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my assertion is that the start of everything is a thought,
Quote from: VinnyMS on 31/01/2020 00:09:49my assertion is that the start of everything is a thought, That's theology or nonsense. The two can be hard to distinguish.Neither belongs on a science page
the brain is the most intelligent thing the universe can create,
However, most other solvents that are theorized to support life, do not phase separate as thoroughly as water and oil. Ammonia, for example is a good emulsifier for oil and organics.
Quote from: puppypower on 07/02/2020 14:18:21However, most other solvents that are theorized to support life, do not phase separate as thoroughly as water and oil. Ammonia, for example is a good emulsifier for oil and organics. If they form an emulsion then the two phases are separate.
The organized hydration extends to several nanometers from the surface. The strength of these aqueous interactions is far greater than those for proteins due to their highly ionic character [542b]. The DNA double helix can take up several conformations (for example, right-handed A-DNA pitch 28.2 Å 11 bp, B-DNA pitch 34 Å 10 bp, C-DNA pitch 31Å 9.33 bp, D-DNA pitch 24.2 Å 8 bp and the left-handed Z-DNA pitch 43Å 12 bp) with differing hydration. The predominant natural DNA, B-DNA, has a wide and deep major groove and a narrow and deep minor groove and requires the greatest hydration.
When a hydrogen bond forms between two water molecules, the redistribution of electrons changes the ability for further hydrogen-bonding. ... Cooperative hydrogen-bonding increases the O-H bond length while causing a 20-fold greater reduction in the H····O and O····O distances
The processing of the genetic information within DNA is facilitated by highly discriminatory and strong protein binding. It has been shown that the interfacial water molecules can serve as 'hydration fingerprints' of a given DNA sequence The primary driving force for the specificity of protein binding is the entropy increase due to the release of bound water molecules (estimated at 3.6 kJ ˣ mol-1 for minor groove water and 2.3 kJ ˣ mol-1 for major groove water, both at 300 K ), c with the DNA sequence determining the hydration pattern in the major and minor grooves (see above). Less perfect (that is, weaker) binding involves mainly secondary hydration water loss and so would allow sliding of the protein along the DNA , facilitated by the remaining primary hydration water molecules . For example, about 110 water molecules are released on the binding of the restriction endonuclease EcoRI to its site GAATTC, leaving an essentially dry interface and firmly bound complex with binding constant ≈ 10,000 times that for nonspecific binding.