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I'll answer this question from the perspective of my own non-standard model, so don't put any part of this answer on your homework, or you'll fail the course. In Einstein's general relativity (GR), which is valid only in Minkowski space-time, it is said that light has no mass. That is a result of the definition of straight lines in space-time as being the path of light. Most people who are comfortable using the GR equations will tell you that there is no other kind of space, so the statement "light has no mass" is true in an absolute sense, not just in GR. I say, that's just plain scientific bigotry. Minkowski space-time is highly useful, but it is not the only mathematical analogy for representing the physical universe. In old fashioned Euclidean space (where a straight line is the shortest distance, and where the internal angles of a triangle always add up to 180°) light does not follow straight lines in a gravity field. Instead, light changes direction as well as energy. That happens because light has mass, and like all masses, it is attracted to all other masses. What light doesn't have is rest mass, because light cannot be at rest in any reference frame; it must always move at c. In my model, fundamental particles which can be at rest in their own reference frame consist of orbiting pairs or groups of photons, held in orbit at the speed of light around one another by the Higgs force. The rest mass of the particle is the sum of the masses of the orbiting photons in the reference frame whose origin is the center of the orbital paths. Larger particles form when fundamental particles orbit one another. When photons are grabbed by the Higgs force, they fall into a deap potential well, which increases their energy and mass many fold. (This converts zero-point energy to rest mass.) All other forces are derived from the Higgs force, which results from exchange of momentum between regular energy and dark energy. Free photons are surrounded by a Higgs field; the Higgs field of orbiting photons is spun into a spiral pattern; the spiraling Higgs fields of particles interact resulting in the other forces.In Euclidean space, accelerating a photon in a given reference frame is a matter of changing its direction and energy in that reference frame. (In Minkowski space-time, you can change a photon's energy, but not its direction; so you can't accelerate a photon.) Accelerating a fundamental particle with rest mass is a matter of accelerating the center of the orbital paths of the constituent photons, and thus translating those photons into a different reference frame. The complicate way to calculate the change of the particle's momentum would be to calculate the change of momentum for each orbiting photon, averaged over time. The result would be the same as the much simpler Newton's formula, f = ma. As has already been mentioned in this discussion, f = ma only works for non-relativistic speeds. That is because the mass is not constant. Approaching the speed of light, additional force is needed to change the mass, and f = dp/dt is the formula to use (where dp is the incremental change of momentum, and dt is the increment of time). In Euclidean space, F = dp/dt works for both particles and photons. At relativistic speeds, dp = mdv + vdm. At non-relativistic speeds dm is practically zero, so dp = mdv, and f = ma. I could explain where the Higgs force comes from, but that would mean going more deaply into the nature of regular energy and dark energy and how they exchange momentum with one another. In other words, I'd have to explain my whole model. I have already done that in the New Theories section.
How do you differ 'mass' from 'rest mass' Phractality?
But I disagree with the statement that we can apply a frame of reference to a photon. The photon cannot have any frame of reference. It follows null geodesics.
Well said, especially the part where you mention the zero-point energy being the source of the mass, which is true since the Goldstone boson is a longitudinal photon in it's lowest energy state.
But note that state cannot be ψ|0> because there is no part of space absent of energy, which obviously involves concepts of zero point energy 1/2(h/2π)ω which is the quantum field of residue kinetic energy.
Quote from: Mr. Data on 06/07/2011 17:22:42But I disagree with the statement that we can apply a frame of reference to a photon. The photon cannot have any frame of reference. It follows null geodesics.What I mean is that the same photon has different energies in different reference frames. That's what redshift and blueshift are. The photon has no reference frame of its own because that would compress all space to zero length in the direction of the photon's travel, and it would dilate time infinitely. At least that would be true in the context of nothing being faster than light. However, in the context of my model, I believe dark energy propagates at least 2 x 10^10 times faster than light; so conceivably, one might describe an entirely new kind of reference frame in which a photon may be stationary without the length contraction and time dilation of special relativity. (It hurts my brain to think about this.) This would involve a preferred reference frame, stationary relative to the æther. It might be simplified by assuming dark energy is infinitely fast, but that would introduce a small error, which would have to be corrected, later, when greater precision is needed. (I think that same assumption is tacitly included in GR.) In such a reference frame, centered on a photon, the Higgs field around the photon would have different values in different directions relative to the phase and polarity of the photon. Higgs forces of attraction and repulsion between photons would depend on their phase and polarity relative to one another.
You cannot speak of frame of references for something that does not experience time.
Quote from: yor_on on 06/07/2011 17:36:18How do you differ 'mass' from 'rest mass' Phractality?Interesting question; what is mass, and what is rest mass, because you can get easily concerned with relativistic confusions over relativistic mass and rest energies.
.... Particles are uniquely identical....