The Naked Scientists
The Naked Scientists
Ask! The Naked Scientists
Question of the Week
SUBSCRIBE to our Podcasts
Answers to Science Questions
Do an Experiment
Ask a Question
Meet the team
Naked Science Forum
On the Lighter Side
On Relativity and Quantum Theory
On Relativity and Quantum Theory
0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.
Thanked: 5 times
On Relativity and Quantum Theory
11/12/2018 16:04:33 »
One of the discords in physics theory is the incompatibility of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics.
Both Special and General Relativity rely upon the concept of continuity as it relates to space and time, whereas Quantum Mechanics relies upon the concept of discreteness as it relates to particles of light and matter.
Both concepts have been adopted into the ‘laws of physics’, but the discord between continuity and discreteness remains to block the development of a ‘theory of everything’.
The aim of this article is to develop a quantum explanation for why light always travels at a constant speed regardless of the movement of its light source, but to do so requires a ‘quantum’ explanation for the particle-wave property of both light and matter.
Although changing the classical concepts of space and time, provides a basis for an explanation of the constant speed of light, it rests upon the concept of ‘combining’ space with time.
As a moving light source can continuously vary its speed and direction, so must space-time continuously adapt its shape, in order to maintain the movement of the light photons travelling in all direction at the constant speed of light.
In everyday life within our cities here on earth, the movement of billions of light sources, requires space-time to respond with a multiplicity of minute twists and turns.
It still takes some imagination to perceive that it is always happening to light photons, just to keep the speed of light constant.
It seems conceptually more logical that light should speed up or slow down, when emitted from a moving light source, as the changes in velocity are minute compared to the speed of light.
But experiments measuring the speed of light, show that it doesn’t.
However, we can turn to Quantum Physics to make sense of the constant speed of light photons in an alternative way to Relativity Theory, which equally explains why the speed of light is always constant regardless of the movement of the emitting light source.
The whole universe is created from ‘particles of matter’ and ‘light’. But, if the mechanics of ‘quantum theory’ is to explain the constant speed of light emitted from a moving light source, then a conceptual change is needed for the perceptions of both ‘matter’ and ‘light’.
The ‘first’ conceptual change arises from experiments with light, which have shown us that light has momentum and this can be demonstrated by the force exerted by a light source, such as a laser, which is being directed at a thin sheet of matter, such as graphene, suspended in a vacuum. The light is shown to exert a pressure, which results in the physical movement of the sheet away from the light source.
But you cannot have momentum without matter, which implies that a quantum of light is not just a single ‘wave’ of kinetic energy, but each quantum wavelength of light is created by the presence of a minute ‘particle of light’.
The ‘light particle’ constantly rotates in a circle as it moves through space at the speed of light, tracing out a sinusoidal wave motion which determines its wavelength. The planar orientation of the light circle can be at any angle to its direction of movement, but it always moves in a straight line through ‘empty’ space.
But this discrete particle structure of light, implies that the ‘Spectrum of Light’ is not a continuum of waves as it is often depicted, but is constructed from discrete light circles.
The smallest wavelength in the gamma ray sector of the Spectrum of Light is created by the light particle circling at the speed of light between two positions that are separated by the diameter of the particle of light.
The next gamma ray in the spectral series has three locations to circle the light particle through, the next has four locations and this continues increasing its ‘circumference’ in discrete steps by the diameter of one ‘light particle’ at a time.
The kinetic energy inherent to the ‘light particle’ is always the same, which explains why light photons all travel at the same speed, regardless of their spectral wavelength.
The magnitude of the particle’s inherent energy is Planck’s constant, measured at 6.626176 x10^-34 joules per circular wavelength. This is a ‘minute’ amount of kinetic energy and is only physically evident to us, if the light particles are concentrated into a narrow particle beam, as happens when focused by a magnifying glass or a laser.
The ‘second’ conceptual change is concerned with magnetism.
We know that a magnetic field ring circling around a current in a conducting wire, carries kinetic energy, which acts to move small particles of iron filings, lining them up along its circular circumference.
But kinetic energy can only be carried as momentum by particles of matter, which leads to the perception that individual magnetic field rings are also created by a ‘magnetic particle’ circulating around the circumference of its ring and like the photon, it does so at the ‘speed of light’.
The ‘magnetic’ particle creates the ring structure seen in a magnetic field, by incrementally increasing their circumference from the centre outwards.
This structure of the rings of a magnetic field, mirrors the structure of the light particles in the Spectrum of Light. The only difference is that the light particles exist in a ‘dynamic state’ moving at the speed of light through space, whereas the magnetic particles exist in a ‘static state’, circling around each other at the speed of light, but holding their location in space.
But experiments with magnetic fields have shown that an alternating current dispatches magnetic rings as light photons, which implies that the light photon is also a magnetic particle.
With this concept of ‘magnetic rings’ and ‘light rings’ as being created by circulating magnetic particles, there is now a way for Quantum Mechanics to explain why the speed of light has a constant value regardless of the movement of the emitting light source.
But a ‘third’ and final conceptual change arises from experiments with electrons, which have shown that they behave like tiny magnets, each with the same magnetic moment. But for an electron to behave like a tiny magnet, it must have a magnetic field ring circling around its magnetic core, which explains its magnetic property.
The structure of the electron with its tiny core particle and circling magnetic field ring, gives the electron its capability of behaving as both a particle and a wave. Further, as all particles of matter from neutrinos to neutrons are magnetic in their nature, the magnetic particle-wave structure is common to all particles.
However, electrons are not confined to having one magnetic field ring, which is called their ‘base’ state. As with other particles, the electron can have more than one magnetic field ring, which changes the electron from its base state into an ‘energised’ state.
The process of accumulating energised electrons upon the terminal of a generator, whether it is the chemical reaction within a battery, a dynamo, a solar panel or a radioactive material is the mechanism for creating a current flow along a conducting wire.
The release of magnetic field rings from the store of energised electrons upon the positive terminal of the generator is activated by the arrival of new magnetic field rings at the terminal from the generator.
These act to dispatch the magnetic field rings from the energised electrons into the conducting wired circuit and then relocate themselves around the electron in the vacancy now made available in the electron’s magnetic field.
Magnetic rings released from energised electrons on the positive terminal of a generator, travel as magnetic waves along the wired circuit to the light source at the speed of light.
A characteristic of magnetic waves released by energised electrons is that they can travel largely unimpeded through a conducting medium at the constant speed of light with only occasional interactions with the electrons in their atomic energy bands.
The size of the magnetic particle is so small, even compared to the neutrino, that it can travel through matter as if it were empty space.
However, magnetic particle waves do find themselves being deflected by the magnetic field of the nuclei of atoms, which make up the lattice structure of the conducting medium. This significantly reduces their ‘apparent’ speed along the wire to the light source, but they always maintain their velocity of light.
The millions of magnetic waves travelling down the wired circuit do have chance interactions with the magnetic field particle of an electron, whose orbit around its nucleus, happens to coincide with their pathway through the conducting wire.
Their interaction creates an exchange of kinetic energy with the circulating magnetic field rings of electrons in the wired circuit.
The interaction of the magnetic wave with the electron’s magnetic field ring, causes the transfer of its ‘kinetic energy’ of movement to the magnetic ring rotating around the electron.
This enables the magnetic ring to depart its electron at the speed of light in a direction that is tangential to the magnetic particle’s position in its orbit around the electron.
Normally this creates infra-red radiation, which we observe as heat, but if they are routed through another conducting material, such as a tungsten filament in an evacuated light bulb, then the magnetic waves give rise to interactions with the magnetic field of the electrons in the tungsten filament with the subsequent emission of shorter wavelengths that we can physically see as visible light.
The particle interaction between the magnetic wave and the electron’s magnetic ring, occurs at the same speed of light and is the reason why all the spectral wavelengths travel through empty space at the constant speed of light.
The particle interactions are completely independent of any linear acceleration or rotational movement that is applied to the equipment acting as a light source.
This gives us an explanation in ‘quantum mechanical’ terms, of how visible light emitted from an accelerating or rotating light source, always travels at the constant speed of light and is routed out from the light source in all directions.
The relationships known to exist between the electron, the magnetic field and the photons, demonstrates the role of quantum particles in explaining the constant speed of light.
But, it also leads to the insight, that the photon and the magnetic field ring of the electron, are one and the same particle.
Re: On Relativity and Quantum TheoryAre you impl
Reply #1 on:
11/12/2018 20:43:51 »
Are you implying that constant momentum in the aggregate of c, is the concentric 360 degree spinning motion of a light particle responding to a disturbance in velocity/acceleration of sub-elementary particles in Space/Time? Where spontaneous virtual particles in a vacuum empty space act as filaments?
Re: On Relativity and Quantum Theory
Reply #2 on:
12/12/2018 15:19:14 »
Does particle light distort space/time?
There was an error while thanking