Is the novel zika virus engineered?

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Offline tkadm30

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Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« on: 22/02/2016 13:11:08 »
http://phys.org/news/2016-01-genetically-mosquitoes-combat-zika-virus.html

Is the novel zika virus a product of genome engineering with CRISPR on mosquitoes ? 

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Offline chris

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #1 on: 22/02/2016 13:27:40 »
No. Zika virus was described in the literature in 1947; that predates the discovery of DNA as the agent of heredity, let alone CRISPR!
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Offline tkadm30

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #2 on: 22/02/2016 15:39:00 »
Chris, I'm talking about genetically-modified mosquitoes. Is genome editing tools like CRISPR been used to modify the genome of mosquitoes? I don't believe the link between microcephaly cases and Zika virus.
« Last Edit: 22/02/2016 15:41:36 by tkadm30 »
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Offline evan_au

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #3 on: 22/02/2016 19:48:19 »
Quote from: tkadm30
I'm talking about genetically-modified mosquitoes. Is genome editing tools like CRISPR been used to modify the genome of mosquitoes?
Yes. recent work has been done to modify mosquitoes so they are resistant to the Malaria pathogen.

However, these mosquitoes have not been released in the wild - they are looking for an isolated island to conduct a test - and then fumigate the island if it goes wrong.

Will Malaria mutate to evade these immune mosquitoes? Probably. But there will be a few years (maybe even a decade?) with greatly reduced Malaria burden.

This is very recent laboratory work, and it has nothing to do with the Zika virus, which has been around for 50 years.
http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/healthreport/mosquitoes:-the-zika-vector/7130558

There may be similar work going on in Brazil...
http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/breakfast/genetically-modified-mosquitoes-could-be-part/7132290

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Offline evan_au

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #4 on: 22/02/2016 20:20:18 »
Quote from: tkadm30
I'm talking about genetically-modified mosquitoes.
More controversially, genetic modification could be used to crash the population of the yellow-fever mosquito (which transmits malaria, Zika and several other serious diseases).

It is an alien invader in most of its current range. But you have to wonder what would be the environmental impact on its original region in Africa.
See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aedes_aegypti#Distribution_and_population_control_efforts

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Offline exothermic

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #5 on: 22/02/2016 22:19:06 »
I don't believe the link between microcephaly cases and Zika virus.

Zika viral RNA has been confirmed in not only the mothers, but also in the amniotic fluid of their microcephalic-foetuses as well.

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Offline tkadm30

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #6 on: 23/02/2016 11:08:57 »
Zika viral RNA has been confirmed in not only the mothers, but also in the amniotic fluid of their microcephalic-foetuses as well.

I would like to view a study, please. Also bear in mind that antidepressants use during pregnancy has been linked to delayed fetal head growth.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22393202
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Offline exothermic

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #7 on: 23/02/2016 11:43:09 »
I would like to view a study, please.

Ana M B de Filippis, PhD et al.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases, February 2016 DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(16)00095-5
Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: a case study.

Background
The incidence of microcephaly in Brazil in 2015 was 20 times higher than in previous years. Congenital microcephaly is associated with genetic factors and several causative agents. Epidemiological data suggest that microcephaly cases in Brazil might be associated with the introduction of Zika virus. We aimed to detect and sequence the Zika virus genome in amniotic fluid samples of two pregnant women in Brazil whose fetuses were diagnosed with microcephaly.

Methods
In this case study, amniotic fluid samples from two pregnant women from the state of Paraíba in Brazil whose fetuses had been diagnosed with microcephaly were obtained, on the recommendation of the Brazilian health authorities, by ultrasound-guided transabdominal amniocentesis at 28 weeks' gestation. The women had presented at 18 weeks' and 10 weeks' gestation, respectively, with clinical manifestations that could have been symptoms of Zika virus infection, including fever, myalgia, and rash. After the amniotic fluid samples were centrifuged, DNA and RNA were extracted from the purified virus particles before the viral genome was identified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic reconstruction and investigation of recombination events were done by comparing the Brazilian Zika virus genome with sequences from other Zika strains and from flaviviruses that occur in similar regions in Brazil.

Findings
We detected the Zika virus genome in the amniotic fluid of both pregnant women. The virus was not detected in their urine or serum. Tests for dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, and parvovirus B19 were all negative. After sequencing of the complete genome of the Brazilian Zika virus isolated from patient 1, phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus shares 97–100% of its genomic identity with lineages isolated during an outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013, and that in both envelope and NS5 genomic regions, it clustered with sequences from North and South America, southeast Asia, and the Pacific. After assessing the possibility of recombination events between the Zika virus and other flaviviruses, we ruled out the hypothesis that the Brazilian Zika virus genome is a recombinant strain with other mosquito-borne flaviviruses.

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Offline tkadm30

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #8 on: 23/02/2016 11:58:18 »
This study looks bloated: No mention of prior Tdap vaccination to pregnant womens in the diagnostic of microcephaly cases. A much more reliable investigation would consider the relationship between the Tdap vaccine and microcephaly cases.
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Offline exothermic

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #9 on: 23/02/2016 12:08:47 »
Also bear in mind that antidepressants use during pregnancy has been linked to delayed fetal head growth.

I don't see the correlation. In order for that implication to bare any significance, the affected mothers would all share the commonality of antidepressant-administration during pregnancy. Such a scenario would be easily revealed through basic medical history screening.

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Offline tkadm30

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #10 on: 23/02/2016 13:31:40 »
You seem to forget the coincidence of mandatory Tdap vaccination in Brazil:

Quote from: alancalverd
The recent incidence of microcephaly in Brazil is about 100 times greater than the reported number of cases associated with Zika infection. The real problem seems to stem from the government-mandated vaccination of pregnant women, an off-label use of a vaccine designed and licensed elsewere for 10 - 12 year-old kids only. Why 10 to 12? Presumably because it could harm younger kids and in the opinion of the manufacturers and the FDA, should not be administered where there is a likelihood of the  recipient being pregnant.

http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=65724.0

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Offline exothermic

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #11 on: 23/02/2016 13:43:58 »
A much more reliable investigation would consider the relationship between the Tdap vaccine and microcephaly cases.

Agreed however, irrespective of the possible use of Boostrix or Adacel during pregnancy.... it's highly unlikely that the confirmation of amniotic fluid-bound Zika RNA in women with microcephalic babies would be coincidental.

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Offline exothermic

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #12 on: 23/02/2016 13:53:32 »
You seem to forget the coincidence of mandatory Tdap vaccination in Brazil

lol.... I didn't forget anything. The topic of Tdap had nothing to do with the counterevidence I presented in contrast to your original statement of not believing there was a link between Zika & microcephaly.

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Offline tkadm30

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #13 on: 23/02/2016 14:32:35 »
In my opinion the government of Brazil mandated vaccination of pregnant womens and introduced the Zika virus to counter the overpopulation problem. Thus, the current Zika virus might have been recombined from the strain of the 1947 virus. 
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Offline exothermic

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #14 on: 23/02/2016 15:08:07 »
In my opinion the government of Brazil mandated vaccination of pregnant womens and introduced the Zika virus to counter the overpopulation problem.

Wow.... ok then.


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Offline exothermic

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #15 on: 02/04/2016 14:03:15 »
I don't believe the link between microcephaly cases and Zika virus.

Zika viral RNA has been confirmed in not only the mothers, but also in the amniotic fluid of their microcephalic-foetuses as well.

N Engl J Med. 2016 Mar 10;374(10):951-8. doi:
10.1056/NEJMoa1600651. Epub 2016 Feb
Zika Virus Associated with Microcephaly.
Conclusion:
This  case  shows  severe  fetal  brain  injury associated with ZIKV infection  with vertical  transmission. Recently, ZIKV was found in amniotic fluid of two fetuses that were found to have microcephaly,  which  was  consistent  with  intrauterine transmission  of  the  virus.10  Described cases are similar to the case presented here and were characterized by severely affected CNS and gross intrauterine  growth  retardation.  Calcifications in the placenta and a low placental–fetal weight ratio,11  which were seen in this case, indicate potential damage to the placenta by the virus.
« Last Edit: 03/04/2016 17:58:56 by exothermic »

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Offline Bored chemist

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #16 on: 02/04/2016 14:43:08 »
In my opinion the government of Brazil mandated vaccination of pregnant womens and introduced the Zika virus to counter the overpopulation problem. Thus, the current Zika virus might have been recombined from the strain of the 1947 virus. 
In my opinion, you are delusional.
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Offline exothermic

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #17 on: 02/04/2016 15:13:37 »
In my opinion, you are delusional.



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Offline tkadm30

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #18 on: 03/04/2016 11:02:43 »
The "zika" virus can be ordered from here:

http://www.atcc.org/en/Global/Products/6/B/D/B/VR-84.aspx

So typically any modern laboratories with sufficient equipment could transfer the zika virus to a new host, including the aedes aegypti mosquito. Right?

And here's a study which confirms the risk of microcephaly from the Tdap vaccine:

https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10.3233/JPN-140659

Also take a look at the risk of hyperthermia (fever) following vaccination:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9839360

I rather be delusional and wearing my tin foil hat than misinformed...
 
« Last Edit: 03/04/2016 11:18:42 by tkadm30 »
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Offline exothermic

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #19 on: 03/04/2016 15:40:51 »
any modern laboratories with sufficient equipment could transfer the zika virus to a new host, including the aedes aegypti mosquito. Right?

Zika has been around since the 50's and there are numerous vectors of the virus in addition to the aforementioned Aedes aegypti.... such as A. albopictus, A. Apicoargenteus, A. africanus, A. furcifer, A. hensilli, A. luteocephalus, and A. vitattus.

The Chikungynya virus has also recently had a dramatic increase of incidence by over 400%, so is this another instance of population-control?

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Offline exothermic

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #20 on: 03/04/2016 16:08:32 »
And here's a study which confirms the risk of microcephaly from the Tdap vaccine:

key word: 'atypical'

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Offline Bored chemist

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #21 on: 03/04/2016 18:28:34 »
...

So typically any modern laboratories with sufficient equipment could transfer the zika virus to a new host, including the aedes aegypti mosquito. Right?


Wrong.
It's not trivial to get another host to work for a virus,
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Offline tkadm30

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #22 on: 05/04/2016 13:02:30 »
Quote
The Zika virus has been known to infect people in Africa, South and Central Americas and Asia for more than 70 years without causing any birth defects.

http://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i657/rr-0
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Offline exothermic

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #23 on: 06/04/2016 00:05:58 »
Quote
The Zika virus has been known to infect people in Africa, South and Central Americas and Asia for more than 70 years without causing any birth defects. http://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i657/rr-0

Yeah and AIDS was a virus that was exclusive to monkeys from West Africa at one point too.... Things change, viruses mutate.

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Offline tkadm30

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #24 on: 06/04/2016 11:35:14 »
Quote
The Zika virus has been known to infect people in Africa, South and Central Americas and Asia for more than 70 years without causing any birth defects. http://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i657/rr-0

Yeah and AIDS was a virus that was exclusive to monkeys from West Africa at one point too.... Things change, viruses mutate.

Comparing AIDS to Zika virus is an interesting approach!  [;)]

I don't believe however that the Zika virus mutated to cause birth defects. Viruses don't causes birth defects
in nature...
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Offline Bored chemist

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #25 on: 06/04/2016 21:16:57 »
Quote
The Zika virus has been known to infect people in Africa, South and Central Americas and Asia for more than 70 years without causing any birth defects. http://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i657/rr-0

Yeah and AIDS was a virus that was exclusive to monkeys from West Africa at one point too.... Things change, viruses mutate.

Comparing AIDS to Zika virus is an interesting approach!  [;)]

I don't believe however that the Zika virus mutated to cause birth defects. Viruses don't causes birth defects
in nature...
That's got to be one of the dumbest things I ever heard; there's even an Agatha Christie story about it.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Mirror_Crack%27d_from_Side_to_Side
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Offline exothermic

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #26 on: 07/04/2016 01:26:10 »
Viruses don't causes birth defects in nature.

Where do you get your information from? Herpes simplex, rubella, cytomegalovirus, varicella,  Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Zika are all teratogenic viruses.

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Offline tkadm30

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #27 on: 07/04/2016 12:03:26 »
Where do you get your information from? Herpes simplex, rubella, cytomegalovirus, varicella,  Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Zika are all teratogenic viruses.

Thanks for the information.  [:)]

I suppose theses teratogens may cause atypical birth defects...

however could vaccination during pregnancy cause teratogenic effect (microcephaly)?
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Offline exothermic

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #28 on: 07/04/2016 12:56:42 »
could vaccination during pregnancy cause teratogenic effect (microcephaly)?

Tdap is an “inactivated” vaccine. The pertussis fraction is purified from B. pertussis bacterium where it is then inactivated. However, live attenuated viral and/or bacterial vaccines are generally contraindicated in pregnancy due to risk of teratogenic/embryotoxic effects such as microencephaly, exencephaly, anencephaly, ect.

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Offline Bored chemist

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #29 on: 07/04/2016 21:01:51 »

Thanks for the information.  [:)]


Have you considered finding out what the facts are before posting so you don't post stuff that's completely wrong?
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Offline evan_au

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #30 on: 07/04/2016 22:27:26 »
Another potential risk from Zika virus infection: Epidemiologists suggest that it may increase the likelihood of developing a fairly rare neurological condition called Guillain–Barré syndrome, which causes paralysis.

Researchers developing a Zika vaccine are concerned that a vaccine too might trigger this rare auto-immune disease.

See: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/zika-vaccine-could-solve-one-problem-while-stoking-another/

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Offline exothermic

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #31 on: 11/04/2016 04:02:07 »
Another potential risk from Zika virus infection: Epidemiologists suggest that it may increase the likelihood of developing a fairly rare neurological condition called Guillain–Barré syndrome, which causes paralysis.

Researchers developing a Zika vaccine are concerned that a vaccine too might trigger this rare auto-immune disease.

See: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/zika-vaccine-could-solve-one-problem-while-stoking-another/


Well I guess we can add AEDM to the list....

Quote
CHICAGO (Reuters) - Scientists in Brazil have uncovered a new brain disorder associated with Zika infections in adults: an autoimmune syndrome called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, or ADEM, that attacks the brain and spinal cord.

https://www.yahoo.com/news/brazilian-scientists-zika-linked-brain-disorder-adults-201228829.html


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Offline tkadm30

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #32 on: 11/04/2016 12:07:27 »
Well I guess we can add ADEM to the list....

Quote
CHICAGO (Reuters) - Scientists in Brazil have uncovered a new brain disorder associated with Zika infections in adults: an autoimmune syndrome called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, or ADEM, that attacks the brain and spinal cord.

https://www.yahoo.com/news/brazilian-scientists-zika-linked-brain-disorder-adults-201228829.html

According to wikipedia, Tdap-like vaccines may induce this autoimmune disorder.

Quote
The only vaccine proven to induce ADEM is the Semple form of the rabies vaccine, but hepatitis B, pertussis, diphtheria, measles, mumps, rubella, pneumococcus, varicella, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, and polio vaccines have all been implicated.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acute_disseminated_encephalomyelitis#Causes_and_antecedent_history
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Offline exothermic

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #33 on: 11/04/2016 12:13:46 »
Quote
but hepatitis B, pertussis, diphtheria, measles, mumps, rubella, pneumococcus, varicella, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, and polio vaccines have all been implicated.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acute_disseminated_encephalomyelitis#Causes_and_antecedent_history

You forgot a crucial portion of that excerpt:  [citation needed]

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Offline tkadm30

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #34 on: 11/04/2016 12:18:41 »
Perhaps this study should provide the missing citation:

Quote
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system which is usually precipitated by a viral infection or vaccination.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21781425
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Offline exothermic

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Re: Is the novel zika virus engineered?
« Reply #35 on: 11/04/2016 23:42:00 »
Quote
[citation needed]

The following excerpt from Neurology in Clinical Practice: The neurological disorders, Volume 2 -- provides a good explanation as to why there was no citation [take note from the highlighted text on page 1660 until you reach.... "The aforementioned associations can only be substantiated by strong epidemiological evidence or by the development of a pathognomonic laboratory finding for ADEM, neither which yet exists."

https://books.google.com/books?id=l9wtYZ_iCCIC&pg=PA1660&lpg=PA1660&dq=Acute+disseminated+encephalomyelitis+(ADEM)+after+pertussis+infection.&source=bl&ots=na6TAF6CGs&sig=e4h6KonqBXbxZF_ldGAv0XGDi2Q&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjOue3YjYfMAhWDMj4KHf7QA_w4ChDoAQg_MAk#v=onepage&q=observations%20regarding&f=false
« Last Edit: 11/04/2016 23:44:39 by exothermic »