# Conservation Laws in Cellular Automata

##### Taati, Siamak (2009-04-17)

Taati, Siamak

Turku Centre for Computer Science

17.04.2009

#### Kuvaus

Siirretty Doriasta

##### Tiivistelmä

Conservation laws in physics are numerical invariants of the dynamics of a system. In cellular automata (CA), a similar concept has already been defined and studied. To each local pattern of cell states a real value is associated, interpreted as the “energy” (or “mass”, or . . . ) of that pattern.The overall “energy” of a configuration is simply the sum of the energy of the local patterns appearing on different positions in the configuration. We have a conservation law for that energy, if the total energy of each configuration remains constant during the evolution of the CA. For a given conservation law, it is desirable to find microscopic explanations for the dynamics of the conserved energy in terms of flows of energy from one region toward another. Often, it happens that the energy values are from non-negative integers, and are interpreted as the number of “particles” distributed on a configuration. In such cases, it is conjectured that one can always provide a microscopic explanation for the conservation laws by prescribing rules for the local movement of the particles. The onedimensional case has already been solved by Fuk´s and Pivato. We extend this to two-dimensional cellular automata with radius-0,5 neighborhood on the square lattice.

We then consider conservation laws in which the energy values are chosen from a commutative group or semigroup. In this case, the class of all conservation laws for a CA form a partially ordered hierarchy. We study the structure of this hierarchy and prove some basic facts about it. Although the local properties of this hierarchy (at least in the group-valued case) are tractable, its global properties turn out to be algorithmically inaccessible. In particular, we prove that it is undecidable whether this hierarchy is trivial (i.e., if the CA has any non-trivial conservation law at all) or unbounded. We point out some interconnections between the structure of this hierarchy and the dynamical properties of the CA. We show that positively expansive CA do not have non-trivial conservation laws. We also investigate a curious relationship between conservation laws and invariant Gibbs measures in reversible and surjective CA. Gibbs measures are known to coincide with the equilibrium states of a lattice system defined in terms of a Hamiltonian. For reversible cellular automata, each conserved quantity may play the role of a Hamiltonian, and provides a Gibbs measure (or a set of Gibbs measures, in case of phase multiplicity) that is invariant. Conversely, every invariant Gibbs measure provides a conservation law for the CA. For surjective CA, the former statement also follows (in a slightly different form) from the variational characterization of the Gibbs measures. For one-dimensional surjective CA, we show that each invariant Gibbs measure provides a conservation law. We also prove that surjective CA almost surely preserve the average information content per cell with respect to any probability measure.

We then consider conservation laws in which the energy values are chosen from a commutative group or semigroup. In this case, the class of all conservation laws for a CA form a partially ordered hierarchy. We study the structure of this hierarchy and prove some basic facts about it. Although the local properties of this hierarchy (at least in the group-valued case) are tractable, its global properties turn out to be algorithmically inaccessible. In particular, we prove that it is undecidable whether this hierarchy is trivial (i.e., if the CA has any non-trivial conservation law at all) or unbounded. We point out some interconnections between the structure of this hierarchy and the dynamical properties of the CA. We show that positively expansive CA do not have non-trivial conservation laws. We also investigate a curious relationship between conservation laws and invariant Gibbs measures in reversible and surjective CA. Gibbs measures are known to coincide with the equilibrium states of a lattice system defined in terms of a Hamiltonian. For reversible cellular automata, each conserved quantity may play the role of a Hamiltonian, and provides a Gibbs measure (or a set of Gibbs measures, in case of phase multiplicity) that is invariant. Conversely, every invariant Gibbs measure provides a conservation law for the CA. For surjective CA, the former statement also follows (in a slightly different form) from the variational characterization of the Gibbs measures. For one-dimensional surjective CA, we show that each invariant Gibbs measure provides a conservation law. We also prove that surjective CA almost surely preserve the average information content per cell with respect to any probability measure.

##### Kokoelmat

- Väitöskirjat [2246]