Giant planets

25 June 2013
Presented by Dominic Ford.

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How much detail can amateur astronomers see on Jupiter, and how can space scientists use this to probe the Solar System's largest storms?

In this episode

 The Great Red Spot as seen from Voyager 1 This dramatic view of Jupiter's Great Red Spot and its surroundings was obtained by Voyager 1 on February 25, 1979, when the spacecraft was 5.7 million miles (9.2 million kilometers) from Jupiter. Cloud...

01:10 - Observing Jupiter

How much structure can amateur astronomers see on Jupiter?

Observing Jupiter
with John Rogers, University of Cambridge

Transcript to follow.

The Galileo spacecraft visited Jupiter in the early 2000s

07:33 - Weather on giant planets

What can we learn from observations of giants planets like Jupiter?

Weather on giant planets
with Leigh Fletcher, University of Oxford

Transcript to follow.

Comet Shoemaker Levy 9 collided with Jupiter in 1993

15:16 - How do amateurs get such sharp images?

We find out what makes the difference between casual backyard observers, and those who take scientifically valuable images.

How do amateurs get such sharp images?
with John Rogers, University of Cambridge

Transcript to follow.

The Juno spacecraft will arrive in orbit around Jupiter in 2016

21:26 - Future missions to the gas giants

What will the Juno spacecraft learn when it arrives in orbit around Jupiter in 2016?

Future missions to the gas giants
with Leigh Fletcher, University of Oxford

Transcript to follow.

global view of the surface of Venus

29:04 - Why doesn't Venus have any water?

How Venus lost all its water in its early history...

Why doesn't Venus have any water?

This month, scientists at the University of Tokyo have presented a compelling new model of planet formation that may explain why Earth's 'twin', Venus, has such a hellish environment.

By most measures, Venus closely resembles Earth, and once lead to the hope that it too might host life. But Venusian probes in recent decades have told a different story. At roughly 460 degrees Celsius, Venus has the hottest surface temperature of any of the rocky planets, and more importantly for life, Venus lacks water, a fact that continues to puzzle planetary scientists.

Maybe Venus had no water to begin with? But then how did Earth get its water? Or, perhaps Venus had liquid oceans in the past but, over time, extreme heat has slowly evaporated the water and strong solar winds have stripped the molecules from the planet?

In a recent letter to Nature, Keiko Hamano and his team present a different theory: they believe that Earth and Venus represent two unique examples of rocky planet formation, where the crucial difference is their distance from the Sun. The research predicts that Earth-like planets will cool from an original molten state within a few million years and retain much of their initial water as oceans.

On the other hand, the Venus-like planets might retain a largely-magma state for up to a 100 million years. Why the drastic difference in cooling times? It's all about energy balance. Hamano's model finds that, as a planet cools, a hot steam atmosphere is formed from the degassing molten surface.

This atmosphere, full of carbon dioxide and water vapour, regulates heat loss such that there is a lower limit to how quickly the planet can cool (think greenhouse effect). But we have to also take into account the Sun's radiation as an external heat source. At a certain distance from the Sun, the heat coming in can balance the heat loss and prevent cooling.

Interestingly, this distance is about the same distance as Venus from the Sun. Earth, being further away, has less heating from the Sun and can cool in a few million years rather than a hundred million.

A quick cooling time is vital for retaining water on Earth-like planets. Once a cool, solid surface has formed, water oceans can develop and start absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This reduces greenhouse heating and allows the planet to cool even faster.

But it seems likely that Venus, with an extremely long cooling period, lost nearly all of its water vapour due to solar wind stripping before oceans ever have a chance to form. What's left is a lifeless, desiccated planet with extreme greenhouse heating. If only Venus had been a little bit further from the Sun, it too might have water.

The results of this research should aid our understanding of exoplanet evolution. Once we know how hot an alien atmosphere is (due to the types of gaseous species detected), then we should be able to predict whether that planet is molten or solidified and, based on the distance from its star, whether it is the hell of Venus or haven of Earth.

Massive objects bend the fabric of spacetime.

Can gravitational waves cause earthquakes?

Transcript to follow.

 The inner Solar System, from the Sun to Jupiter. Also includes the Main Asteroid Belt (the white donut-shaped cloud), the Hildas (the orange \triangle\ just inside the orbit of Jupiter) and the Jovian Trojans (green). The group that leads Jupiter are...

Why do planets remain in stable orbits?

Transcript to follow.

Neptune, as seen by Voyager 2.

Could Neptune hold life?

Transcript to follow.

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