The following letter to professors explains the dot-wave theory:Dear Prof.

When I was a young man and going to evening college at Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn from 1956 to 1966, I used to correct my text books as I studied the various courses. Sometimes I would merely mark them up for future study. This was especially true with Einstein’s space time and various concepts in my modern physics books. It was clear to me that some things were wrong or poorly presented. At the same time the question of gravity was misunderstood. As I looked around the sky, it was self-evident to me that the Earth and moon were merely parts of an electrical motor and that equations of gravity should involve electrical terms. At the same time it appeared that all the basic theories of modern physics were very mathematically complex while the universe really works on very simple laws. Years passed and I started to work on “Doppler Space Time” and the “Dot-wave Theory” in 1981. Over the years my understanding has increased and my retirement in 1993 from the Radar Research Department of Sperry Rand has enabled me to self-publish several books. Although some people have been interested in my work over the years, I have never been able to reach the scientific community. Now at 76 years of age my only hope of bringing my work to the scientific world lies in the hands of those Professors who see the value of my work. Hopefully you will see the merit of my theories.

Although the physics of the material universe is quite complex involving the use of very complex math, it is my belief that the basic structure of the universe is very simple and only simple algebraic equations are necessary. It is my belief that the universe is composed of a multiplicity of two things called dot-waves. Everything is composed of these dot-waves and equations for them are easily produced. The electromagnetic field is the product of dot-waves and when the field is compressed electrons, protons, neutrons, and all the associated sub-particles are produced. Therefore what we see and measure is the product of what we cannot see and measure.

Since the energy level of the dot-waves is so small, the dot-waves cannot be measured individually. Physicists can only measure the interactions between large amounts of dot-waves and the electrons or sub-particles. Yet in our fields and gravity we measure the effects of huge numbers of dot-waves. My work involves finding the relationships between the gravitational constant and the electrical constants and the basic equations of the universe. It consists of looking at the universe from the units of coulombs, meters, and seconds. In so doing I have found that gravity is produced by electromagnetic fields due to the expansion of the hydrogen atom and other atoms which slowly produce a small spherical current. This enables me to calculate the time of the universe since big bang.

The equations of gravity only involves equating the mechanical forces between two hydrogen atoms at a distance R to equivalent electrical forces due to the spherical current flow on one hydrogen atom reacting with a second hydrogen atom. This gives us an expansion of the Bohr orbit of 1.21667E-28 meters per second which produces an age of the universe of 13.7827byrs.

One thing that I noticed over the years is that certain things were overlooked in the various theories of the atoms. When we look at the hydrogen atom people wondered why the electron would not flow into the proton. Even today as I look on the internet, the question remains. The answer is quite simple as we look at an electron moving toward the proton. At the proton’s radius, the electron would need to achieve a speed of 0.9186C to achieve the mass increase of a neutrino.

Since the mass of the electron would increase greatly as per Einstein’s formula, it is not possible for the electron to reach the proton by the addition of a simple linear photon. Therefore only a spherical compression could force the electron into the proton to form a neutron. Then the neutron would be quite unstable by itself and the energy would be released. Therefore the neutrino contains the Einsteinian energy required to compress the hydrogen atom into the neutron. The neutron is pure photonic energy but appears as a particle or a photon because it was formed by spherical energy. It could be considered a spherical photon. The same can be said of the electron itself and the proton as well. The dot-waves are very flexible and form spherical photons, planar photons, photonic fields, and electromagnetic fields.

Einstein’s formula shows up again in the ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. At a speed of C/137 the Einsteinian energy within the electron is identical with the energy necessary to release the electron from the hydrogen atom. Therefore a little Einsteinian energy holds the electron close to the proton in the lowest Bohr orbit. This is a stable point since any more Einsteinian energy would cause the mass increase to overcome the electrical force balance. If we look at the balance of forces from an electrical analysis it appears that along with the change of mass, there is a Doppler change in the effective charge of the electron and an increase in its magnetic field due to increased speed. This causes a weakening of the internal electrical force at the same time the external mechanical force is increasing. The result is a stable Bohr orbit. Einstein’s formula works well for orbital motion because the photonic energy is built up over the entire orbit in the form of Dot-wave energy and not only where the electron exists. The cyclotron at CERN has Einsteinian Dot-wave energy built up over the whole path of travel of the electron or proton.

Another problem which has been overlooked is that of gravity. At big bang, the initial hydrogen atom that was formed was very tiny. As the hydrogen atom expanded, the electron moved away from the proton. This caused a spherical current flow outward from the original stable Bohr orbit to the future stable Bohr orbit. By equating the spherical electrical forces to the ordinary gravitational mechanical forces between two hydrogen atoms, we achieve a speed of expansion of the stable Bohr orbit of 1.21667E-28 meters per second. This calculates to a time of 13.7827 billion years. The astronomers get an age of the universe of 13.7 plus or minus 0.1 billion years as per the latest TV discussion program of the Hubble data.

This means that every atom in the universe attracts every other atom in the universe due to a spherical electrical current and its associated dot-wave flow. This is similar to the attraction of two wires with current flows in the same direction. The Earth is electrically attracted to the sun. The moon is electrically attracted to the Earth. In addition there are eddy currents within the moon induced by the gravitational field of the Earth. This causes a phase lock condition and only one side of the moon faces us. Meanwhile the moon causes eddy currents within the Earth which gives us tides and the like. The spin of our Earth causes the north/south magnetic field as every atom cuts through the spherical gravitational field. The same is true of the sun and other planets. Eventually this will cause us to stop spinning in the far future.

As we look in the universe we find interesting electrical phenomenon due to the expansion of the atoms and the dot-wave flow. The spherical gravitational electromagnetic field produces many interesting things for scientists to study. All are the result of the expansion of the atoms and the resulting DC and AC spherical field and their dot-wave flow. This solution to gravity will enable the scientific community to understand the interesting things in the universe. Notice how the rings of Saturn spin like a perfect electrical motor although it would appear that they are not electromagnetic. However an ordinary rock is spherically electromagnetic as it radiates its gravitational dot-waves.

The hydrogen atom, the neutron, and gravity are rather simple problems which were overlooked. We also have problems with Einstein’s space time which is great for orbital motion but not linear motion. In general my Doppler Space Time is a better approximation for linear space time. It also is apparent to me that the four units of kilograms, coulombs, meters, and seconds could be replaced with only three units of coulombs, meters, and seconds in which kilograms is coulombs meters per second. However most problems can be more readily solved using the four units.

In my Dot-wave theory, our universe is a product of the compression of an electromagnetic field. Therefore everything is electrical in nature. The universe is full of dot-waves. The charge of a dot-wave is 2.78622E-61 coulombs while its mass is 1.58411E-72kilograms. The number of dot-waves within a proton is 1.055854E45 with an excess number of positive dot-waves equal to the negative dot-waves of the electron which equals 5.75037E41. The universe that we see and measure is made up of 1.09628E125 dot-waves within matter which is the equivalent of 1.0370E80 neutrons or 1.73690E53Kg.

The dot-waves make up the electric and magnetic fields of the universe. A lot of dot-waves exist in a state of chaos while others align themselves to the gravitational fields of the stars. Over time the atoms slowly lose their dot-waves and the mass of the visible universe decreases while the mass of the invisible universe increases. Therefore there is a lot more dot-waves within space and time. This makes up the dark energy/matter in the universe. My theory also includes the triple universe of the past, the present, and the future. Therefore everything has at least three dimensions of length and three dimensions of time.

The dot-waves are not found individually within the proton or electron. They are similar to the many skins on a snake. Over time the particles shed their dot-waves and expand. Therefore the scientist sees electrons, protons, and subparticles. All these things are made from just two types of dot-waves. Therefore the universe is the product of a very simple set of two things in multiplicity. It is amazing how just two things can produce an infinity of things.

It is my belief that the universe oscillates from a large radius near infinity to a small radius at big bang. If we view the universe as an exponential function it will oscillate from basically zero to infinity. As shown in my “Doppler Space Time” book © 2000, the cycle time of the universe for an exponential sinusoidal solution is 8 pi^2 Tu = 1088 billion years. For this case the inductance of the dot-wave is 4piUoRu and its capacitance is 4piEoRu. If we assume that the amount of physical matter is only 4 percent and the dark energy/matter is 96 percent then the time constant of the radiation of the physical universe would be 4.2818 billion years. This amounts to 3.2188 time constants at the present time. Therefore the universe looks quite linear now although the radiation of the dot-waves into dark energy/matter was quite non-linear right after big bang.

We live upon an Earth that is reasonably linear. The ruler is expanding and for a constant light speed solution, the time clock is slowing. After big bang the ruler was small and the time clock was fast for a constant light speed solution. We can also look at a variable light speed solution but once we move away from a simple linear solution our lack of a reasonable reference confuses us. In a black hole and at the big bang, the ruler was zero size and the time clock did not tick. The center of the dot-wave is merely a focal point of the field. As such in a black hole the center is zero size and all the substance is in the external electromagnetic field. In our particles and photons, the center of the dot-waves opened up which enabled the universe to exist as we know it. As the center of the dot-wave opens up, the size of the dot-wave decreases in an inverse relationship. Although the photons of the universe operate at light speed C, our dot-waves themselves operate at extremely high light speeds. For possible universes which coexist with us and also reach beyond our universe, their dot-waves reach up to light speed infinity.

To understand what our universe looks like, draw a circle of radius Ru with a compass. On that circle draw a large amount of circles of radius Ru around the circumference. Each circle is the focal point of a dot wave. Notice that every dot-wave intersects the absolute center of the entire universe and touches an outer surface at radius 2Ru from the absolute center of the universe. Now turn the picture into a three dimensional spherical picture. We live on a spherical plane equidistant from an absolute center. Now we have to add the three time dimensions and non-linearity’s to the picture. This gives thickness to the spherical surface and other complications. However the basic shape of the universe is a spherical surface of distance Ru from an absolute center. In addition, an Einsteinian independent observer composed of higher light speed energy would see the universe as a perfect sphere.

As shown in my book, the basic equation for the time of the universe is calculated by equating the physical force between two hydrogen atoms separated by a distance R to the equivalent electrical force between the same two atoms as follows:

G Mh Mh /R^2 = 2Uo (QC/137.036) [4pi Q Vb*] Cos30 /R^2

Solving for the expansion velocity of the Bohr orbit we get: Vb* = 1.21667E-28 meters per second. This in turn gives a time of the universe: Tu = 13.7827 billion years since the initial formation of the hydrogen atom. The cosine 30 degrees term shows that the gravitational force is a vector with both an inline and a perpendicular component. This is important to help us understand why galaxies rotate. Upon this Earth we are inside the field and the perpendicular component has already been negated with an equal and opposite perpendicular force.

In addition, in my chapter on the conversion of mass to charge velocity, where kilograms equal coulomb meters per second; the formula for the gravitational constant in terms of the electrical constant is:

G = 16pi e Uo / (137.036)^3 = 6.67223E-11 Met^2 / cou sec

At the present time I am working on a model of the photon. We can look at the photon as part of the electromagnetic field. In that case all the action is external to the photon itself. Alternatively a model of the photon would be an inner hollow cylinder inside an outer hollow cylinder. The minus dots would occupy the outer cylinder while the plus dots would occupy the inner cylinder. The length of the cylinder would equal the wavelength of the photon. Both plus and minus dot cylinders would spin in the same direction perpendicular to the motion of the photon. As they spin they would produce north and south poles by the right hand rule. The in line magnets would tend to attract each other but they are separated by different time dimensions. The net result is that they would always jump one half wavelength apart in the direction of motion. If the minus dot-wave cylinder was ahead, it would stop. The plus dot-wave would then jump forward one wavelength. This would continue at the speed of light C. Since the minus dots are on the outer cylindrical shell, the photon would be gravitational attractive perpendicular to the direction of motion. This would cause it to bend around the stars.

The photon is an electrical motor. As the photon loses dot-waves over time, it expands and turns red but so does everything else in the universe. This is common mode as the ruler expands as well. The redshift of the far stars is due to the expansion of the universe itself at the speed of light C. This is caused by the universe filling with free dot-waves in chaos. The electromagnetic fields and gravitational fields tend to be patterns of dot-waves and the photon model does not apply. Therefore sometimes the photons will appear as particles within dual cylinders and at other times they will form the patterns of waves. Often what they appear like depends upon the measuring instrument or the human eye.

When we look at Quantum mechanics and the double-slit experiment some additional properties of the dot-waves are understood. Although the source of existence of the dot-waves is at Ru, the focal point of the dot-wave can displace the focal point of another dot-wave. The speed of the dot-waves is very high. Some operate at basically infinity light speed. Therefore a dot-wave can shift position basically instantly. Quantum mechanics uses probability in their analysis. An electron can appear here and a split second later appears one hundred miles away.

In the double-slit experiment an electron or electro-photon can appear as a particle one split second and then enlarge to become part of the electromagnetic fields. Since the electron tends to be a single particle-wave entity, it readily transforms itself. The proton consists of many pieces. Each sub-particle can be a particle or expand into a wave. This makes it harder to move a proton a large distance instantly. When we look at a person, the probability of moving all the dot-waves to another location is basically impossible. Quantum mechanics provides an excellent job of mathematically explaining the sub-atomic world. In effect it describes the equations of large amounts of dot-waves. However the basic structure of everything is not quantum mechanics but Dot-wave theory.

Over the years I self-published and sent out many books for free. My “Doppler Space Time” ©2000 was of interest to many people. I was able to find people who had interest in my work by the Internet talk groups. At 76 years of age and on social security and a small pension I can no longer afford to send out my books for free. Fortunately Create Space and Kindle gives me the ability to publish at very little cost. I no longer have to have thousands of dollars of inventory to worry about. All I can do now is to send out letters all over the world with the hope that some people will see the value of my work. Recently I was going to retire from this effort and watch the carrots grow in the garden in my last few years. Then I saw the new Hubble data on the TV and decided once more to send out my work. Hopefully it will be of interest to some people.

Although the physicists work with particles, sub-particles, and photons, they can never truly understand the universe from what they see and measure. The Dot-wave theory will enable them to understand the higher nature of our existence. The Dot-waves are the source of our existence and someday the physicists of the future will come to realize that. Once they understand the Dot-waves they can start to produce some amazing things.