What is the Mass of the Universe- from Chapter 16: Relativity and the Dot-wave Theory by Gerald Grushow (jerrygg38)

In order to find the mass of the universe we need astronomical data. The universe is constantly changing as matter turns into dark matter and dark matter turns into dark energy. We exist on an operating plane which is traveling at near the speed of light C.

It may appear to some that the universe could also be moving faster than C but that is only due to the meters times seconds product.

We want to know the mass and the speed of the visible universe. For this case we will not use Einstein’s increased mass with velocity because that refers to the entire universe reaching up to twice the present radius.

Let us start with the astronomical data.

Section 16-2 Astronomical Date:

Eddington calculated the approximate number of protons in the universe using the inverse fine constant. He got:

(16-1) Np = [FC]^-1 x 2^256

In equation 16-1 Eddington used the number 136 as the inverse fine constant. He also used the mass of the proton. In this analysis I will use the mass of the neutron and the modern number of 137.036 as the inverse fine constant. Thus the number of neutrons is:

(16-2) Nn = 137.036 x 2^256

(16-3) Nn = 1.58677E79

There are 1.58677E79 neutrons in the universe using a corrected Eddington number. Since the mass of a neutron is 1.67493E-27Kg, the mass of the universe is:

(16-4) Mu: = 2.65773E52Kg

The mass of the universe that we see and measure is 2.65773E52Kg. The question is what is the total mass of the universe? We only see and measure up to our light speed C. The universe looks like a surface of a sphere to us. The circumference is 2pi Ru while we only see a distance of Ru along the surface in all flat dimensions. Therefore the mass of the entire universe is approximately pi times the above number. Yet this does not matter to us since as far as we are concerned, the universe appears to be a perfect sphere to every point in the universe. Therefore the mass of the universe shown in equation 16-4 is the only mass we are interested in.

The astronomers have a standard model for the percentage of dark matter, dark energy, and visible type matter. Thus:

(16-5) Matter= 4.9%

(16-6) Dark Matter = 26.8%

(16-7) Dark Energy = 68.3%

The total matter in the universe is the sum of the matter plus the dark matter. Thus:

(16-8) Total matter = 31.7%

(16-9) The ratio of total matter to matter is:

(16-10) Ratio = 6.47

The total mass of the universe is the product of Eddington’s mass times the ratio of the sum of dark matter plus matter to matter. Thus:

(16-11) Mu = 1.71955E53Kg

We now want to know how to calculate this from the general equations of the universe.

Section 16-3 The general equation of the mass of the universe;

There is a constant balance between the world of dark matter and dark energy. We are the operating line. The numbers will change as the universe expands. Thus the answer we get from a general equation will only be an approximation.

The visible universe appears as a sphere moving away from a common center of radius Ru. The entire mass of the universe appears at the center and at the radius Ru as well. The equivalent model is that of a universe of fixed center with mass Ru and another universe of mass Mu at a distance Ru from it.

The universe is expanding outward at a velocity near C bit we came look at the model as if it was revolving around the center with the velocity near the speed of light C. Thus:

(16-12) GMuMu/R^2 = Mu(V^2)/R

In equation 16-12 we have a standard equation where the gravitational centripetal force equals the rotational centrifugal force. The velocity V is close to the speed of light C. Solving for Mu we get:

(16-13) Mu = (V^2)Ru/G

Using V = C we get:

(16-14) Mu = Ru(C^2)/G

Using Ru = 1.30392E26, C= 2.99792E8, and G =6.67223E-11, we get:

(16-15) Mu = 1.75639E53Kg

The error to Eddington’s Solution is:

(16-16) Error = 2.05%

Thus the mass of the universe from Eddington and from calculations is accurate to 2.05 percent. The difference can be attributed to the velocity of expansion being slightly less that light speed which is quite reasonable.