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You do not need to invoke the direct action of ultrasonic sound on neurons to explain activation of the auditory cortex. It is quite possible to generate audible frequencies through nonlinear interactions of intense ultrasonic frequencies. It is even possible to produce ultrasonic frequencies in such a way as to create specific patterns that are only audible in specific locations. I have a device capable of taking any audio input via RCA connection and converting it into a form projectable from an "audio spotlight" ( https://www.holosonics.com/technology/ )
What is the effects of ultrasonic focalisation and resonance on serotonergic neurons?tk
According to any evidence I'm aware of , there is no effect. "of ultrasonic focalisation and resonance on serotonergic neurons"Do you have any evidence to the contrary, or is it just some dross you made up?
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important modulatory neurotransmitter and functions as a key neurodevelopmental signal in the mammalian brain. 5-HT plays a prominent role in regulating various types of psychological processes and functions, including mood and emotion, particularly anxiety, but also in regulating social behavior. Consequently, the 5-HT system is implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety disorders and depression or autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors being the frontline medication. Mice and rats perceive and emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USV). It is widely believed that the various distinct USV types reflect the animal's affective state, such as anxiety or pleasure. Furthermore, they serve communicative functions, for instance, as alarm calls or social contact calls. Manipulations targeting the 5-HT system alter affective ultrasonic communication in rodents throughout life, probably because of its important role in regulating anxiety and social behavior. Ample evidence indicates the involvement of the 5-HT system in modulating isolation-induced USV in pups. Later in life, the 5-HT system plays a strong modulatory role in the emission of aversive 22-kHz USV in rats. So far, little is known about the role of 5-HT in the production of interaction-induced USV in mice and appetitive 50-kHz USV in rats, although recent findings also suggest a modulatory effect of the 5-HT system. Assessment of rodent USV is a valuable method to investigate mood and emotion, and to enhance our understanding of, and develop novel pharmacological therapies for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety disorders and depression or ASD.
Manipulations targeting the 5-HT system alter affective ultrasonic communication in rodents throughout life, probably because of its important role in regulating anxiety and social behavior.
Full-duplex, bidirectional ultrasonic signals in the 50-60 kHz range may trigger play-fighting and real fighting (aggressivity) in young people
do you know what is acoustic resonance?
Quote from: Bored chemist on 02/03/2018 14:19:14According to any evidence I'm aware of , there is no effect. "of ultrasonic focalisation and resonance on serotonergic neurons"Do you have any evidence to the contrary, or is it just some dross you made up?https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26221830
It is a law of acoustic resonance (known as long ago as Pythagoras, in centuries BC) that short strings vibrate at a higher pitch than long strings (all things being equal).- The vocal cords of a mouse are very short compared to the vocal cords of a human, so their vocalisations are at much higher frequencies.- The hairs of a mouse cochlea are very short compared to the hairs of a human cochlea, so their hearing is more sensitive to much higher frequencies.- ie, mouse ears and vocal cords are optimised for mice to communicate with each other around 50kHz- while human ears and vocal cords are optimised for humans to communicate with each other between 0.3 and 5kHz- Noise at normal levels in the 50kHz range will not be picked up by human children - although we can hear mice "squeaking", which are at the low-frequency end of the mouse vocal range.In social animals ranging from mouse to man, vocal communications affect emotional state, hormone levels and behavior (and, in turn, are affected by these other things).
It turns out that focalised ultrasonic signals in the 50-60 kHz range may inhibit vasopressin release and facilitate prosocial behavior in male juvenile rats:
Therefore, could young (male) people become tricked into aggressive behavior when not exposed specifically to short 50 kHz signals?