D and 1,25(DH)2D were measured in all subjects, as well as serum calcium. All methods have previously been described.

The results were as follows: Consumers of cod liver oil had significantly higher levels of 25(DH) vitamin-D serum than did the control group, or 34,2ng/ml(+- 9,8 S.D.) compared with 18,0ng/ml(+-6,6 S.D.) amongst controls. All values in the cod liver oil group were in the high normal range, the highest value being 59ng/ml. In the control group most values were in the low normal range, but three individuals were below 10ng/ml, with the lowest value measured at 5 ng/ml. No significant difference was found in serum 1,25 (DH) 2vitamin-D or serum calcium between the groups, and all values measured within normal ranges.

This small study could not detect any indication for even small adverse effects of long term consumption of cod liver oil amongst Icelanders. In fact beneficial effects were observed, as three out of seventeen individuals from the control group showed lowered 25(DH)vitamin-D in serum, bordering on deficiency. We find it unlikely that consumption of cod liver oil can reach such levels as to cause toxicity among adults on Western diets, unless other preparations containing large amounts of vitamin D are taken simultaneously. Certainly more research needs to be done on this subject, but here in Iceland at least, we do not find any reason to warn the public against the hazards of cod liver oil, on the contrary, we continue to encourage its use for all age groups.

Laufey Steingrímsdóttir, Ph.D.
University of Iceland


http://www.lysi.is/lysi/is/newsdisplay_en/?cat_id=23099&ew_0_a_id=97163



Icelandic landscape



« Last Edit: 31/03/2007 18:46:30 by iko »

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Offline Karen W.

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #47 on: 31/03/2007 18:52:52 »
Nice picture IKO! Quite a view! I have never really seen pictures of Iceland!

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #48 on: 31/03/2007 20:37:56 »
Thanks Karen,

You get a larger pic if you click down there, do you know?
It's a free picture for you from an italian friendo! [8D]
LOL x LOL !!!
Do you remember our triple misunderstanding with Neil?  [:D]
By the way, where is our friendo Neilepus?

ikod
« Last Edit: 02/04/2007 22:31:51 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #49 on: 03/04/2007 22:31:05 »
Curcumin is not alone as a natural
remedy against dreadful Plasmodia:
from 'cod' a little help for malaria too!

The suggestive potentiating effect of cod liver oil
on the efficacy of artesunate in Plasmodium berghei infected mice


O Awodele, MO Araoye,AI Oreagba, SO Kolawole, A Akintonwa.
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria.

The effects of cod liver oil on the potency of artesunate was determined using Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Fifty (50) adult albino mice weighing between 15-25g were used for this experiment. There were five groups of ten animals each per group. Groups I to IV were infected with plasmodium berghei and also received 0.9% normal saline (Group I), Artesunate (Group II), Cod liver oil (Group III) and Cod liver oil plus Artesunate (Group IV). Group V was not infected and was not treated. The parasitaemia level was monitored for eight days post inoculation of the parasites into the animals. The group IV animals that received the combination of both Artestunate and Cod liver oil demonstrated a better clearance of malaria parasite than Artesunate montherapy (Group II) with 48.7%, 90.3%, 98.9% and 99.2% suppression of parasiteamia from days 4 to 5, 5 to 6, 6 to 7 and 7 to 8 respectively.
These findings showed that the combination of Artesunate and Cod liver oil is more effective against plasmodium berghei infection than artesunate alone. This combination may thus be considered as a suitable and cost effective Artemisinin Combination Therapy.
 
Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol. 5 (2) 2006: 74-78

from:   http://www.ajol.info/viewarticle.php?jid=67&id=29728&layout=abstract
 



« Last Edit: 05/04/2007 18:48:08 by iko »